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FIRE 
TECHNOLOGY 

ABSTRACTS 



VOLUME 2 

NO. 3 
NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1977 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

U.S. Fire Administration 



NOTE . . . 

Fire Technology Abstracts is sponsored and published by the U.S. Fire 
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Issues of this abstract jour- 
nal will be published bi-monthly. Subscriptions may be ordered directly from 
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. The price is $1 1.50 per year ($14.50 foreign). Send 
check or money order payable to: Superintendent of Documents. Or charge 
your Supt. Docs. Deposit Account if you have one. 



VOLUME 2 

NO. 3 
NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1977 



FIRE 
TECHNOLOGY 

ABSTRACTS 




^"V U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

§ ifc \ U.S. Fire Administration 



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Fire Reference Service 



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Prepared by 

Applied Physics Laboratory 

The Johns Hopkins University 



For further information contact: 
Fire Reference Service 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington. DC 20036 
Telephone: 202/634-3913 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY 

Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20810 



L. J. Holtschlag 

Chief Editor 



B. W. Kuvshinoff 

Associate Editor 



J. B. Jernigan 

Assistant Editor 



G. T. Trotter 
Programming Consultant 



B. E. Hess 
Technical Assistant 



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EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD 



I. A. Benjamin 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

W. G. Berl 

The Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

J. E. Bihr 

International Conference of 
Building Officials 

J. L. Bryan 

University of Maryland 
Fire Protection Curriculum 

R. M. Fristrom 

The Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

A. F. Robertson 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

P. S. Schaenman 

U.S. Fire Administration 

P. G. Seeger 

University of Karlsruhe (FRG) 
Fire Protection Engineering 
Research Facility 



J. H. Shern 

City of Pasadena, California 
Fire Department 

G. W. Shorter 

National Research Council (Canada) 
Division of Building Research, 
Fire Research Section 

V. Sjolin 

National Defense Research 
Institute (Sweden) 

R. E. Stevens 

National Fire Protection Association 

A. R. Taylor 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 

P. H. Thomas 

Building Research Establishment (UK) 
Fire Research Station 

T. Wakamatsu 

Ministry of Construction (Japan) 
Building Research Institute 

I. J. Witteveen 

TNO for Building Materials and 
Building Structures (The Netherlands) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization Ill 

b. Meetings and Professional Activities 112 

c. Literature and Notices 113 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques 

and Analyses 1 14 

e. Fire Science Education 115 

f. Legislation 115 

g. Public Education and Information 115 

h. Research and Development Programs 115 

2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread 117 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and Extinction 119 

c. Flow of Combustion Products 119 

d. Instrumentation, Methodology, and 

Data Processing 1 20 

e. Meteorology 121 

f. Radiation 121 

g. Thermal Conductivity 121 

3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior 

of Materials 121 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability 

Tests and Methods 1 24 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials 126 

d. Nature of Combustion Products 128 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials 130 

f. Stability of Materials at Elevated Temperatures... 132 

4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 

a. Field Evaluation 132 

b. Fire Behavior 133 

c. Fire Testing of Components and Structures 133 

d. Fire Testing of Materials 133 

e. Modeling and Scaling 135 

5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

a. Building Design and Construction 136 

b. Detection and Alarm 136 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems 144 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment . 148 

e. Fire Loads and Heat Effects on Structures 155 

f. Fire Prevention and Hazard Reduction 155 

g. Pressure Effects on Structures 157 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems 157 

i. Water Supplies 161 

6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. Agriculture and Wildlands 161 

b. Commerical Occupancies 161 

c. Electrical 162 

d. Industrial Occupancies 162 

e. Institutional Occupancies 164 

f. Mining 164 

g. Power Plants 166 

h. Public Buildings 166 

i. Residential Occupancies 166 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 167 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

a. Administration, Organization, and Management . 168 

b. Education and Training 168 

c. Facilities 1 69 

d. Fire Apparatus 170 

e. Information Systems 170 

f. Inspection 171 

g. Investigation and Reporting 171 

h. Personal Equipment 171 

i. Personnel Affairs 172 

j. Public Relations 173 

k. Tools, Appliances, and General Equipment 173 

8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

a. Communications and Signalling 174 

b. Evacuation and Rescue 175 

c. Hydraulics and Water Flows 176 

d. Operational Problems: Command and Control.... 176 

e. Special Equipment 177 

f. Tactics 178 

9. PLANNING 

a. Budgeting 179 

b. Logistics 179 

c. Operations Analysis 179 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL 
PROBLEMS 

a. Arson 179 

b. Combustion Toxicology 1 79 

c. Emergency Medical Services and Facilities 180 

d. Injuries and Fatalities 181 

e. Physiology 182 

f . Psychology 182 

11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, 
IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

a. Codes 183 

b. Hazards Identification 183 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials 183 

d. Standards 184 

12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND 
PREVENTION 

a. Insurance 1 84 

b. Losses 1 84 

c. Restoration 185 

d. Risk Management 185 

e. Salvage 185 

13. STATISTICS 185 

AUTHOR INDEX 1-1 

SUBJECT INDEX 1-5 

SOURCE INDEX 1-23 

REPORT NUMBER INDEX 1-26 

EXPANSION OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 1-27 



in 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Technology Abstracts is an abstracts journal being 
prepared bimonthly by the Fire Problems Program Group of 
the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Laurel, Maryland, USA, under the sponsorship of the 
U.S. Fire Administration (formerly the National Fire Preven- 
tion and Control Administration) of the US Department of 
Commerce. 

SCOPE AND COVERAGE 

The aim of Fire Technology Abstracts is to provide 
comprehensive reference to the applied fire literature in 
the broad range of topics outlined in the "Table of Con- 
tents." Most topics are covered fully; a few topics, such 
as forest fires and mine fires, are referenced selectively, 
because they are covered systematically in other special- 
ized indexing and abstracting serials. For such topics an 
appropriate notice has been entered under the respective 
category. 

The information contained in Fire Technology Abstracts 
has been gleaned from a wide variety of sources (journals, 
books, reports, patents, codes, and standards), with par- 
ticular emphasis on the report and patent literature, for 
which referencing heretofore has been inadequate. 
Although the English-language literature comprises the 
majority of the entries, the coverage includes selections 
from the world fire literature, identified in part through 
such sources as Safety in Mines Abstracts of the Safety 
in Mines Research Establishment (UK), identified in the 
abstracts as (SMRE), the Soviet Abstracts Journal, Series 
68, "Fire Protection," identified as (RZh), and the card 
abstracts issued monthly by the Fire Literature Documen- 
tation Section of the German Fire Technology Research 
Center at the University of Karlsruhe, identified as 
(Fachdok). 

Many of the entries in Fire Technology Abstracts are 
being used with the permission of the copyright holders. 
Any abstract terminating with (Author) should be con- 
sidered as possibly subject to copyright restrictions. 

ARRANGEMENT 

The journal is arranged in two sections: Abstracts and 
Indexes. 

The Abstracts section contains complete bibliographic 
description required for identification of the item, along 
with a brief description of the contents of the item, 
usually consisting of the author's abstract, summary, or 
conclusions. 'The patents entries contain, in addition, cita- 
tions of the patent classes, in most cases in accordance 
with the international classification system, in some cases 
preceded by classes according to a national classification 
scheme, as well as filing and disclosure dates, priorities 
and, if available, assignees. The abstracts are classified 
under the 13 main categories listed in the "Table of Con- 
tents" and a suitable number of subcategories, which are 



subject to revision as the necessity for finer classification 
arises. The page-keyed categories and subcategories of 
the "Table of Contents" are repeated on the appropriate 
pages in the abstracts section to assist the reader in rapid 
identification of the topical field of interest. Whenever 
available, the affiliation of the principal author has been 
entered in parentheses. 

The Index section consists of four indexes: author, sub- 
ject, source, and report number. Each entry in each index 
is keyed to an abstract number. Annual cumulative in- 
dexes will be published. 

The Author Index is an alphabetical list of all authors 
cited in the abstracts section, whether principal or secon- 
dary. 

The Subject Index entries consist of up to three 
hierarchic descriptive levels to characterize the nature of 
the subject content. 

The Source Index displays citations in alphabetical order 
of the sources under the headings: Books, Codes, Con- 
ferences, Congresses, Dissertations, Journals, Meetings, 
Patents, Reports, Seminars, Standards, and Symposia. 

The Report Index lists in alphanumeric order the num- 
bers of all the reports entered in each issue, including 
multiple numbers, as well as the accession numbers under 
which reports are available from document repositories. 

These indexes (as indeed the entire journal) are 
prepared on an IBM 360/91 computer, using the INFO- 
360 Document Writing Package of programs developed 
at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The final edited file 
is reformatted to drive a photocomposing machine. All 
but the subject index are produced directly from the 
printed portion of the entries. The subject index terms 
are typed in at the ends of the abstracts, but are not 
printed in the body of the journal. Author affiliations, 
whenever available, are also included in the records. Ex- 
cept for the primary author's affiliation, however, these 
are not printed, but are reserved for future use. Upon 
completion of an issue, the file is reformatted and coded 
to drive a Linotron photocomposing machine. 

AVAILABILITY 

Fire Technology Abstracts is a literature announcement 
service only and cannot respond to requests for the docu- 
ments announced in the journal. For all literature citations 
an effort is made to provide the information needed by 
the reader to acquire the document. In general, however, 
the full text of many of the journal articles cited in the 
FTA can be purchased through the Original Article Tear 
Sheet service (registered trademark OATS) of the Institute 
for Scientific Information (registered ISD in Philadelphia, 
PA. The full text of those abstracts terminating with 
(Fachdok plus number) can be purchased by citing the 



number and ordering from the Documentation Center of 
the German Fire Technology Research Center in Karl- 
sruhe, FRG. The addresses of these two organizations 
are given below. 

For books, monographs, conference papers, and 
proceedings the source is, in most cases, either the 
publisher or the sponsoring organization. 

Dissertations are available in xerographic copy from 
University Microfilms of Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Patents, both domestic and foreign, can be obtained 
from the US Patent Office. 

US Reports are available for a fee from the National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS) or from the US 
Government Printing Office (GPO). If availability is not 
indicated, the issuing organization should be queried. 

ADDRESSES 



NTIS 



Fachdok 



Firebase 



GPO 

NFPCA 
OATS 

Pat Off 
SFPE 

USFA 

Univ Micro 



National Technical Information 

Service 
5285 Port Royal Road 
PO Box 1553 
Springfield, VA 22161 

Forschungsstelle fuer 

Brandschutztechnik 
an der Universitaet Karlsruhe 

(T.H.) 
Abteilung Fachdokumentation 
7500 Karlsruhe 

Hertzstrasse 16, Postfach 6380 
Federal Republic of Germany 

Firebase Operations Center 
Boise Interagency Fire Center 
3905 Vista Avenue 
Boise, ID 83705 
Telephone: (208) 384 9457 
FTS: 554 9457 

Superintendant of Documents 
US Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402 

See USFA address below. 

Institute for Scientific 

Information 
325 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 

Commissioner of Patents and 

Trademarks 
Washington, DC 20231 

Society of Fire Protection 

Engineers 
60 Batterymarch Street 
Boston, MA 021 10 

US Fire Administration 
National Fire Reference Service 
US Department of Commerce 
Washington, DC 20230 

University Microfilms 
300 North Zeeb Road 
Ann Arbor, MI 48106 



VI 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Volume 2, Number 3 



November-December 1977 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. FIRE PROTECTION ORGANIZATION 

614. Menna A 

FTRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION IN THE FEDERAL 

REPUBLIC OF GERMANY 

Antincend Protez Civ; 28(6) :41 9-424, 1976 
Antincend Protez Civ; 28(7):514-517, 1976 (Italian) 

In connection with a reorganization of the Italian fire 
service, a team of fire-service personnel visited the 
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) for the purpose of 
familiarization with the organization of its fire service. 
In contrast to many European countries, the individual 
links in the fire-service organization are less centralized 
in their chain of command, owing to the political and 
administrative division of the country into states (Laender) 
and communities (Gemeinden) with a certain amount of 
independence. In some states the fire service is composed 
of professional units and volunteer formations. According 
to the present legislation, cities with a population greater 
than 100,000 (of which there are 64 in the FRG) must 
organize a professional fire service. The minimum number 
of firefighters in a given city is established by the Ministry 
of Internal Affairs, the maximum number is set by the 
communities to cover their actual requirements. In addi- 
tion, there are fire units for the protection of large indus- 
trial enterprises. Recruits aged 14-18 are also trained. The 
professional firefighters are on duty 56 hours a week, 
the duty schedule and length varying in different cities. 
Individuals participating in the voluntary fire service enjoy 
certain privileges (exemption from military service, eg). 
There is an average of one volunteer firefighter per 81 
inhabitants in the FRG. Since 1972 there have been about 
30 teams comprising women on duty in Frankfurt. The 
number of firefighters serving industrial enterprises de- 
pends on the size of the plant, the type of production, 
the fire hazard, etc. The clothing and equipment of 
firefighters, the technical and tactical characteristics of 
the fire apparatus and equipment are described. 8 figs, 
5 tables. (RZh) 



615. Busche R 

ARE THE LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENTS 

NEEDED IN LARGE COMMUNmES? 

Feuerwehr; 27(1):9-11, 1977 (German) 



STOX 



Problems connected with the organization and equipping 
of voluntary fire companies in rural areas are discussed. 
According to a directive from the Ministry of Internal 
Affairs (FRG) every volunteer fire company must be pro- 
vided with a fire apparatus to transport firefighters and 
equipment. In addition, every rural district is allotted a 
vehicle with a set of tools and rescue appliances, as well 
as a pumper-ladder with a radio set. Ten sets of protective 
heat-resistant clothing are provided for each company. 
A special premise is fitted out for storing the equipment. 
Theoretical and practical fire training sessions are held 
regularly with the professional personnel in the towns. 
Technical specialists and the administrative staff carry out 
training in the district training centers. (RZh) 

616. Fusilier R 

OVERALL ORGANIZATION OF THE FDKE SERVICE 

Prot Civ Secur Ind; (258):6-14, 17-22, 25-31, 49-56, 1976 
(French) 

In France firefighting is carried out by the fire units 
of the Communal and Departmental Fire Services. Chap- 
ters from the standards documents which define the 
statutes, structure, financing and organization of the 
firefighting activities of these formations are cited. In 
France there is an average of one firefighter for every 
250 inhabitants, but the volunteer detachments play the 
greater role in the fire defense organization. In 1973 there 
were 8,867 professional firefighters and 190,600 volun- 
teers. The standard list of material and equipment allotted 
to a fire company is given. The Army, Air Force, and 
Navy all have their own formations. Two military units 
occupy a special place: the Paris Fire Brigade, which 
is subordinate to the prefect of police, and the Maritime 
Fire Battalion of Marseille, subordinate to the mayor of 
the city. In addition to these services, there is also a 
forest fire protection service. The history of the creation 
of the different kinds of fire-protection services is out- 
lined. Some industrial enterprises and other important 
facilities have their own fire brigades. 7 figs. (RZh) 

617. Grzelecki L 

FD7TY YEARS OF RAILWAY FIRE PROTECTION IN 
POLAND 

Przegl Poz; 64(12):2, 1976 (Polish) 

A historical sketch is given of the development of fire 
protection in railroad transportation in Poland. The fire 
protection activity is regulated by decrees of the Ministry 
of Communications. The fire protection personnel are sub- 
ordinated administratively to the district or regional rail- 
way administration, while fire safety engineers are subor- 
dinated to the next higher level of fire protection inspec- 



1 11 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization — Continued 

tors of the Ministry of Communications. It is pointed 
out that the greatest danger of fire outbreak and release 
of toxic materials exists in railway yards where cars are 
marshalled and trains are made up because of the accumu- 
lation of a large number of different kinds of freight. 
A fire or accident involving one car leads to fire on other 
cars which may be carrying highly flammable liquids, ex- 
plosive, toxic or radioactive agents and materials. 
Locomotive and car depots, garages and warehouses for 
materials also represent a great hazard, because of welding 
work done in the immediate area or because of contact 
with combustible materials (fuel and lubricants). Improper 
use of electrical and heating devices leads to fires in 
warehouses and fueling points. The Railway Fire Protec- 
tion Administration has 23 shop and 192 volunteer fire 
brigades and 92 firefighters. It is pointed out that the 
equipment of the fire brigades is varied. The marshalling 
yards are provided with cars containing fire extinguishing 
and rescue equipment, foam-producing materials, mobile 
storage tanks with a capacity of 10-50 m 3 , and towing 
devices. (RZh) 

b. MEETINGS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

618. Anon 

FIRE SAFETY IN THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

Fire Prot Rev; 40(444):21, 23, 25, 1977 

Papers presented at the symposium "Operational Study 
on Fire Safety in the Petrochemical Industry" held in 
1977 at the Fire Service Technical College, UK, are 
reviewed. Eight papers are reviewed in this article: 1) 
Safety in Plant Equipment Design, by AH Searson, Esso 
Eng (Europe) Ltd, UK; 2) The Role of the Health and 
Safety at Work Executive, by BM O'Reilly, Health and 
Safety at Work Executive, UK; 3) Fire Protection of Plant 
and Equipment, by D Waters, ICI Wilton Works, UK; 
4) Provision and Organization of Full-Time Industrial 
Firefighting Facilities at Large Installations, by K Hill, 
Shell Haven Refinery, UK; 5) Firefighting Arrangements 
at Plants Without a Full-Time Industrial Fire Brigade, by 
ECB Simpson, Internat Synth Rubber Co Ltd, UK; 6) 
Liaison and Planning Between the Local Authority Fire 
Service and the Petrochemical Industry, by D Dexter, 
Esso Petroleum Co, UK; 7) Fire Safety in the Petrochemi- 
cal Industry, Development of Special Equipment and 
Firefighting Techniques, by G Nash, Esso Petroleum Co, 
UK; and 8) Command and Control Considerations for 
the Local Authority Fire Commander at Petrochemical 
Plant Incidents, by AR Brannon, Cheshire Fire Brigade, 
UK. A paper by D. Blackstop was reviewed in Fire Prot 
Rev 40(443):30-31, 1977 (consult the Source Index under 
Journals). 

619. Teslenko G 

PROBLEMS OF PROTECTING INDUSTRIAL EQUIP- 
MENT 

Pozhar Delo, (2):24-25, 1977 (Russian) 

A brief report is made on the 80 papers presented at 
the All-Union Scientific and Practical Conference on 
Problems of Fire and Explosion Protection of Industrial 
Equipment at the end of 1976. It is pointed out that the 
results of research done in this area can serve as a good 
basis for practical work, but that the volume of research 
does not yet correspond to the higher level required by 



the national economy. A catalog of the main problems 
requiring research is considered: the mechanism and 
kinetics of suppressing rapidly developing fires in closed 
spaces; flame propagation in near-critical mixtures and 
the role of convection; propagation of the flame front 
of combustible media through materials as conductors and 
inhibition methods, etc. (RZh) 

620. Riou JG 

THE 96TH CONGRESS OF THE FRENCH NATIONAL 
FIREFIGHTERS ASSOCIATION 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(162):8-13, 1976 (French) 

The 96th Congress of the French National Firefighters' 
Association (Federation Nationale des Sapeurspompiers 
Francais) was held in October, 1976, in Mulhouse. The 
conference agenda is described. An exhibition of new fire 
equipment manufactured by various companies was also 
organized. The exhibitions are briefly described: 1) a 
high-expansion foam generator made of fiberglass, with 
a foam-expansion ratio variable from 500 to 1200 by 
means of a valve, portable by two men, and capable 
of being used as a smoke extractor with a performance 
of 11-17,000 m 3 /hr; 2) a new model of a cage for an 
elevating platform; 3) a miniature pocket radio receiver 
designed for individual use (the center can selectively 
communicate with 100,000 men carrying these receivers); 
4) an improved model of a radiotelephone; 5) new, fully 
synthetic fire hoses which do not need to be cleaned 
and dried after use, are light and flexible, and can be 
used at temperatures from —40 to 100°C; 6) various kinds 
of cabinets for fire hydrants with modern decorative 
finishing; 7) portable, battery-operated radio beacons 
designed to pinpoint the location of the carrier; 8) a mobile 
fire-extinguishing set with a 200-/ capacity and the neces- 
sary appurtenances; 9) a new model of a hydraulic jack 
for rescue work; 10) smoke-protection equipment; 11) a 
machine for hose cleaning; 12) 17- and 30-meter telescopic 
elevating towers; 13) fixed, vehicular and pocket h-f radio- 
telephones; 14) various kinds of fabrics for curtains and 
seat covers of public-access buildings, as well as for pro- 
tective clothing; 15) a device for microfilming various 
documents, intended for installation in a firefighting vehi- 
cle; 16) an alarm system for firefighting units; 17) a mobile 
monitor weighing less than 17 kg, of highly stable con- 
struction; and 18) design of a rapidly equipped aid center. 
5 figs. (RZh) 

621 . Levine RS 

MATHEMATICAL FIRE MODELING MEETING. Nat Bu- 
reau Standards, Center for Fire Res, Washington, DC; In- 
formal Report, 77 pages, 28 Oct 1977 

This report on the Mathematical Fire Modeling Meeting, 
which was held in St Louis, MO, on Oct 11-12, 1977, 
consists of notes on the committee reports (Coding, 
Models, and Subprograms); Appendix A (list of Atten- 
dees); Appendix B (Meeting Agenda); Appendix C 
(Research Needs for Compartment Fire Modeling); Appen- 
dix D (Computer Modeling, by Ray Luoto, Douglas Air- 
craft Company); Appendix E (Subprograms: A State-of- 
the-Art Review, prepared by the subprograms committee) ; 
Appendix F (Report of the Subcommittee on Computer 
Codes and Data Exchange); and Appendix G (Suggested 
Rules for Documentation of Computer Programs). Of par- 
ticular interest is Appendix D, a report on computer 



112 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

b. Meetings and Professional Activities — Continued 

modeling, in which a program has been prepared using 
an empirical relation that matches calculated heat flow 
through walls and a mass balance in the enclosure. Also 
of particular interest in the report is Appendix E, which 
contains reviews of subprograms for zone models, viz: 
A) Fire Growth, by PJ Pagni; B) Fire Plume, by GM 
Faeth; Q Flame Radiation, by CL Tien; D) Pre-Flashover 
Enclosure Convection, by EE Zukoski; E) Post-Flashover 
Burning, by TZ Harmathy; F) Convective Heat Transfer 
Coefficients Within Enclosures, by F Tamanini; G) Radia- 
tive Heat Transfer Within Enclosures, by R Pape; H) 
Wall Thermal Response, by H Baum; I) Remote Ignition, 
by AM Kanury; J) Next-Room Problem, by BJ McCaf- 
fery; and K) Smoke and Toxicity, by GW Mulholland. 
Each review is accompanied by recommendations and a 
pertinent bibliography. 

622. Anon 

Proceedings of the National Symposium on Fire Safety 
Aspects of Polymeric Materials 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Thirty papers and three abstracts of papers presented 
at the National Symposium on Fire Safety Aspects of 
Polymeric Materials, which was sponsored by the Division 
of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry of the American 
Chemical Society and was held at the Carnegie Institution 
in Washington, DC, are collected in looseleaf form in 
this volume of Proceedings. For abstracts of the individual 
papers reviewed in this issue of FT A, consult the ap- 
propriate entry in the Source Index under "Symposia." 

623. Bercaw JR [Man-Made Fiber Producers Assoc] 
COOPERATIVE PROGRAM ON GENERAL APPAREL 
FLAMMABILrrY — STATUS REPORT 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 24-38 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

In January, 1977, representatives of the fiber textile 
and apparel industry met with four of the five Consumer 
Product Safety Commissioners to present a position paper 
and a comprehensive action program regarding apparel 
flammability in which nine trade associations are cooperat- 
ing. The program consists of identifying areas of un- 
reasonable risk by a careful analysis of burn injury data, 
ascer taining specific apparel areas requiring regulations or 
marketing restrictions, and of defining, developing, and 
evaluating relevant, reasonable test methods through ac- 
cident-simulating studies of apparel flammability and as- 
sessment of existing test methods and concepts. The test 
method program, involving 60 high-volume apparel fabrics 
and clothing made from them, is described. 6 figs. 

624. LeBlanc RB (Ed) [LeBlanc Res Corp] 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTH TEXTILE FLAMMA- 
BILITY SYMPOSIUM, 1977 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

This volume of proceedings, coupled with the previous 
volumes, can be considered to be reports of the"state 
of the art" on all phases of textile flammability. The 



subjects covered in this volume range from experimental 
and commercial processes for flame-resistant textiles, 
through test methods and standards and marketing, to 
product liability. The papers and discussions should be 
useful not only for those actively working in the area 
of textile flammability, but also for those wanting a quick 
education on the technical status and legislative status 
of textile flammability. The papers of this volume, except 
for those relating to fire retardants, can be found in this 
issue of FT A by consulting the Source Index 
under"Symposia." 293 pages. (Author) 

c. LITERATURE AND NOTICES 

625. Hilado CJ and Kosola KL [Univ San Francisco, CA, 
Fire Safety Center] 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED INFORMATION ON 
SMOKE EMISSION 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):532-540, 1977 

Smoke evolution is an important aspect of fire hazard 
because visibility is a factor in the ability of occupants 
to escape from a burning structure and in the ability of 
firefighters to locate and suppress a fire. The potential 
hazard of smoke is of great interest in many applications 
of materials; as a result, information on smoke evolution 
from materials is found in a variety of publications and 
is often contained in papers of materials which contain 
data on several other fire response characteristics. This 
bibliography was prepared to assist those working in this 
field to help reduce the hazards of fire to man. 119 refs. 
(Author) 

626. Jason NH 

FTRE RESEARCH SPECIALISTS: A DDIECTORY. Nat 

Bureau Standards, Inst Appl Technol, Center for Fire Res, 
Washington, DC; NBSIR 77-1264, 139 pages, Sep 1977 
Availability: NTIS 

This directory lists specialists from the United States 
and Canada who have made recent contributions to the 
fire literature, to the teaching of fire science of related 
subjects, or who have participated in or supported fire 
research programs. This work is an update of 
the "Directory of Workers in the Fire Field" by Boris 
W. Kuvshinoff, Stephen B. McLeod, and Richard G. Katz 
(NASA CR-121129; 1973). The directory is divided into 
three parts. The first part, the Specialists Index, is ar- 
ranged alphabetically. The first line notes the name, fol- 
lowed by the area(s) of specialization represented by 
Arabic numerals. These Arabic numerals are used 
throughout the directory and are defined in a separate 
listing on page vii. The second and subsequent lines give 
the specialist's affiliation, mailing address, and telephone 
number. The second part, the Subject Specialty Index, 
lists alphabetically the subject areas and the corresponding 
specialist names. Entries are limited to two areas of spe- 
cialization per individual. The third part, the Affiliations 
Index, lists alphabetically the corporate sources, noting 
the specialists therein. If a specialist was not affiliated 
with an organization, the term "Consultant" was used to 
group these individuals in the Affiliations Index. (Author) 



113 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 



d. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INCIDENT CRITIQUES 
AND ANALYSES 

627. Mattson RE [Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, 
MA] 

CABLE TRAY FIRES AND THE ASSESSMENT OF PRO- 
TECTION 

Pulp and Paper Ind Conf, Annual, 1976, Technical Record; 
1976, May 5-7, Boston, MA, pages 61-65 
Sponsor: IEEE 

It has long been recognized that fires in unprotected 
group cables such as cable trays cause serious property 
damage and interruptions to production. The number of 
recent fires in paper mills only re-emphasized the hazard. 
This paper discusses a sampling of cable tray fires, their 
origin and the steps to initiate to prevent excessive 
damage. The approach to improvement is through recogni- 
tion that protection is needed. A means to minimize a 
potential loss and quickly return to production can be 
a factor involving the salvage of millions of dollars. What 
is considered as adequate protection for installed cable 
trays and what the projected thinking is in regards to 
future installations may result in a more optimistic outlook 
for the industry. 2 figs, 8 refs. (Author) 

628. Ahlers fnu and Niels fnu [Wasserschutzpolizei 
Nordrhein-Westfalen, FRG] 

FIRE HAZARDS OF HEATING STOVES ON RIVER 
BOATS 

Binnenschiffahrts-Nachr; 32(2):22, 24, 1977 (German) 

Each year the number of fires on river boats increases 
with the beginning of the heating period. As the statistics 
show, fire insurers have to pay out increasingly greater 
amounts for fire damages with each succeeding year. Ac- 
cording to the experience of the Criminal Police of the 
Water Safety Police of North Rhine- Westphalia (FRG), 
boat fires are caused most frequently by improperly func- 
tioning heating stoves. From 1970 to 1975 inclusive they 
investigated a total of 275 boat fires; 68.69% of the fire 
causes were established. A number of examples of the 
different kinds of fires caused by heating stoves is cited. 
4 figs. 

629. Craven AD [Dr JH Burgoyne and Partners, 
Consulting Scientists and Engineers, Ilkley, UK] 
FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS IN SMALL CRAFT 

Fire Eng J; 37(107): 12-14, 1977 

The various fire hazards associated with the operation 
of small water craft are identified, with particular empha- 
sis on the presence of bottled gas and gasoline on board 
and their leakage and spillage hazards. The generation 
of explosive hydrogen/oxygen mixtures from improperly 
vented lead/acid accumulators is also cited as a hazard. 
The fire hazards of diesel engine compartments and the 
inadequacy of fire fighting means are pointed out. The 
technical advice accorded designers, builders and opera- 
tors in section 12A of the National Fire Code (NFPA) 
is presented. 1 photo, 5 refs. 

630. NFPA Fire Analysis Dept 
BIMONTHLY FIRE RECORD 

Fire J; 71 (4):25-28, 1977 



Fourteen accounts of typical important fires reported 
to the National Fire Protection Association are presented. 
Eight occurred in 1976, six in 1977, in various properties, 
including storage, mercantile, public utilities, manufactur- 
ing, industrial, institutional, and residential. In some in- 
stances the accounts are based on preliminary reports, 
which are subject to verification. Given in most accounts 
are a brief description of the property, circumstances sur- 
rounding outbreak of the fire, firefighting tactics, in- 
vestigative measures, damages and losses. 

631. NFPA Fire Record Dept 
BIMONTHLY FDIE RECORD 

Fire J; 71(3):51-54, 1977 

Fifteen accounts of typical important fires reported to 
the National Fire Protection Association are presented. 
All the fires but one occurred in 1976 in various proper- 
ties, including trucks, subway cars, homes for the aged, 
nursing homes, newspaper printing facilities, cloth-manu- 
facturing plant, textile building, clothing-manufacturing 
plant, shoe-manufacturing plant, mobile home, and re- 
sidential buildings (apartment, mobile, and single family). 
In some cases accounts are based on preliminary reports, 
which are subject to verification. Given in most accounts 
are a brief description of the property, circumstances sur- 
rounding outbreak of the fire, firefighting tactics, in- 
vestigative measures, damages and losses. 

632. Pryor AJ [Energy Res and Dev Admin, Operations 
Office, Albuquerque, NM] 

BROWNS FERRY REVISITED 

Fire J; "l(3):85-86, 88-89, 120-121, 1977 

This uticle is an updated excerpt from a paper 
presented by the author at the Fifth International Fire 
Protection Seminar held at Karlsruhe, FRG, in September, 
1976. It provides an extension of an earlier article on 
the fire (Cable Fire at Brown's Ferry Nuclear Plant, Fire 
J, 70(4):5, 1976, reviewed in FTA, 1(6), abstract 1934), 
presenting a further analysis of the fire, an estimate of 
the indirect losses, and some interesting observations re- 
lated to the nature of the basic cause of the disaster. 
1 fig, 21 refs. 

633. Shimada I and Kawasaki A 

MECHANISM OF FTRE OUTBREAK OWING TO IM- 
PROPER USE OF KEROSENE STOVES 

Kasai; 26(6):21-29, 1976 (Japanese) 

Several models of household and industrial kerosine 
heaters mass-produced by Japanese industry are ex- 
amined. Essentially, these are heating stoves or commer- 
cial equipment for the preparation of food in restaurants 
without electric kitchens or in other mass food-catering 
establishments where problems of fire safety of this equip- 
ment is of primary importance. This is especially true 
because the specific nature of the fuel and power 
problems of Japan has necessitated considerable expansion 
of the production and use of kerosine stoves of various 
kinds in the last 10-15 years. An examination is made 
of the mechanism of outbreak of fire in such stoves owing 
to design deficiencies, violation of operating instructions, 
improper technical maintenance, and other factors. The 
statistics of the outbreak of fires connected with kerosine 
stoves indicate that the main cause is leakage and spilling 



114 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques and Analyses — Continued 



of kerosine while filling the fuel container, as well as 
accidental shock and impact, including seismic 
phenomena. The main direction of improvement in the 
fire safety design of kerosine stoves is the development 
of reliable, small-scale automatic devices to seal the work- 
ing areas (fuel tanks) upon impact or vibration. A descrip- 
tion is made of the design and operating principle of the 
most effective sealing devices, each consisting of a metal- 
lic pendulum-type component, sensitive to shocks and im- 
pacts exceeding a certain predetermined value in am- 
plitude. Graphic characteristics illustrating the results of 
tests of automatic sealing devices working with various 
kerosine stoves are given. 

634. Anon 

FIRE NEWS (FIRE INCIDENTS IN JAPAN) 

Kasai; 26(6):46-49, 1976 (Japanese) 

Brief accounts of fires in Japan for the period 1975- 
1976 are presented, containing information on the causes, 
circumstances and nature of the development, extinguish- 
ment and effects of fires. A report is made on fires in 
multi-story residential buildings resulting from the leakage 
and explosion of propane gas. (RZh) 

635. Anon 

MONITORING EXPLOSIVES AND HIGH-PRESSURE 
GASES 

Kayakurui, Koatsu Gasu Torishimari Geppo; (139):3-44, 
1976 (Japanese) 

Several fires and explosions which resulted from im- 
proper storage and handling of production-line containers 
of compressed and rarified gases are described. The prin- 
cipal causes of explosion of these containers are reviewed 
and classified. The main cause was mechanical damage 
of the container or cylinder housing, especially at low 
temperatures, when the impact strength of the steel is 
appreciably reduced and it becomes more brittle. The 
second cause is overfilling the cylinders and containers 
with compressed and, especially, rarified gas, leading to 
an increase in pressure above the permissible threshold. 
The third cause is an increase in pressure in the containers 
owing to heating by the sun's rays. Examined in particular 
is the case of a large fire in a petrochemical plant which 
occurred while tapping rarified gas from a stationary 
cylinder into an operating device of a low-pressure 
technological system. The gas was being tapped in con- 
formity with the fire safety rules in effect at the plant, 
which stipulated that a reducing valve with two manome- 
ters be used for this operation. Nevertheless, the liquid 
phase of the rarified gas evaporated, leading to overcool- 
ing and rupture of the outlet of the fixed cylinder. An 
explosion occurred after one of the operators began to 
carelessly heat the frozen portion of the pipe with a 
homemade torch. Technical and organizational recommen- 
dations are made as to increasing fire and explosion 
safety. (RZh) 



e. FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

f. LEGISLATION 

636. Parmentier J, Jr [Ministere des Affaires Economiques, 
Brussels, Belgium] 

FIRE BEHAVIOUR OF TEXTILES: REGULATIONS AND 
STANDARDS 

Fire Internal; 5(55):99-109, 111-112, 1977 (English, French, 
German) 

A brief history of fire-proofing treatment, starting with 
the treatment applied to canvas in Paris theaters in 1638, 
is followed by a survey of the textile fire legislation within 
various countries, the European Economic Community, 
and the International Standardization Organization (ISO), 
with particular emphasis on the work being done in the 
various study groups of the ISO, which comprise: Ter- 
minology; Clothing; Curtains and Tapestry; Furnishings 
and Bedding, etc; Textile Floor Coverings (Floor, Wall, 
Ceiling); and Statistics. 4 refs. 

637. Anon 

REGULATIONS FOR POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS IN- 
STALLATIONS 

Fire Prot Rev; 40(443):35, 1977 

Draft regulations requiring the statutory notification of 
all hazardous installations are being prepared at the 
direction of the UK Health and Safety Commission. 
Preparation of the regulations will enable a complete pic- 
ture to be built up, for the first time, of the number 
of potentially hazardous installations in Britain and will 
lead to the development of tighter controls. This is one 
of a number of steps being taken by the Commission 
following the recommendations for a list of notifiable ac- 
tivities to form guidelines for the preparation of regula- 
tions contained in the first report of the Advisory Commit- 
tee on Major Hazards published in September, 1976, and 
summarized in this article. (Author) 

g. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND INFORMATION 

h. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

638. RTI 

FIRE RESEARCH UTILIZATION BY THE ITRE SER- 
VICE. Res Triangle Inst, Center for Population and Urban- 
Rural Studies, Research Triangle Park, NC; Unnumbered, 
70 pages, 2 figs, Feb 1977 

This document represents the results of a contract from 
the National Fire Safety and Research Office (NFSRO) 
of the National Fire Prevention and Control Administra- 
tion (NFPCA) to gather, evaluate, and report on the cur- 
rent state of knowledge concerning the utilization of fire 
research. The techniques used by selected federal agencies 
to disseminate the results of federally-funded research ac- 
tivities and to encourage their use are the foundation of 
this report, which is intended to provide NFPCA/NFSRO 
guidance in the development of potentially successful 
utilization components in current research and to en- 
courage their implementation. In addition, the reported 
experience of select members of the fire-service user com- 
munity and the fire research community are incorporated. 
The most consistent finding is that coordination among 



115 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

h. Research and Development Programs — Continued 

the user, the researcher, and the sponsoring agency forms 
the critical loop that best assures research that is needed, 
appropriate, and used. It is concluded that a strategy must 
be developed to get the results of fire research into the 
fire service community on a systematic basis. 

639. Schnakenberg GH, Jr [US Bureau Mines, Pittsburgh 
Mining and Safety Res Center, Pittsburgh, PA] 

US BUREAU OF MINES OVERVIEW OF SENSOR 

RESEARCH; Paper No. 25, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

The gas detector sensor research program directly sup- 
ports the Fire and Explosion Prevention and Industrial 
Hygiene programs of the Bureau of Mines. The work 
is concentrated on development of new sensors and proto- 
type instrumentation for the detection of combustible and 
toxic gases. Specifically, the primary gases of concern 
are methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric 
oxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The ultimate objective 
is to develop transducers of suitable size, specificity, 
short- and long-term stability, and power consumption, 
primarily for use in small personal gas detection devices 
such as handheld indicating detectors or personal dosime- 
ters or alarms. For each gas, recent accomplishments and 
status of the research is discussed. Of particular interest 
are the new developments of a CO detector and a methane 
monitor. Research and new developments in anemometry 
are also presented. 13 pages, 1 fig, 1 table, 1 ref. (Author) 

640. Nishizuma M 

ACTIVITIES OF THE FIRE RESEARCH LABORATORY 
OF T HE RAILWAY ENGINEERING RESEARCH IN- 
STITUTE OF JAPAN 

Diteru; (287): 15-17, 1976 (Japanese) 

Methods of extinguishing several characteristic types of 
fires in rail transportation have been developed by the 
laboratory. Small fires which are extinguished using im- 
proved extinguishing methods are described. Described in 
particular is the extinguishment of a tank car fire at the 
Norikae station. The car was filled with liquefied gas 
and had to be cooled continually during the operation. 
Water jets were used for cooling, carbon dioxide gas for 
extinguishment. At the same time, powerful jets of water 
were also used effectively to knock down the flame from 
the surface of the car, considerably accelerating complete 
extinguishment of the fire. In another case it was not 
possible to suppress the jet of burning gas (several tank 
cars on fire near the Hokuriku tunnel in 1976), and there- 
fore it was decided to let the gas burn out over a period 
of several hours. In the meantime the car was continu- 
ously cooled with water, reliably preventing an explosion. 
Also reported is the effective practice of piercing the 
walls and roofs of cars at points of most intense burning 
in order to introduce various extinguishants through the 
holes. (RZh) 

641. Hamada M 

STUDIES OF FIRES IN RAILWAY TRAINS 

Kasai; 26(4):31-34, 1976 (Japanese) 



Statistical data are cited to characterize the number, 
type, effects and other factors of railroad fires in Japan 
in the period since 1965. The most promising trends of 
research and development in the area of increased fire^ 
safety of cars, tunnels, and other railway equipment and* 
facilities are analyzed. A report is made on the foundation 
in Japan of a large fixed base for conducting fire tests 
and research. For this purpose a roofed-over testing 
ground with an area of 50,000 m 2 has been built, served 
by 800 employees and with an annual budget of 7.4 billion 
yen (300 yen = ca 1 dollar). A description is given of 
the design and operating principle of the aerodynamic in- 
stallation of the new experimental test area which simu- 
lates the motion of test cars at various speeds and permits 
study of the conditions under which fires break out and 
spread in moving trains, especially in tunnels. The main 
simulation hall where the aerodynamic installation is 
located is 20 m in height and 25.5 m long. The motion 
of test cars and locomotives is simulated aerodynamically 
by means of a powerful air intake and exhaust system, 
which supplies air through ducts with a cross-section of 
3 x 3 m at rates up to 10,000 m 3 /min. The methods and 
principal types of tests which will be carried out in the 
new test area are described; a report is also made on 
plans to expand and fit the system with new equipment. 
6 figs. (RZh) 

642. Pestmal N 

AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN THE 
TENTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN 

Pozhar Delo; (l):25-26, 1977 (Russian) 

The research institutes, design and construction bureaus 
of the USSR will work on the development of new equip- 
ment and on improving the reliability of the existing 
fire-protection systems. Main emphasis in development 
will be placed on fire detection, alarms, sprinkler installa- 
tions, fire extinguishers, telecommunication systems, stan- 
dardization of components for automatic devices, et al. 
In the next 5 years the maintenance and repair of auto- 
matic fire protection equipment will be improved, because 
at present this equipment is being suitably maintained and 
checked in only 8-10% of industrial enterprises. The future 
development of Soviet automatic fire protection systems 
is described in outline form in the article. (Fachdok 
13/0879) 

643. Wiackowski J 

FIRE PREVENTION DEPARTMENT OF THE AD- 
VANCED FHtE OFFICERS ACADEMY 

Przegl Poz; 64(12):3-5, 1976 (Polish) 

A report is made on the main thrust of the scientific 
research to be carried out by the Fire Prevention Depart- 
ment of the Advanced Fire Officers Academy (Poland) 
in 1976/77 in collaboration with the leading research in- 
stitutes. These programs are aimed at developing a method 
of analyzing building structures after fires, new ways of 
reducing the fire hazard of highrise buildings, automatic 
fire warning systems using optical phenomena and infrared 
radiation, at studying the fire resistance of lignocellulosic 
boards, development of a set of measures to ensure the 
fire safety of the low-fuel car factory at Bielsko Biala, 
protection against static electricity, and to ensure the fire 
safety of painting by the electrostatic method. (RZh) 



116 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

h. Research and Development Programs — Continued 

644. Carhart HW [Nav Res Lab, Washington, DC] 
FIRE SAFETY CM THE NAVY — EXAMPLES OF CUR- 
RENT RESEARCH 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

From a fire standpoint, ships are likened to modern 
highrise buildings in terms of fire spread, control, air 
movement, and exceedingly limited escape avenues. The 
acute problems involving polymers in ship fires are the 
burning and propagation of the fire by the insulation on 
electric cable runs. Two other acute problems are the 
transport of toxic agents by smoke and obscuration due 
to the production of dense smokes. Fire smoke "wetting" 
is being studied to alleviate obscuration. The partial ox- 
ygen pressure maintained in submersibles is a further 
hazard. Hazards to shore facilities, particularly laborato- 
ries, owing to polymers are also discussed. 12 pages, 4 
figs, 4 tables, 21 refs. 

645. Chaiken RF and Burgess D [Bureau of Mines, 
Pittsburgh, PA, Pittsburgh Mining and Safety Res Center] 
SELECTED TOPICS IN MINE FIRE RESEARCH 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Some of the current research into the fire igni- 
tion/propagation problems peculiar to underground mining 
are discussed, including ignition, detection of incipient 
combustion, reignition of sealed fires, propagation, duct 
fires, and pyrolysis studies. The problem of a propagating 
mine fire, its spread rate, its heat and fume production, 
and its effect on mine ventilation is extremely complex. 
Research is being pursued in this area to establish test 
criteria for materials that are brought into a mine, to 
develop methods of control of fires by ventilation, and 
to predict optimal escape routes for personnel. 33 pages, 
14 figs, 8 tables, 21 refs. 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF 
FIRE 

a. FIRE BUILDUP, PROPAGATION, AND SPREAD 

646. Karim GA [Univ Calgary, Canada] and Tsang P 
SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF FLAME PROPAGATION 
AND FLAMMABHJTY CHARACTERISTICS OF AT- 
MOSPHERES INVOLVING CONCENTRATION 
GRADIENTS FORMED BY MASS TRANSFER 
PHENOMENA 

Arch Termodyn Spal; 8(l):49-58, 1977 (English; Russian 
and Polish Summaries) 

The purpose of the present work is to establish experi- 
mentally the nature of the phenomena and the rate of 
fire spread through explosive media involving concentra- 
tion gradients in a fuel-air mixture. Most of the work 
reported has been limited to upward flame propagation 
using methane as a fuel. Wide deviations from the quasi- 
steady approach were observed when a flame propagates 
along a negative concentration gradient in lean methane- 
air mixtures. It appears that the observed rate of fire 



spread in stratified lean mixtures can be correlated directly 
in terms of local concentration gradients and the cor- 
responding propagation rates under homogeneous condi- 
tions. The flammability of mixtures formed by the com- 
bined effects of molecular diffusion and natural convec- 
tion are also considered in relation to methane and air 
within long vertical smooth circular tubes maintained at 
constant temperature. 7 figs, 2 refs. (Author) 

647. Theobald CR [Build Res Estab, UK, Fire Res Sta] 
STUDIES OF FIRES IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS — 
PART 1: THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (17):4-14, 1977 

This study presents an attempt to quantify some results 
derived from fires in industrial buildings visited with the 
active cooperation of the Fire Services (UK). It is given 
in two parts: Part 1 lists numerical data from 8 fires 
in buildings, and the burning rates observed are compared 
with the results of some experimental fires. Further infor- 
mation on the qualitative behavior of 38 fires in buildings 
is also given, including in each case estimates of the floor 
area involved, structural damage and fire duration, all 
related to the nominal fuel load. Part 2 presents correla- 
tions obtained for the quantitative data and discusses their 
implication. The purpose is two-fold: to confirm that the 
parameters of the experimental fires are realistic, and to 
provide information on the circumstances in which predic- 
tions of fire behavior on an experimental or theoretical 
basis can be made. The factors presented might profitably 
be studied in future incidents. Fire incidents may also 
indicate areas where further research is needed. 9 figs, 
3 tables, 13 refs. (Author) 

648. Theobald CR [Build Res Estab, UK, Fire Res Sta] 
STUDIES OF FIRES IN INDUSTRIAL BUDLDINGS — 
PART 2: THE BURNING RATES AND DURATIONS OF 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (17):15-16, 1977 

In Part 1 attention has already been drawn to the rela- 
tionship between fire load and fire duration (in the sense 
of the fire brigade control time); considered here are this 
and some other relationships in more detail. 3 figs, 1 
table. (Author) 

649. Coulbert CD [Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA, 
Control and Energy Conversion Div] 

ENERGY RELEASE CRITERIA FOR ENCLOSURE. FIRE 
HAZARD ANALYSIS. PART 1 

Fire Technol; 13(3):173-184, 1977 

A graphic presentation of Relative Energy Release 
Criteria provides a coherent framework for relating and 
integrating available data for various fire phases on a 
common basis. Relative Energy Release Criteria include 
flame spread rates, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclo- 
sure volume, and total fuel load. This analytical approach 
can be used directly to measure the validity of assump- 
tions made in current full-scale test methods. This model- 
ing approach is adaptable to computer programming in 
which re alisti c comple xiti es may be included when war- 
ranted. 3 figs, 37 refs. (NFPA) 

117 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread — Continued 

650. Fang JB [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, DC, ^ 
Center for Fire Res] 

MEASUREMENTS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF IN- 
CIDENTAL FIRES IN COMPARTMENTS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(3):368-386, 1976 

A variety of upholstered chairs and wood cribs were 
burned within a ventilated compartment. The experimental 
measurements of weight loss, smoke concentration, tem- 
perature and heat flux levels are summarized. A 
reproducible fire obtained from burning a standardized 
wood crib array was found to be capable of representing 
the essential features of incidental fires of moderate inten- 
sity. 10 figs, 2 tables, 5 refs. (Author) 

651. Yumoto T [Japanese Government, Ministry of Home 
Affairs, Tokyo, Japan, Fire Defense Agency, Fire Res 
Inst] 

FIRE SPREAD BETWEEN TWO ODL TANKS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):494-505, 1977 

This article is concerned with a fire spread from an 
oil tank to another under windless conditions. Two open 
tanks of 1 m in diameter containing gasoline are used 
as a model. The experiment shows that the safe separation 
distance from the burning tank is about 0.6 m. Some 
of the results can be applied to a full-scale tank fire. 
13 figs, 1 table, 3 refs. (Author) 

652. Sekine T 

EXPERIMENTS IN STUDYING FIRE SPREAD IN CTriES 

Kasai; 26(4):35-40, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some interim results are presented on long-term 
research begun in 1975 during which various thermotechni- 
cal and topographical aspects of fire spread in cities were 
studied using mock-ups and real conditions. The research 
is essentially in the nature of analytical experiments with 
the aim of establishing the relationship between the topo- 
graphic parameters of fire spread (speed and direction) 
and such factors and parameters as atmospheric and 
meteorological conditions, nature and configuration of the 
fire center, terrain relief, lay-out of urban construction, 
etc. It is pointed out that the method of machine simula- 
tion has been successfully applied during the research. 
Some principles for formulation of the computer programs 
used as a basis for the calculations and modeling are 
discussed. 8 figs, 7 tables. (RZh) 

653. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FD*E GROWTH. 
VOL 1: TEST DATA. TEST 2: BASIC CONFIGURATION. 
Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, MA; FMRC 
OAOR2.BU-2, 49 pages, 14 figs, 6 tables, 8 graphs, Jul 
1977 

This test is part of a research study on the influence 
of enclosure geometry and scale on fire growth for cellular 
plastics. The principal objective of the present program 
is to provide a body of full-scale test data for evaluating 
mathematical models of room fire development. Eight 
tests are planned, each designed to address a specific 
issue. The first three tests (0, 1 and 2) are performed 
with a basic room configuration to provide base-line data. 
This report documents the room configuration and the 



data of Test 2. A standard room enclosure (2.4 m x 3.7 
m x 2.4 m high) with a corridor extension is used in 
this test program. Marimite XL is used to simulate gypsum 
walls. The initiating item (1.5 m x 1.5 m x 0.1 m thick 
polyurethane foam) and target item (1.2 m x 0.3 m x 
0.1 m thick polyurethane foam) and the ignition method 
are shown in figures. Basic flammability properties of 
the initiating item, the test conditions, the fire chronology, 
a signal identification table with comments on signal fideli- 
ty and some selected graphs are documented. An ab- 
breviated data table of results at 12 selected times is 
also provided. The complete data set is on an enclosed 
microfiche. (For abstracts of tests and 1 consult the 
Report Number Index, FMRC OAOR2.BU-0 and FMRC 
OAOR2.BU-1, in FT A, Vol 2, Issue 1/2.) 

654. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FIRE GROWTH. 
VOL 1: TEST DATA. TEST 3: NARROW DOORWAY. 
Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, MA; FMRC 
OAOR2.BU-3, 48 pages, 14 figs, 6 tables, 8 graphs, Jul 
1977 

The third test and the information provided in this report 
are similar to that for the Basic Configuration Tests (see 
the preceding abstract) except for the doorway which, 
in this test, was 1/4 the normal width, that is, 0.194 m. 
Test 3 is an example of a ventilation-controlled fire to 
establish the accuracy of modeling predictions at at- 
mospheric pressure. 

655. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FIRE GROWTH. Vol 
1: TEST DATA. TEST 4: OPEN DOOR AND WINDOW. 
Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, MA; FMRC 
OAOR2.BU-4, 49 pages, 14 figs, 6 tables, 8 graphs, Jul 
1977 

The fourth test and the test information are similar to 
the Basic Configuration Tests (see FMRC OAOR2.BU- 
2 abstracted above) except for an additional window open- 
ing on the east wall. Data from Test 4 are intended to 
establish the accuracy of multi-vent models of enclosure 
fires. 

656. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FIRE GROWTH. 
VOL 1: TEST DATA. TEST 5: STEADY POLYMETHYL 
METHACRYLATE FIRE. Factory Mutual Res Corp, Nor- 
wood, MA; FMRC OAOR2.BU-5, 51 pages, 14 figs, 6 
tables, 10 graphs, Aug 1977 

The fifth fire test and the information given in this 
report are similar to the Basic Configuration Tests (see 
the abstract of FMRC (AOR2.BU-2 given above) except 
that the initiating item is a 730-mm diameter pan of 
polymethylmethacrylate beads. Data from Test 5 are in- 
tended to permit comparisons of burning rates of 760- 
mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate pool fire in the open 
and in the enclosure. 



118 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread — Continued 

657. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FIRE GROWTH. 
VOL 1: TEST DATA. TEST 6: WINDOW AND NO 
DOORWAY. Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, MA; 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-6, 54 pages, 14 figs, 6 tables, 12 
graphs, Aug 1977 

The sixth fire test and the information given in this 
report are similar to the Basic Configuration Tests (see 
the abstract of FMRC OAOR2.BU-2 given above) except 
for the doorway being replaced by a window. Data from 
Test 6 are intended to establish the accuracy of the inflow 
and outflow models of fires within enclosures and also 
to determine the effects of restricting air access to the 
source fire. 

658. Alpert RL, Ris, de, J, Modak AT, Mathews MK, 
Markstein GH, Orloff L, Land RI, Farren E, Polo JC, 
Mann DS, Kiley FB and Crudup L 

INFLUENCE OF ENCLOSURES ON FIRE GROWTH. 
VOL 1: TEST DATA. TEST 7: DOORWAY WITHOUT 
TOP JAMB. Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, MA; 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-7, 53 pages, 14 figs, 6 tables, 11 
graphs, Aug 1977 

The seventh fire test and the information provided in 
this report are similar to the Basic Configuration Tests 
(see the abstract of FMRC OAOR2.BU-2 given above) 
except that the doorway is without a top door jamb (soffit 
flush with ceiling). Data from Test 7 are intended to show 
the effect of the top door jamb on the outflow of hot 
ceiling layer gases. 

659. Land RI [Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA] 
THE HOME FIRE PROJECT — A REVIEW 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The systematic investigation of fire ignition, growth, 
spread and extinguishment of full-scale room fires has 
been carried out for five years jointly by Harvard Univer- 
sity and Factory Mutual Research Corporation. The cen- 
tral thrust of the program, to understand the context- 
dependent phenomena associated with fire behavior in an 
ordinary room and the full-scale room fire tests, is 
discussed in some detail. The disparity in combustion test- 
ing that in part initiated this program is first considered. 
Then the full-scale tests are described. Three particular 
observations (the significance of the hot gas layer, a 
hydraulic model for ventilation, and humidity effects) are 
discussed. Mention of the present effort to develop a 
computer model that will predict fire parameters in such 
tests and to be extended for general application in 
buildings concludes the review. 5 pages, 2 figs, 5 refs. 
(Author) 

b. FLAMM ABILITY, IGNITION, AND EXTINCTION 

660. Fiumara A [Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, 
San Donate Milanese, Italy] 

DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM IGNITION 
ENERGY OF DUST-AHt MDCTURES 

Riv Combust; 31(l):28-34, 1977 (Italian; English Summary) 



Determination of the minimum ignition energy of dust- 
air mixtures presents some difficulties and often unreliable 
results, because the method reported in the literature does 
not permit determination of the reference flammable con- 
centration. A more accurate method is proposed here in 
which the limit value of the flammable concentration is 
determined by points as a function of variations in the 
ignition energy (only a few ignition energies need be 
established). Values of the minimum ignition energy of 
the dust and of the corresponding concentration are ob- 
tained from the resulting curve. 6 figs, 2 refs. (Author) 

661 . Fiumara A and Cardillo P [Stazione Sperimentale 
per i Combustibili, San Donato Milanese, Italy] 
OXYGEN-POOR ATMOSPHERES AS A MEANS OF 
PREVENTING DUST EXPLOSIONS 

Riv Combust, 31(4): 115-121, 1977 (Italian; English Summa- 
ry) 

The most effective method of preventing dust explosions 
consists in operation in the presence of an oxygen concen- 
tration insufficient for flame propagation. This safe con- 
centration of oxygen is obtained by diluting the air with 
inert gases and can be determined experimentally for any 
material. The few data found in the literature are very 
restrictive because, in general, they do not contain the 
dust concentration to which the oxygen refers; they define 
atmospheres in which dust clouds cannot be ignited. In 
some cases they refer to a certain quantity of dust, 
probably chosen for some specific purpose. In this paper 
the safe oxygen concentrations are measured for finely 
dispersed materials as a function of the dust concentration 
and, at the same time, the explosion pressure and the 
maximum rate of pressure rise in partially inert at- 
mospheres are determined. 6 figs, 4 tables, 6 refs. 
(Author) 

c. FLOW OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

662. Veldman CC, Kubota T and Zukoski EE 

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT 
TRANSFER FROM A BUOYANT GAS PLUME TO A 
HORIZONTAL CEILING. PART 1. UNOBSTRUCTED 
CEILING,, California Inst Technol, Daniel and Florence 
Guggenheim Jet Prop Center, Pasadena, CA; NBS GCR- 
77-97, 115 pages, 14 figs, 16 tables, 14 refs, 1977 
Availability: NTIS 

This report presents an experimental investigation of 
the axisymmetric heat transfer from a small-scale fire and 
resulting buoyant plume to a horizontal, unobstructed ceil- 
ing during the initial stages of development. A propane- 
air burner yielding a heat source strength between 1.0 
kW and 1.6 kW was used to simulate the fire, and mea- 
surements proved that this heat source did satisfactorily 
represent a source of buoyancy only. The ceiling consisted 
of a 1/16 in. steel plate of 0.91 m diameter, insulated 
on the upper side. The ceiling height was adjustable 
between 0.5 m and 0.91 m. Temperature measurements 
were carried out in the plume, ceiling jet, and on the 
ceiling. Heat transfer data were obtained by using the 
transient method and applying corrections for the radial 
conduction along the ceiling and losses through the insula- 
tion material. The ceiling heat transfer coefficient was 
based on the adiabatic ceiling jet temperature (recovery 
temperature) reached after a long time. A parameter in- 



119 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 
c. Flow of Combustion Products — Continued 

volving the source strength Q and ceiling height H was 
found to correlate measurements of this temperature and 
its radial variation. A similar parameter for estimating 
the ceiling heat transfer coefficient was confirmed by the 
experimental results. This investigation therefore provides 
reasonable estimates for the heat transfer from a buoyant 
gas plume to a ceiling in the axisymmetric case, for the 
stagnation region where such heat transfer is a maximum 
and for the ceiling jet region (r/H =s0.7). A comparison 
with data from experiments which involved larger heat 
sources indicates that the predicted scaling of tempera- 
tures and heat transfer rates for larger scale fires is 
adequate. (Author) 

663. Zukoski EE and Kubota T 

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT 
TRANSFER FROM A BUOYANT GAS PLUME TO A 
HORIZONTAL CEILING. PART 2. EFFECTS OF CEIL- 
ING LAYER. California Inst Technol, Daniel and Florence 
Guggenheim Jet Prop Center, Pasadena, CA; NBS GCR- 
77-98, 78 pages, 10 figs, 4 tables, 1977 
Availability: NTIS 

This report contains the results of experiments carried 
out as part of a study of heat transfer to room ceilings 
under conditions similar to those encountered in the early 
stages of a room fire before the room becomes completely 
involved in flames. Part 1 of this study was concerned 
with heat transfer to a bare ceiling and scaling procedures 
were developed there which gave complete modeling rules 
for this example. The work reported here differs from 
this previous effort because side walls are used in the 
present experiments and they trap a thick layer of hot 
gas under the ceiling. This hot gas layer (the ceiling layer) 
will affect the temperature and momentum flux in the 
fire plume and hence the initial conditions for the ceiling 
jet formed by the impingement of the plume on the ceil- 
ing. It will also affect the temperature level in the ceiling 
jet, since hot gas rather than cool air will be entrained. 
This report presents data obtained with two configurations 
of side walls, an axisymmetric curtain wall and a model 
room with a single door opening. Temperature and heat 
transfer data are presented and certain elements of a scal- 
ing model are discussed. A complete scaling model is 
still being developed and will be the subject of a later 
report. (Author) 

664. McCafferey BJ and Rockett JA [Nat Bureau 
Standards, Washington, DC, Center for Fire Res] 
STATIC PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS OF ENCLOSURE 
FIRES 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Some enclosure-fire static pressure measurements are 
presented for both full and scale model rooms and are 
compared with the present hydraulics-orifice flow model 
for fire-induced flows into and out of enclosures. Results 
indicate that the vertical pressure differential (enclosure 
to ambient) follows the expected hydrostatic distribution 
quite well and accurately reflects the doorway inflow and 
outflow gas velocities. Measurement of ceiling and floor 
differential pressure using different numbers of gas bur- 
ners yields insight into gross plume entrainment and illus- 
trates how the neutral plane and thermal discontinuity 



vary with upper gas temperature. Correlating upper gas 
temperature with fire size and enclosure height makes 
it possible to predict at what heat release rate a given 
enclosure might become fully involved, ie, by using the 
temperature at which the thermal discontinuity approaches 
the floor. In terms of present fire plume modeling, large 
entrainment coefficients (0.3-0.4) are required in order to 
reproduce the enclosure flows for both the small- and 
large-scale results. A noted deficiency in the plume model 
appears in the small-scale results where the data suggest 
that the entrainment should exhibit a much s tr o ng e r de- 
pendence on the fuel injection rate than that predicted 
by the theory. 49 pages, 14 figs, 12 refs. (Author) 

d. INSTRUMENTATION, METHODOLOGY, AND 
DATA PROCESSING 

665. Benisek L and Phillips WA 
VARIABLES EN THE NBS SMOKE CHAMBER 

J Fire Flammability; 7(3):337-346, 1976 

Several commercial flame-resistant wool fabrics and car- 
pets, a Nomex carpet and a Cordelan fabric were evalu- 
ated by the NBS Smoke Chamber under smoldering, 
Flaming 1 conditions using a six-jet in-line burner and 
sample holder without a trough and Flaming 2 conditions 
— multi-directional burner and a specimen holder with 
a trough. Best reproducibility was observed for smoldering 
conditions. Flaming 2 conditions gave in most cases sig- 
nificantly less reproducible and higher smoke emission 
results than Flaming 1 conditions. Specimen weight loss 
under Flaming 1 conditions was higher than under Flaming 
2 conditions, indicating a higher heat flux for Flaming 
1. This is connected with the design of the two burners. 
As heat flux can significandy influence smoke emission, 
materials should be evaluated under constant heat flux 
conditions, regardless whether they melt or not, and 
preferably under various heat fluxes, thus simulating real 
life situations. 2 figs, 4 tables, 20 refs. (Author) 

666. Paulsen OR and Hadvig S [Tech Univ Denmark, 
Lyngby, Denmark, Lab of Heating and Air Conditioning] 
HEAT TRANSFER IN FIRE TEST FURNACES 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):423-442, 1977 

The tremendous expansion of the building industry has 
caused a severe pressure on the testing laboratories in 
many countries and also a considerable economic strain 
on the building industry. Are the tests performed in rather 
different test furnaces really comparable? Or is the result 
a combination of the thermal properties of furnace, heat- 
ing, and specimen? These and several other questions are 
being answered on the basis of a thermal calculation 
model, and they are being compared with measurements 
made in the fire test furnace in the Laboratory of Heating 
and Air Conditioning, Technical University of Denmark. 
Instructions are given on how to compare test results 
on the basis of data describing test furnaces. The effect 
of the measuring method on the results is also shown. 
9 figs, 26 refs. (Author) 



120 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

d. Instrumentation, Methodology, and Data Processing- 

667. Powell EA, Cassanova RA. Bankston CP and 
Zinn BT [Georgia Inst Technol (Atlanta) 

COMBUSTION-GENERATED SMOKE DIAGNOSTICS 

BY MEANS OF OPTICAL MEASUREMENT 

TECHNIQUES; Paper No. 76-67, 

AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 14 th; 1976, Jan, 

Washington, DC 

Sponsor: AIAA 

A new in situ optical technique using lasers has been 
developed for the simultaneous measurement of mean par- 
ticle diameter, refractive index, and volume concentration 
of aerosols. This technique uses the forward scattering 
ratio method to determine the average particle size cou- 
pled with transmission measurements at two wavelengths 
for refractive index determination. Volume concentration 
then is determined from one of the transmission measure- 
ments using the previously determined average size and 
refractive index. Good agreement is shown between parti- 
cle size data obtained with the optical system and data 
obtained with various sampling techniques for both DOP 
(dioctyl phthalate) and smoke aerosols. Refractive index 
and volume concentration data also are presented for both 
DOP and smoke. This technique currently is being used 
to determine the properties of smoke produced during 
building fires, but it can be adapted readily to other appli- 
cations involving aerosols and particulate formation in 
combustion systems. (Published in Progress in Astronau- 
tics and Aeronautics. Vol 53. Experimental Diagnostics 
in Gas Phase Combustion Systems, pp 449-463, published 
by the AIAA in 1977.) 15 pages, 6 figs, 12 refs. (Author) 

668. Alpert RL and Mathews MK 

DATA-ACQUISITION FOR THE HOME FTRE PROJECT. 
FULL-SCALE TEST PROGRAM. Factory Mutual Res 
Corp, Basic Res Dept, Norwood, MA; FMRC 22523-5, 
79 pages, 9 figs, 4 tables, 4 refs, Oct 1977 

The new data acquisition program (NUAID) has been 
written and extensively documented in this report in order 
to facilitate the acquisition and interpretation of fire test 
data by research scientists and engineers. Since large- 
scale fire tests are expensive, a program for data acquisi- 
tion by computer must insure that as much high-quality 
information as possible is obtained once the fire is ignited. 
Modern computer capabilities are fully utilized in the 
NUAID program to prevent loss of valuable experimental 
information. The following features have been incor- 
porated into the program: 1) when communication with 
the user during signal checkout and data acquisition is 
necessary, the program displays verbal descriptions of in- 
strumentation (type and location); 2) all signals are con- 
tinuously monitored before ignition to determine if signal 
magnitudes and noise levels conform to prescribed am- 
bient conditions; 3) the process of instrument check-out 
before an experiment is vastly simplified and partially 
automated; 4) the program causes the computer to operate 
relays which can be easily used to control clocks, 
cameras, sprinkler water flow or fire ignition, etc.; and 
5) the noise level of each signal is computed in addition 
to the mean value measurements. The narrative in this 
report is supplemented by flow charts of the program 
logic, tables of Fortran variables, and an annotated For- 
tran listing of the program. 



-Continued 

669. MinK 

CATALYTIC SENSOR FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF 
HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF SMOKE. Harvard Univ, Div 
Eng and Appl Phys, Cambridge, MA; Tech Rep No. 23, 
21 pages, 5 figs, 8 refs, Aug 1977 

The use of a catalytic sensor, in the form of a heated 
platinum wire, for the measurement of heat of combustion 
of fire-generated smoke was studied. Calibration of the 
sensor with several fuel gases indicates that the sensitivity 
of the sensor depends on the Lewis number of the fuel- 
air mixtures. The sensor responds to the particulates in 
smoke, although its sensitivity to the particulates has not 
yet been measured. (Author) 

670. Fitzgerald WE [Monsanto Co, St Louis, MO, Fire 
Safety Center] 

QUANTIFICATION OF FIRES 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

A room-sized calorimeter has been used to follow the 
kinetics of pre-flashover fires. The combustion process 
is described in terms of heat release, rate of heat release, 
mass loss, and rate of mass loss as a function of time. 
The chemical kinetics of the fire are followed from mea- 
surements of the rate of formation of common combustion 
products such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, 
nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and the rate of 
oxygen consumption. The calorimeter, which uses forced 
air ventilation, has been demonstrated to simulate a free 
convection fire with ventilation control for larger fires. 
Data and analysis is presented for the burning of a variety 
of common large ignition sources (wood cribs, 
wastebaskets, etc) and several home furnishing items. 40 
pages, 22 figs, 1 table, 13 refs. (Author) 

e. METEOROLOGY 

f. RADIATION 

g. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF 

MATERIALS 

[For literature on fire and flame retardants, fire and 
flame proofing, etc see Chemical Abstracts.] 

a. CHARACTERISTICS AND THERMAL 
BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 

671 . Barron S [State Univ New York, College at Buffalo, 
NY, Dept Chemistry] 

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF HIGH TEM- 
PERATURES UPON VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL 
POLYMERS 
J Fire Flammability; 7(3):387-400, 1976 

The degradation rates of industrial polymers are affected 
by various chemical reactions, rate of temperature 
changes, melt-flow characteristics, and surface-to- volume 
ratios. Data are presented on eleven samples of industrial 
polymers. 14 figs. (Author) 



121 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



672. Benisek L and Phillips WA [Internat Wool 
Secret ariat, Ilkley, UK, Tech Centre] 

THE EFFECT OF BACKING FIBRE AND LATEX TYPE 
ON THE BURNING BEHAVIOUR AND SMOKE EMIS- 
SION OF WOOL CARPETS FOR AmCRAFT INTERI- 
ORS 
J Fire Flammability; 8(4):516-530, 1977 

The smoke emission of wool carpets, as evaluated in 
the NBS Smoke Density Chamber, can be significantly 
affected by the backing fiber and latex composition. Un- 
treated cellulosic fibers as backing fibers for wool carpets 
show a lower smoke emission than when polyester, 
polypropylene, modacrylic and flame-resistant rayon are 
employed for the same purpose. Wool carpets containing 
latexes with organically bound chlorine (Neoprene, PVC, 
PVDC) produce considerably more smoke than a latex 
based on a co-polymer of vinyl acetate and ethylene con- 
taining alumina trihydrate as flame-retardant. This latex 
decreases in some cases the smoke emission of wool car- 
pets. Addition of alumina trihydrate to chlorine-containing 
latexes does not result in a "smoke suppressant effect," 
but smoke emission results may show a decrease due 
to the dilution of the chlorine-containing compound by 
this inorganic filler. Wool carpets with a cellulosic backing 
and the above mentioned flame-resistant, nonchlorine con- 
taining latex easily meet the severe FAA flammability 
and proposed smoke-emission standard for aircraft car- 
pets. 6 tables, 32 refs. (Author) 

673. Hilado CJ and Cumming HJ [Univ San Francisco, 
CA, Fire Safety Center] 

FLASH FD*E PROPENSITY OF MATERIAL 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):443-457, 1977 

Flash fire test results on 86 materials, evaluated using 
the USF flash fire screening test, are presented. The 
materials which appear least prone to flash fires are PVC, 
polyphenylene oxide and sulfide, and polyether and 
polyaryl sulfone; these did not produce flash fires under 
these particular test conditions. The principal value of 
these screening tests at the present time is in identifying 
materials which appear prone to flash fires, and in identi- 
fying which formulations of a generic material are more 
or less prone to flash fires. (Author) 

674. Hognat J [Societe Nationale Industrielle 
AEROSPATIALE, Suresnes, France, Division Avions] 
FIRE RESPONSE AND FIRE RESISTANCE OF METAL- 
LIC AND NON-METALLIC MATERIALS 

J Fire Flammability, 8(4):506-515, 1977 

The fire response and fire resistance characteristics of 
two types of structural composites are described. The 
two types are based on carbon-epoxy resin and aluminum- 
based light alloy. 6 figs, 5 tables. (Author) 

675. Kourtides DA, Parker JA, Gilwee WJ, Jr, Lerner 
NR [Nat Aeron and Space Admin, Mqffett Field, CA, 
Ames Res Center], Hilado CJ, LaBossiere LA and Hsu 
MS 

FLAMMABDLITY CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT 

INTERIOR COMPOSITES 

J Fire Flammability; 7(3):401^26, 1976 

The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of 
two polymeric composites currently in use and seven 



others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels 
are described. The properties studied included: 1) oxygen 
index of the composite constituents; 2) fire containment 
capability of the composite; 3) smoke evolution from the 
composite; 4) thermogravimetric analysis; and 5) composi- 
tion of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance 
of foam-filled honeycomb laminated panels consisting of 
high-temperature laminating bismaleimide resins is com- 
pared with the performance of empty honeycomb 
laminated panels consisting of laminating epoxy of phenol- 
ic resins at similar densities. Processing parameters of 
one of the bismaleimide composites is detailed. 12 figs, 
10 tables, 19 refs. (Author) 

676. Medilek P, Rogge V and Wagiaki P 
[Gesamthochschule Wuppertal, FRG\ 

ASSESSMENT OF THE BURNING BEHAVIOR OF 
POLYESTER/COTTON BLENDS AND OF THE TEST 
METHODS 

Melliand Textilber; 58(l):59-63, 1977 (German) 

The burning behavior of textiles is at the present time 
an increasingly pressing problem which deserves particular 
attention, especially with regard to textile blends of natu- 
ral and synthetic fibers. Not many reports can be found 
to date in the literature on this subject. In the present 
paper data are compiled on the burning behavior of 
polyester/cotton blends, in varying proportions, with and 
without flame retardants. The data were obtained by vari- 
ous test methods (45°, vertical and oxygen index) and 
the methods were compared as to the information they 
yield concerning the influence of blending ratio on burning 
behavior. 3 figs, 5 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

677. Morewitz HA, Johnson RP and Nelson CT [Rockwell 
Internat, Canoga Park, CA, Atomics Internat Div] 
EXPERIMENTS ON SODRJM FIRES AND THEIR 
AEROSOLS 

Nucl Eng Des; 42(1): 123-135, 1977 

A number of new sodium fire and aerosol experiments 
were undertaken to provide data for LMFBR safety 
analyses: 1) Experiments on the burning of single drops 
of liquid sodium falling in air have been performed to 
aid in model development for sodium spray fire 'codes; 
2) the leakage of sodium oxide aerosols through a straight 
smooth capillary tube, representative of the maximum size 
of a hypothetical gas leak in the wall of the secondary 
containment of an LMFBR, has been studied. Even in 
those cases in which the capillary did not plug, % of 
the entering mass was of a respirable size as it emerged 
from the capillary. In addition, there were a number of 
conditions under which the capillary plugged; 3) Experi- 
ments on the behavior of high-temperature, high-concen- 
tration aerosols have shown a rapid depletion of the 
aerosol concentration in the first 6 sec following injection 
of =800 g/m 3 aerosols at =1000°C into a closed vessel. 
This depletion has been correlated with the early forma- 
tion of 100 to 200 micron agglomerates which fall out 
promptly. 22 figs, 5 tables, 13 refs. (Author) 

678. Hop T and Mackowski R 

FLAMMABHJTY OF POROUS THERMAL-INSULATION 
MATERIALS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR 
RANGE OF APPLICATION 

Zesz Nauk Politech Slask; (478):31-59, 1976 (Polish; En- 
glish and Russian Summaries) 



122 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



Title only available. 

679. Lawson JR 

AN EVALUATION OF FIRE PROPERTIES OF GENERIC 
GYPSUM BOARD PRODUCTS. Nat Bureau Standards, 
Inst Appl Technol, Center for Fire Res, Washington, DC; 
NBSIR 77-1265, 25 pages, 13 figs, 5 tables, 10 refs, Aug 
1977 
Availability: NTIS 

An evaluation of the fire properties of generic gypsum 
board products was made in order to obtain a better un- 
derstanding of the material's reaction to a fire environ- 
ment. These gypsum board products are typically used 
in wall and ceiling assemblies throughout the United 
States. Four small-scale fire test methods were used in 
the exmaination of the materials' fire properties. The tests 
conducted were for potential heat, ease of ignition by 
flame impingement, rate of heat release, and rate of flame 
spread. All of these properties are of major importance 
in the design of a building. They influence the potential 
rate of fire growth in a room. Standard fire test methods 
were used for the development of data on rate of flame 
spread and potential heat characteristics. The ease of igni- 
tion and rate of heat release characteristics were deter- 
mined by fire tests recently developed at the National 
Bureau of Standards. Test results showed that the poten- 
tial heat for the materials examined ranged from 510 J/g 
(220 Btu/lb) to 2670 J/g (1150 Btu/lb). The ignitability 
of the materials spanned from 42 to 171 seconds, while 
the peak heat release averages ranged from 2.5 to 4.8 
W/cm 2 on an unpiloted 4 W/cm 2 exposure and 3.9 to 
8.2 W/cm 2 on an unpiloted 6 W/cm 2 exposure. The flame 
spread index for the materials ranged from 8 to 38. 
(Author) 

680. Kanury AM 

BURNING OF LIQUID POOLS IN REDUCED GRAVITY. 

Univ Notre Dame, Dept Aerospace and Mech Eng, Notre 
Dame, IN; CR-135234, 140 pages, 11 figs, 1 table, 58 
refs, Jun 1977 

The existing literature on the combustion of liquid fuel 
pools is reviewed to identify the physical and chemical 
aspects which require an improved understanding. Among 
the pre-, trans- and post-ignition processes, a delineation 
is made of those which seem to uniquely benefit from 
studies in the essential environment offered by Space lab. 
Highlighting the role played by the gravitational constant, 
analytical and experimental justifications are developed 
for a Spacelab study of about a dozen different 
phenomena. The analytical justifications are based on 
hypotheses, models and dimensional analyses, whereas the 
experimental justifications are based on an examination 
of the range of gravity and gravity-dependent variables 
possible in the earth-based laboratories. Some preliminary 
expositions into the questions of feasibility of the 
proposed Spacelab experiment are also reported. To 
resolve some of these feasibility issues and to develop 
the experiment design for installation in the Spacelab are 
the immediate future steps. (Author) 



681. Nelson GL [General Electric Co, Pittsfield, MA, 
Plastics Business Div] 

PLASTICS FLAMMABIIJTY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The flammability of organic polymers is discussed in 
terms of materials, chemical mechanisms, and the meaning 
and relevance of the term "fire retardant!' 15 pages, 6 
figs, 8 tables, 9 refs. 

682. Rasbash DJ [Univ Edinburgh, UK, Dept Fire Saf 
Eng] 

RELEVANCE OF FDtE POINT THEORY TO THE AS- 
SESSMENT OF FDtE BEHAVIOUR OF COMBUSTIBLE 
MATERIALS 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials Symp, Internal, Proc; 
1975, Oct, Edinburgh, Scotland, pages 169-178 

The fire point is the temperature of a material that 
allows a permanent flame to be established on the surface. 
The generalization of the simple theory of extinction of 
a fire by cooling the fuel leads to the following relation- 
ship: S e = (<*>H - A.f) [(h/c) In (1 + (AA/.H))] + K, - 
R,. It may be deduced that ignition by a pilot will not 
take place if either S c , the surplus heat that enters the 
fuel, is negative or the fraction of the heat of combustion 
transferred by convection from the flame to the surface 
is greater than a critical value <f>. The latter factor may 
be related to a critical temperature of the flames as put 
forward recently by AF Roberts. The significance of the 
terms of the above equation is examined in detail, and 
the relevance of the equation with regard to the fire 
behavior of materials explored. 13 refs. (Author) 

683. Tewarson A [Factory Mutual Res Corp, Norwood, 
MA] 

INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL HEAT FLUX ON 
POLYMER FLAMMABILITY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The flammability parameters for polymer samples as 
functions of externally applied heat flux and mass fraction 
of oxygen are presented. The parameters include ignitabili- 
ty, mass burning rate and heat release rate, generation 
rates of smoke and toxic compounds, and mass absor- 
bency index for smoke. The applicability of the flamma- 
bility parameters to evaluate the fire hazard of fairly large 
size polymer samples is discussed. 30 pages, 6 figs, 13 
tables, 14 refs. (Author) 

684. Miles L [Cotton Foundation] 

THE BURNING BEHAVIOR OF BORDERLINE FABRICS 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-2 1 , New Orleans, LA, pages 66-94 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

According to the flammability standard for general wear- 
ing apparel proposed in 1976 by the National Bureau of 
Standards, fabrics are classified either by their heat 
transfer rate (MAFT = Mushroom Apparel Flammability 
Test) values or by ignition time. Some research efforts 
have centered around "borderline" fabrics which fail to 
comply with the requirements for class 1 , the safest class 



123 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials — Continued 



of fabrics. A borderline fabric generates MAFT heat 
transfer rate values on both sides of the class 1 critical 
value of 0.40 J/cm~ 2 /s _1 . The purpose of this paper was 
to examine a series of borderline fabrics, especially flame- 
retardant cottons. The test apparatuses selected for this 
purpose were the MAFT and AFMA (Apparel Fire Model- 
ing Apparatus). Apart from the heat data available from 
these two apparatuses, data concerning ignitabuity and 
extinguishability of borderline fabrics were also obtained. 
Lastly, a comparison of results from the MAFT and 
AFMA were made. (A discussion of the paper follows 
on pages 95-97.) 6 figs, 11 tables, 12 refs. 

b. COMBUSTION, EXPLOSION, AND 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS AND METHODS 

685. Loetter C and Schreiber B 

FLAMEPROOF FINISHING AND FLAMMABDLrrY 

TESTING OF TEXTILE FLOOR COVERINGS 

ChemiefasernlText Ind; 27/79(7):E115-El 16, 1977 (English) 

There has been an increase in discussion recently about 
the risk presented by textile floor coverings and the 
technical feasibility of flameproof finishing. Questions re- 
garding this problem have been raised by the end users 
and those responsible for the contract -carpeting sector, 
because of the increasing market for floor coverings. For 
this reason, there is an urgent demand for a flameproof 
finish and for a reliable test method for assessment of 
the fire risk. Reviewed in this article, therefore, are 
aspects of flame-retarding of carpets, flammability tests 
for floor coverings, the burning behavior of combustible 
materials at elevated temperatures, and testing of textile 
floor coverings under practical conditions. 

dL6. Roberson EC 

ASSESSING THE FLAMMABHJTY OF POLYMERIC 

MATERIALS BY MEANS OF THE TEMPERATURE 

INDEX 

Faserforsch Textiltech; 27(12):664-665, 1976 (German) 

Measurements of the oxygen index at various tempera- 
tures show that the index decreases with increasing tem- 
perature in a number of substances. All values above 
20.8 (the percentage of oxygen in the air) finally drop 
to this value. It is assumed that the temperature at which 
this value is reached (the so-called temperature index of 
the substance) is of greater importance than the oxygen 
index for determining the relative flammability of sub- 
stances with increasing fire exposure. In this paper a 
method and test apparatus for the study of the tempera- 
ture dependence of the oxygen index up to 400°C is 
described. 5 figs. (Author) 

687. Malhotra HL [Build Res Estab {UK), Fire Res Sta] 
THE PHILOSOPHY AND PRINCIPLES OF FIRE TESTS 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (17):24-31, 1977 

The different types of fire test are described and their 
suitability for providing information on the actual behavior 
of a material, product or system during one or more 
phases of the development of a fire is discussed. The 
practical applications for this information in the fire safety 
field, such as in regulations and codes, quality control 
and advertising are considered. 6 figs, 1 table. 



688. Hilado CJ and Cumming HJ [Univ San Francisco, 
CA, Fire Safety Center] 

THE HC VALUE: A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE 

FLAMMABnJTY OF MDCTURES OF COMBUSTmLE 

GASES 

Fire Technol; 13(3): 195-198, 1977 

Experimentally determined flammable limits have 
proven to be reliable for safety purposes. However, 
theoretical predictions are hampered by the absence of 
a universally accepted theory for the existence of funda- 
mental limits of flammability. Estimating flammable limits 
gets more difficult as the number of gases in the com- 
pound increases. This paper presents a method for esti- 
mating the flammability of mixtures of combustible gases, 
with limited evidence of experimental validation. The 
method employs the ratio of concentration of a particular 
material to its lower flammable limit, both in the same 
units, and designates this ratio as the HC value. 2 tables, 
3 refs. (NFPA) 

689. Anon 

TEXTILES AND FIRE PROBLEMS 

Laniera; 10(9):661 -662, 664-668, 1976 (Italian) 

Some European countries, as well as Canada and the 
USA, have various standards which govern the use of 
textile materials for covering the walls and ceilings of 
premises in industrial and nonindus trial buildings. The 
Italian legislation in this area specifies the use of textile 
materials in construction, as well as methods of fire test- 
ing them. The fire-spread capability and the fire behavior 
of textile materials are determined by two types of tests: 
methods using a small unshielded flame source which does 
not appreciably change the ambient temperature, and 
methods in which the radiation energy of a strong source 
remains unchanged during the entire test. These tests are 
carried out by different methods in the various countries. 
As a rule, the quantitative characteristics of the associated 
phenomena, such as smoke liberation, toxicity, etc, are 
determined along with the capability of spreading flame 
over the test specimen. (RZh) 

690. Corfield MC [Wica, Leeds, UK\ 

TTFCON *76: SPECIFY TO SATISFY. FLAMMABILITY 

Text Inst Ind; 15(1):16-19, 1977 

The incidence of carpets in fires and the manner in 
which they are involved is discussed in this paper. The 
type of fire testing that is relevant to the behavior of 
carpets in fires (ease of ignition, rate of burning, tendency 
to produce toxic products) is briefly outlined and standard 
UK tests currently in use are considered (hot metal nut 
test and radiant panel). Some comparative data using the 
standard tests are presented in a table showing flammabili- 
ty test results on various carpets and needlefelts, and 
the significance of setting of specifications in the light 
of fire testing is discussed. Reference is made to the 
current work of the relevant International Standardization 
Organization committee and the goals aimed at by the 
committee. (This paper was presented at Tifcon 76, the 
Textile Floor-Coverings Group Conference held in the UK 
on Oct 12-13, 1976.) 3 figs, 3 tables. 



124 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests And Methods — Continued 



691 . Durbetaki P 

EFFECTS OF IGNITION SOURCES AND FIRE RETAR- 
DANTS ON MATERIAL IGNITION. Georgia Inst Technol, 
School of Mech Eng, Fire Hazard and Combust Res Lab, 
Atlanta, GA; Quarterly Prog Rep No. 8, 19 pages, 7 figs, 
3 tables, 5 refs, Apr 1977 

Ignition studies on thermally thin fabrics and thermally 
thick materials (furniture, interior decorations, building 
materials) are being carried out with a combined experi- 
mental and analytical program in the Fire Hazard and 
Combustion Research Laboratory of the School of 
Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technolo- 
gy. The objectives of the current program are: 1) to study 
the effect of flame retardants on the preignition processes 
and the ignition time; 2) to study the ignition/destruction 
of unrestrained fabrics; 3) to investigate the effect of 
convective source type and size on the ignition time of 
materials; and 4) to modify and extend the modeling analy- 
sis for the prediction of ignition time. A polyester-cotton 
blend and a 100% cotton fabric have been selected for 
ignition studies. Each fabric will be provided with an ac- 
ceptable level of flame retardant treatment, untreated, and 
at an intermediate level of treatment. A microburner has 
been designed and built to be used with the Convective 
Ignition Time Apparatus (CTTA) both with the shutter 
system and a newly designed solenoid fuel valve system. 
Preliminary temperature and heat flux characterizations 
of the microburner have been carried out. (See also the 
following abstract.) (Author) 

692. Durbetaki P, Tincher WC, Chang H, Teague ML, 
Ndubi zu CC and Wolfe VL, Jr 

EFFECTS OF IGNITION SOURCES AND FTRE RETAR- 
DANTS ON MATERIAL IGNITION. Georgia Inst Technol, 
School Mech Eng, Fire Hazard and Combust Res Lab, 
Atlanta, GA; Quarterly Prog Rep No. 10, 26 pages, 4 
figs, 12 tables, 11 refs, Oct 1977 

Ignition studies on thermally thin fabrics and thermally 
thick materials (furniture, interior decorations, building 
materials) are being carried out with a combined experi- 
mental and analytical program in the Fire Hazard and 
Combustion Research Laboratory of the School of 
Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technolo- 
gy. The objectives of the current program are: 1) to study 
the effect of flame retardants on the preignition processes 
and the ignition time; 2) to study the ignition/destruction 
of unrestrained fabrics; 3) to investigate the effect of 
convective source type and size on the ignition time of 
materials; and 4) to modify and extend the modeling analy- 
sis for the prediction of ignition time. Fabrics have been 
chosen and flame retardant treatments and levels selected 
for the study of the effect of flame retardants on preigni- 
tion processes and ignition times. Treated fabrics with 
condensed phase active retardants were prepared in the 
pilot plant at the USDA Regional Laboratory in New 
Orleans and delivered. Thermophysical property measure- 
ments have been carried out on some of these materials. 
A polyester-cotton blend and a polyester fabric have been 
used to conduct ignition frequency measurements with 
the microburner. The modeling analysis on ignition of 
materials under forced convective heating and radiative 
hearing has been used to carry out numerical calculations 
with a thermally thin material. Pyrolyzate ignition time 
was found using the gas phase ignition criterion. (See 
also the preceding abstract.) (Author) 



693. Bhagat PM 

EFFECTS OF WATER ON WOOD CHARCOAL COM- 
BUSTION. Harvard Univ, Div Eng Appl Phys, Cambridge, 
MA; Tech Rep No. 22, 104 pages, 34 figs, 2 tables, 12 
refs, Aug 1977 

The effects of moisture on the combustion of wood 
charcoal, which is at equilibrium with ambient room condi- 
tions, are examined. The burning characteristics of wood 
charcoal under "dry"(ie, ambient humidity) conditions are 
determined and the chemical kinetic rate expression is 
obtained after accounting for modified transport charac- 
teristics through the ash layer which accumulates on the 
burning surface. Experiments have been conducted over 
a range of moisture and oxidizer (air) flow conditions. 
It is found that the application of a small amount of 
liquid water removes the ash layer and enhances the burn- 
ing. A model to modify the ash layer thickness with the 
application of water drops is developed. This model is 
used in the burning theory. Comparison of the experimen- 
tal and theoretical results indicates that the primary effect 
of adding liquid water drops is the reduction of the ash 
layer thickness and, if sufficient water is added, the even- 
tual quenching of the burning surface. Furthermore, a 
correlation between the grain structure and the burning 
characteristics is observed. (Author) 

694. Gluck DG, Hagan JR and Hipchen DE [Jim Walter 
Res Corp, St Petersburg, FL] 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF CELLULAR PLASTIC INSU- 
LATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Briefly reviewed are the test methods which have been 
used to measure the flammability characteristics of foam 
plastics, with emphasis on several large-scale test methods 
which have been developed in the last several years. The 
results of a comprehensive fire test program on certain 
foam plastic products, competitive insulation products, 
and other construction materials is discussed. This pro- 
gram has utilized the current state-of-the-art large-scale 
flammability tests and has also included full-scale building 
fire tests; details are described and motion pictures of 
each test are shown. The results provide considerable in- 
sight into the significance of certain test methods and 
the relative fire performance of various construction 
materials and their arrangement in actual buildings. 17 
pages. (Author) 

695. Hognat J [Central Res Div, Aviation Div, Paris, 
France] 

FLAMMABILITY AND FDtE RESISTANCE OF METAL- 
LIC AND NON-METALLIC MATERIALS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

There exist two large classes of tests for characterizing 
the behavior of materials in fires; they are: the flammabili- 
ty test (literally, tests of response to fire) and the fire 
resistance tests. In this study an attempt is made to show 
the domains of application of these tests and, above all, 
to demonstrate that organic materials behave in them in 
entirely different ways. For this purpose two structural 



125 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests And Methods — Continued 



composites, carbon-epoxy resin and a light alloy, are com- 
pared by means of these two types of tests. 14 pages, 
6 figs, 4 tables. (Author) 

696. Galil F [Monsanto Textiles Co, Decatur, AL] 
RELEVANCE IN SMALL SCALE APPAREL FLAMMA- 
BILITY TEST METHODS 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 98-130 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

The importance of relevance in small-scale apparel 
flammability test methods was discussed and stressed. 
Various techniques to determine the relevance of test 
methods were described. A specially selected set of 
fabrics with improved flame resistance which failed to 
satisfy the requirements of Class I of the proposed 
General Apparel Flammability Standard was tested by 
children's sleepwear test FF 5-74 by Monsanto's test 
method and the Oxygen Index of the fabrics was deter- 
mined. A-line dresses were made, tested on a flame re- 
sistant mannequin, and evaluated by Monsanto's 
techniques. Correlation, or lack of it, between various 
test method results, on the one hand, and dress testing, 
on the other hand, was demonstrated. (A discussion of 
the paper follows on page 131.) 11 figs, 9 tables, 7 refs. 
(Author) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF 
MATERIALS 

697. Nat Materials Advisory Board 

FIRE SAFETY ASPECTS OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS. 
VOL 1. MATERIALS: STATE OF THE ART 

Nat Acad Sci, Washington, DC; 120 pages, 1977; NMAB 
318-1 

This is the first volume in a series. The fire safety 
aspects of polymeric materials are examined, with primary 
emphasis on human survival. Other volumes in the series 
deal with test methods, specifications and standards, spe- 
cial problems of smoke and toxicity, fire dynamics and 
scenarios, and applications to aircraft, buildings, vehicles, 
ships, mines and bunkers. An executive summary volume 
has been added to the series. In this volume the data 
is presented for polymers (natural and synthetic) in ac- 
cordance with their form or conditions of use, ie, fibers, 
foams, elastomers, plastics, fire retardant coatings. (See 
also the abstract for Vol 6 by consulting the Source Index 
under '"Books "in Vol. 2, No. 1/2 of FTA.) (Author) 

698. Trutt FC and Morley LA [Pennsylvania State Univ, 
University Park, PA] 

MATERIALS IN EXPLOSION-PROOF ENCLOSURES; 

Paper No. 12, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

It has been shown by researchers that explosion-proof 
enclosures designed according to present standards may 
still fail when an electrical fault arc is produced within 
the enclosure. Preliminary investigations into the causes 
of these failures have indicated that they may be due 
to the materials which are utilized within the enclosure. 



The investigation presented here was funded under USBM 
Grant G0155197 and summarizes possible failure modes 
of enclosures and their relationship to materials which 
may be present within the enclosure. Possible hazard ef- 
fects due to these materials and their volatilization 
products are discussed, and preliminary recommendations 
are made for reduction of this danger. 12 pages, 10 refs. 
(Author) 

699. Domingo DJ 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS IN SILOS AND FEED CONCEN- 
TRATE PLANTS 

ASELF, (58):43, 47, 1976 (Spanish) 

Despite the fact that the raw materials may be incom- 
bustible, they may form explosive mixtures in dispersed 
state in an air environment. The statistics of explosions 
and fires in feed concentrate plaints and silos in Spain 
show that despite preventive measures accidents continue 
to occur. Various studies, especially those carried out 
in the US, show that any powdery combustible material 
with particle size less than 200 microns can form an explo- 
sive mixture in air; the minimum ignition energy ranges 
from 10 to 1 mJoules, depending on the combustibility 
of the material. The nominal pressure in a closed area 
may be 10-300 kgs/cm 2 ; the maximum pressure gradient 
may be 10-300 kgs/cm 2 /sec. The fire-hazardous areas in 
feed concentrate plants are as follows: areas where 
products are ground to powder; pneumatic conveyors; 
elevators; empty metal containers; areas where the pow- 
dered products are dried and collected; and others. Among 
the possible ignition sources are static electricity, sparks 
from mechanical friction between working parts of 
machinery, open flame, and others. Rigorous observance 
of the existing electrical safety regulations, the installation 
of various partitions in enclosures, design and installation 
of ventilation systems, the installation of rupturable 
diaphragms in pneumatic pipe systems, and others are 
recommended as preventive measures. (RZH) 

700. White TM and Sutton AR [Central Electricity 
Generating Board, UK, Station Des Dept] 

NEW LIGHT ON CABLE FIRES 

Fire Prev; (120):25-28, 1977 

The occurrence of a runaway cable fire at La Spezda, 
Italy, first alerted power-station operators to the dramatic 
risks inherent in PVC cable installations. The amount of 
research and development triggered by that fire has been 
considerable throughout the world. This research and 
development has led to the production of new PVC com- 
pounds to reduce fire propagation and the emission of 
smoke and to the introduction of smoke control and the 
special methods of detecting and fighting cable fires. 5 
figs. 

701. Hinkey P [Fire Res Station, Boreharmvood, UK] 
FIRE HAZARDS OF LIGHTWEIGHT INSULATION 

Insulation (London); 20(6):15, 17, 1976 

The possible fire hazards arising from the use of newer 
types of lightweight insulation materials, such as fiber 
insulation board and plastics foam, in contrast to the 
older, noncombustible materials, such as mineral or glass 
fiber and aluminum foil, are identified. The influence of 
four different wall linings (dense noncombustible material 



126 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

such as brick, fiber insulating board with slim coat of 
plaster, hardboard with two coats of flat oil paint, and 
sprayed asbestos) or the time taken for a fire to reach 
the flashover stage are illustrated. The spread of flame 
over exposed surfaces of combustible materials, the per- 
formance of materials with applications and coatings, the 
melting of some thermoplastics, and other insulating 
problems are discussed in brief. 1 fig, 1 photo. 

702. Anon 

INSULATION AND FIRE: GUARDING AGAINST FIRE 
THREAT FROM INSULATION 

Insulation (London); 20(6): 13-14, 1976 

The increasing cost of energy has resulted in a growing 
interest in insulation, resulting, in some cases, in the use 
of insulating materials and in a design of their use which 
can increase the fire risk. The hazards of, especially, 
the more modem, noncombustible, plastic-based materials 
compared to the older noncombustible types (glass fiber, 
mineral wool, vermiculite) as well as the necessity, if 
the plastics materials are used, of convering them, eg, 
with plaster, are emphasized. Lagging materials for ther- 
mal insulation of pipes and facilities are also discussed, 
and it is recommended that if there is danger of con- 
tamination of the lagging by ofl or other flammable liquids, 
the lagging should be coated or covered to restrict the 
entry of oxygen. Information sheets produced by the Fire 
Protection Association (UK) on insulating materials for 
building projects are listed. 

70 3. An on 

EXPERIENCE WITH EXPLOSION SAFETY SYSTEMS 

Keiso; 20(l):49-52, 1977 (Japanese) 

Some explosion-hazard aspects of technological 
processes connected with the use of aerosols are analyzed. 
It is noted that many such processes, by their very nature, 
are difficult to provide with reliable automatic and other 
systems which would prevent and suppress explosions. 
The hazard of transporting particulate materials by air 
under pressure is particularly high when the material is 
put into a working tank without first removing the air. 
In this case the unoccupied volume of the container is 
usually filled with an aerosol that may be explosive. It 
is difficult to develop fully automated safety systems to 
reduce the explosion hazard of such technological 
processes. In the case considered above, a sufficiently 
reliable method of preventing explosion of the aerosol 
is to reduce the oxygen concentration to a safe level 
(inerting method) by introducing a desensitizing gas into 
the production apparatus. But the quantity of gas required 
and its rate of delivery depend on the following factors: 
the permissible concentrations of oxygen in the system, 
the gas leakage, atmospheric conditions, production condi- 
tions, the dimensions and configuration of the equipment, 
and others. Thus, the creation of all-purpose explosion- 
safety systems is almost impossible; the only thing feasible 
is the creation of narrowly specialized systems and 
devices designed for use in combination with specific 
types of production-line equipment under specific condi- 
tions, which is not economically possible. Examples are 
presented of such specialized devices and systems which 
it was justified to produce because they were designed 
for use in comtonation with large, high- throughput indus- 
trial facilities (the oil refining industry). It is pointed out 



that the prior addition of inert solids also makes it possible 
to prevent an explosion, but in some cases the quantity 
of solids to be added amounts to 70-90% of the total 
mass and volume of the mixture, making this method 
inefficient and unjustified. 7 figs, 7 tables, 3 refs. (RZh) 

704. Wakabayashi K 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION ENGINEERING 

Soda to Enso; 27(10): 327-350, 1976 (Japanese) 

Presented are the results of analytic studies based on 
the use of the methods of mathematical statistics and 
aimed at determining the conditions of NO2 gas explosivi- 
ty when used in the burners of various kinds of gas- 
fired boilers. The results of the analytic studies are 
generalized and, with some degree of accuracy, are ap- 
plied to all gases and gas-air mixtures used as energy 
carriers. In particular, the lower concentration limit of 
explosibility in % is to be calculated by the formula A 
= 100/5.12 (N-l) + 3.8, and the upper limit by the formu- 
la B = 400/5.12 N + 3.8, where N is the number of 
oxygen atoms required for complete combustion of one 
molecule of the fuel component of the mixture. 11 figs, 
12 tables, 12 refs. (RZh) 

705. Hughes RI, Morgan TDB and Wilson RW [Shell 
Research Ltd, UK, Thornton Research Centre] 

THE GENERATION OF PYROPHORIC MATERIAL IN 
THE CARGO TANKS OF CRUDE ODL TANKERS 

Tanker Bulker Internat; (7):33-37, 1976 

The work described in this paper was devoted to study- 
ing the conditions prevailing in the ullage regions of crude 
oil cargo tanks and the likelihood of their giving rise to 
the production of pyrophoric material that could present 
an ignition hazard. Since the incidents referred to involved 
Quatar crude oil, which is characterized by its high vapor 
pressure and its high hydrogen sulphide content (ullage 
gas can contain up to 5% hydrogen sulphide and more), 
attention is focused in the main on deposits and conditions 
applying to this particular crude ofl. It has not yet been 
possible to establish the unique factors that combined in 
these particular instances to activate this potential hazard, 
but this work serves to emphasize the relative ease with 
which pyrophoric material can form as a result of the 
interaction of hydrogen sulphide with rust in suitable 
form. (This paper was presented to the Institute of Marine 
Engineers, London, in April, 1976.) 3 figs, 3 tables. 

706. Benjamin LA [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, 
DC, Center for Fire Res] 

FTRE SAFETY OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN 
BUILDINGS — STATE OF THE ART 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Discussed in this paper are problems in the evaluation 
of fire safety of materials. Previous codes have postulated 
small-scale tests and other requirements which have 
limited validity in today's technology. Several of these 
test methods are discussed and their relationships to actual 
fires are shown. Some of the current test methods and 
new approaches to evaluating materials are discussed. 
(Only the abstract is included in this volume of 
Proceedings.) (Author) 

127 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 

707. Benjamin LA [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, 
DC, Center for Fire Res] 

FIRE SAFETY OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN 
BUILDINGS, STATE-OF-THE-ART 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

It is believed that there are five properties of materials 
that are pertinent to evaluation of the fire hazard of any 
material assembly: ease of ignition, rate of heat release, 
flame spread, smoke generation properties, and toxic gas 
properties. Since the fire safety of polymeric materials 
cannot be considered separately from materials in general, 
in this discussion an attempt is made to present the cur- 
rent status of the development of testing methods to eval- 
uate material fire properties. It is worth noting at this 
point that, after many years of discussion on fire safety, 
there now appears to be a rational, consistent effort under 
way to develop needed basic information on the fire 
behavior of materials. (This paper is followed by a written 
comment relating to the smoke testing and hazard analysis 
area.) 6 pages. 

708. Roux HJ [Armstrong Cork Co, Lancaster, PA] 
ACCOMMODATION OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS IN 
SYSTEMS APPROACH TO BUILDING FIRE SAFETY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The fire problem, when looked at from the broadest 
viewpoint, is not a materials problem. Materials of con- 
struction, including polymeric materials, are only one fac- 
tor in reaching any given fire safety objective. There are 
many other interrelated and interdependent factors which 
impact on reaching this objective. As can be seen from 
the decision tree, practically any material is acceptable, 
regardless of its contribution to a fire, provided the build- 
ing contains those other elements from the tree which 
will obtain the fire safety objective. That is one use of 
the tree — to show accommodation of polymeric materials 
in a systems approach to building fire safety. 6 pages, 
2 figs. (Author) 

d. NATURE OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

709. Takahashi S [Fire Res Inst Japan] 

THE STEAM GENERATED BY FIRE AND EXTINGUISH- 
MENT. PART I. THE STEAM FROM THE COM- 
BUSTION OF A CRIB AND FROM EXTINGUISHMENT 
BY WATER SPRAY 

Fire Res Inst Japan. Rep; (43):7-12, 1977 (Japanese; En- 
glish Summary and Captions) 

Although much attention has been paid to toxic gases, 
little has been paid to the water vapor generated by fire 
and extinguishment, which may cause hypoxia, heat bum 
and heat stress of residents and firemen. The aim of 
this paper is to determine the concentration and quantity 
of water liberated by the combustion of wood and 
evaporated by extinguishment. In the first step, the water 
in the combustion gas was measured using small wood 
cribs as a model. It is obvious that the water liberated 
depends on the initial water content; in addition, it 
becomes clear that the water liberated is not consistent 



throughout the combustion process, but generally exhibits 
a peak distribution in which the maximum concentration 
appears in the middle portion of the flammable com- 
bustion zone. The other tests consisted of application of 
a uniform fiat water spray on a burning crib in a model, 
concrete house, revealing a marked increase in concentra- 
tion, and it was found that there is an application rate 
at which the concentration becomes maximum. The gas 
temperature at the opening and 10 cm below the ceiling 
very nearly coincided after applying water, although they 
differed distinctly when no water was applied. Because 
these extinguishing tests are qualitative, numerical rela- 
tions will be obtained by additional model tests. The 
physiological effect based on these data will be examined 
in another study. 3 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

710. Bankston CP, Powell EA, Cassanova RA and Zinn 
BT [Georgia Inst Technol, Atlanta, GA, School of 
Aerospace Eng] 

DETAILED MEASUREMENTS OF THE PHYSICAL 
CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKE PARTICULATES 
GENERATED BY FLAMING MATERIALS 
J Fire Flammability; 8(4):395-411, 1977 

This paper describes results obtained 'a a series of 
small-scale tests investigating the properties of the com- 
bustion products generated during the burning of samples 
of wood, a rigid ure thane foam and a rigid PVC plastic 
under flaming conditions, in the ventilated Combustion 
Products Test Chamber at Georgia Tech. Smoke particle 
size distributions, average particle diameter, particulate 
mass concentration, and optical density measurements 
were taken utilizing sampling techniques and an in situ 
optical analysis sytem. Ventilation gas compositions were 
varied to simulate real-fire situations and results show 
that particulate characteristics are not significantly af- 
fected by changes in atmospheric composition for the 
materials tested. However, the measured properties of 
smoke particulates generated during flaming combustion 
were found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively dif- 
ferent from those observed under nonflaming conditions. 
Smoke particle sizes are generally smaller, and for wood 
and urethane, particulate mass concentrations are lower 
for flaming conditions when compared to nonflaming con- 
ditions. 15 figs, 10 refs. (Author) 

711. Benisek L and Phillips WA [Internal Wool 
Secretariat, Ilkley, UK, Tech Centre] 

THE EFFECT OF FLAME-RESIST TREATMENTS ON 

THE SMOKE EMISSION OF WOOL UPHOLSTERY 

FABRICS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):45&477, 1977 

The effects of various flame -retardants based on boron, 
phosphorus, chromium, titanium, zirconium and organo- 
halogen compounds on the smoke particulate emission of 
wool was studied in the NBS Smoke Density Chamber. 
In the case of fluorozirconates, the F/Zr ratio of the 
zirconium complex applied had a significant effect on the 
smoke emission of wool. At the optimum ratio of 2 to 
3 wool upholstery fabrics met the FAA flammability and 
proposed smoke-emission standard. The stringent require- 
ments could also be met when wool was treated with 
fluorotitanates in the presence of citric acid. Application 
of the metal complexes in the presence of the weaker 
formic acid produced less smoke under flaming conditions 



128 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
d. Nature of Combustion Products — Continued 

than when the stronger hydrochloric acid was present. 
The metal complex treatments decreased the smoke emis- 
sion of wool under smoldering conditions, indicating the 
dependence of smoke-particulate emission on the exposure 
mode, heat flux and the thermal stability of the fiber. 
The other flame-resist treatments evaluated significantly 
increased the smoke emission of wool under flaming con- 
ditions. With chlorendic acid and tetrabromophthalic an- 
hydride, the only flame-resist treatments evaluated acting 
in the vapor phase, the smoke emission of wool under 
smoldering conditions was also increased. 2 figs, 9 tables, 
45 refs. (Author) 

712. Buchler A and Hilado CJ [Univ San Francisco, CA, 
Fire Safety Center] 

THE PREDICTION OF TOXIC ATMOSPHERES FROM 
DECOMPOSING POLYMERS 

J Fire Flammability; 8(4):478-493, 1977 

The generation of carbon monoxide from polymethyl 
methacrylate and polyethylene, and of hydrogen chloride 
from polyvinyl chloride, was calculated. Calculations were 
made for various amounts of polymer evolving gaseous 
products into a 60 ft 3 compartment. 6 figs, 8 tables, 4 
refs. (Author) 

713. Quinn EJ and Dieck RL [Armstrong Cork Co, 
Lancaster, PA, Res and Dev Center] 

FLAME AND SMOKE PROPERTffiS OF THE 
POLYPHOSPHAZENES. PART 2. 1:1- 

POLY(ARYLOXYPHOSPHAZENE) COPOLYMERS 
J Fire Flammability; 7(3):358-367, 1976 

A series of l:l-poly(aryloxyphosphazene) copolymers, 
[NP(ORXOR')]„, were prepared and tested for their 
flammability and smoke-evolution properties using the ox- 
ygen index and NBS Smoke Density test procedures. It 
was found that the copolymers did not burn in air and 
evolved some smoke when exposed to a flame. Oxygen 
index values ranged from 23 to 34. NBS values, D m (coiT), 
varied from 104 to 270 for flaming exposure and from 
to 101 for nonflaming exposure. Samples exposed to 
nonflaming conditions had significantly lower smoke 
values than those exposed to an open flame. Generally, 
copolymers containing a para-substituted methoxyphenoxy 
group had lower oxygen index and NBS smoke values 
than the corresponding phenoxy-containing copolymers. 
Lowest smoke values were obtained with copolymers con- 
taining alkoxy substituents on both phenoxy rings. 3 ta- 
bles, 19 refs. (Author) 

714. Dieck RL and Quinn EJ [Armstrong Cork Co, 
Lancaster, PA , Res and Dev Center] 

FLAME AND SMOKE PROPERTffiS OF THE 
POLYPHOSPHAZENES. PART 4. EFFECTS OF 
COPOLYMER COMPOSITIONS 
J Fire Flammability; 8(4):41 2-422, 1977 

Two series of aryloxyphosphazene copolymer composi- 
tions were prepared with the general formulas 
[NP(OC«5H5) x (OCe5H4 4 OCH3)„L and [NP(OC«5H4 4 
isoCaH?) x (OCaH4 4 OCH 3 ) B ] n where x + y = 2,x and 
y «s2. Each of the polymers was tested as films for its 
flammability and smoke-generating potential using the Ox- 
ygen Index and NBS Smoke Density test procedures. 
These values were measured as a function of the methox- 



yphenoxy substituent present on the polymer backbone. 
The copolymers did not burn in air and most evolved 
little smoke when exposed to an open flame. Oxygen 
index values ranged from 23 to 34. NBS values, D m (corr), 
varied from 120 to 322 for flaming exposure and from 
to 204 for nonflaming conditions. It was observed that 
NBS smoke values decreased as the amount of methox- 
yphenoxy substituents was increased on the polymer 
backbone. A similar decrease was noted for 01 values. 
Both values were optimized at an x:y ratio of 1:3 to 
1:2. The methoxyphenoxy substituent appeared to con- 
tribute more to the flammability and smoke-evolution pro- 
perties than either the phenoxy or isopropylphenoxy 
groups present in the respective polymer series. 2 figs, 
3 tables, 15 refs. (Author) 

715. Napier DH [Imperial College, London, UK, Dept 
Chem Eng and Chem Technol] 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND THE GASES THEY 
PRODUCE 

Med Sci Law; 17(2):83-90, 1977 

In this review of hazards created by the combustion 
and decomposition of materials in fires (gases, oxides of 
carbon, and smoke), attention is drawn to some examples 
that illustrate the complexity of the problem. From the 
few cases considered (cellulose, polyvinyl chloride, phenol 
formaldehyde, and polyurethanes) it becomes clear that 
careful examination of materials that may be involved 
in fires is necessary, particularly those materials to which 
the general public may be in close proximity. The results 
of such examinations can be used to make a realistic 
estimate of the maximum credible accident in buildings, 
public and domestic, and warehouses where such materials 
may be used or stored. (This paper was presented at 
the meeting of the British Academy of Forensic Sciences 
held in London on 21-22 May, 1976.) 12 tables, 21 refs. 
(Author) 

716. Einsele U [Univ Stuttgart, FRG, Inst Textil- und 
Faserchemie] and Tarakcioglu I 

INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FOtE GASES OF VARIOUS 
TEXTILE FD3ERS 

Melliand Textilber; 58(l):52-59, 1977 (German) 

In an effort to determine whether certain materials in 
fires yield relatively greater or lesser quantities of fire 
gases, and more or less toxic, and whether these dif- 
ferences are sufficiently great to justify restriction of the 
use of certain materials only to certain applications, tests 
were carried out to determine the CO, CO2 and HCN 
content of the combustion gases of fibers of cotton, 
flame-retarded cotton, polyester, polyamide, wool, 
polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylchloride, and aromatic polya- 
mide. In general it was found that the overall pattern 
was quite uniform. Under certain combustion conditions, 
fibers containing nitrogen yield greater quantities of HCN, 
while fibers containing halogens, when they reach the 
decomposition temperature, regardless of any other fire 
conditions, always exhibit HQ in their fire gases. 15 figs, 
2 tables, 20 refs. 

717. Krahne B 

DECOMPOSITION OR COMBUSTION GASES AND 
SMOKE EVOLUTION OF TEXITLE RAW MATERIALS 
AND THEm FLAME RETARDANT MODOTCATIONS 

Melliand Textilber; 58(l):64-70, 1977 (German) 

129 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

d. Nature of Combustion Products — Continued 

In order to evaluate the toxic effect of gases generated 
during the thermal decomposition of high polymers, a^ 
distinction must be drawn between the volatile decomposi- 
tion products of combustion, ie, oxidation reactions, and 
the products of simple thermal decomposition (pyrolysis). 
In comparing the components of combustion gases of tex- 
tiles made of polyacrylonitrile, polyamide, polyester, cot- 
ton, and wool, ie, of synthetic and natural fibers, they 
are completely similar from a toxicologjcal viewpoint. 
Modifications of these fiber materials that have been made 
flame-resistant by the addition of retardants have thermal 
decomposition products different from those of un- 
modified types, principally because of the additional 
generation of pyrolysis products by the additives, which 
can be quite different, depending on the thermal decom- 
position conditions. Even knowing the nature and concen- 
tration of the individual toxicologjcal components of fire 
gases, their total effect on the human organism should 
be determined by animal experiments because of the 
danger of complex interaction of these components. In 
doing so, of course, the manifold aspects of thermal 
decomposition must be taken into account. 11 figs, 23 
refs. (Author) 

e. PROTECTION AND MODIFICATION OF 

MATERIALS 

718. Liepins R [Res Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, 
NC, Chem and life Sci Div, Polymer Res Lab] and Pearce 
EM 

CHEMISTRY AND TOXICITY OF FLAME RETAR- 
DANTS FOR PLASTICS 
Environ Health Perspect; 17:55-66, 1976 

An overview of commercially used flame retardants is 
given. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and 
the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame- 
retardant polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant 
growth rate for each major market is also projected. Tox- 
icity data are reviewed on only those compositions that 
are considered commercially significant today. This in- 
cludes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four 
inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies 
of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of 
recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been 
evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological 
problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame 
retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition 
products. 2 tables, 36 refs. (Author) 

719. Cukor P and Rubner M [GTE Labs, Inc, Waltham, 
MA] 

LIGHT STABILITY SCREENING TEST FOR FHtE RE- 
TARDED PLASTICS 

J Fire Retard Chem; 4(3):183-191, 1977 

The addition of fire retarding additives often drastically 
decreases the light stability of plastics. This is an impor- 
tant consideration for appliance housing such as TV 
cabinets. It is shown in this work that in the case of 
polystyrene and its copolymers containing SB2O3 and 
halogenated aromatic fire retardants, the light induced 
color change is initiated by absorption of UV radiation 
by the halogenated aromatic fire retardant. An accelerated 
test requiring 16 hours of test exposure to approximate 
one year sunlight exposure is described. The apparatus 



consists of a light source/filter combination which 
produces UV radiation similar in distribution but greater 
in intensity when compared to natural s unligh t; diffuse 
reflectance spectrophotometry is used to measure the ex- 
tent of discoloration. The ranking of commonly used TV 
cabinet materials by this test corresponded well to actual 
field experience. 6 figs, 1 table, 10 refs. (Author) 

720. Olmedo C 

CONCRETE COMPONENTS AND FIRE 

Mater Maquin y Metodos Constr, (137):778, 781-788, 791, 
1976 (Spanish) 

The 1968 Spanish building standards for the fire re- 
sistance of concrete components specify only the 
thickness of the reinforcing sheath. The FPF 1974 
technological standards, which are only recommendations, 
apply to reinforced concrete structures for buildings not 
higher than 20 stories. These standards contain require- 
ments on the fire endurance of building structures, size 
of compartments, recommendations for calculating the 
required fire-endurance thickness of structures for various 
materials of load and no nload -bearing walls, minimum 
thickness of cladding, a long list of structural components 
and their fire resistance, principal fire testing methods, 
a fire resistance classification for various structural com- 
ponents, such as columns, partitions, beams, girders, etc, 
and for each class the recommended structural dimen- 
sions. 4 figs, 6 tables, 2 photos. 

721. Sheratte MB 

FIRE RESISTANT FUNCTIONAL FLUID COMPOSI- 
TIONS 

US Patent No. 4,007,123; Q 252/78.5, (C10M 3/40), Appl 
15 Oct 1975, Disci. 8 Feb 1977, Assignee: McDonnell 
Douglas Corp, Long Beach, CA 

A functional fluid composition is disclosed consisting 
essentially of the following: 1) a phosphorus compound, 
preferably a phosphate ester containing at least two alkyl 
groups such as tributyl phosphate or di-n-butyl phenyl 
phosphate, alone or particularly in combination with a 
phosphate ester containing at least two aromatic groups, 
such as n-butyl diphenyl phosphate or tricresyl phosphate; 
2) a polyalkylene glycol material, eg, a polypropylene 
glycol ether having a molecular weight ranging from about 
600 to about 1200, and particularly a combination of at 
least two polyalkylene glycol materials, eg, two 
polypropylene glycol ethers having substantially different 
molecular weights; and 3) a small amount of certain 
halogenated organic selenides or tellurides, preferably a 
chlorinated aryl selenide such as 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl ttis- 
elenide, or a chlorinated selenophene or a chlorinated tel- 
lurophene, eg, tetrachloroselenophene or tetrachloroteflu- 
rophene. 25 claims, no drawing figs. (Author) 

722. Sheratte MB 

FTRE RESISTANT FUNCTIONAL FLUIDS 

US Patent No. 4,001,129; d 252/78.5, (C10M 3/40), Appl 
1 Nov 1974, Disci. 4 Jan 1977, Assignee: McDonnell 
Douglas Corp, Long Beach, CA 

The invention relates to a functional fluid composition 
consisting essentially of: 1) a phosphorus compound, 
preferably a phosphate ester containing at least two alkyl 
groups such as tributyl phosphate or di-n-butyl phenyl 



130 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

phosphate, alone or particularly in combination with a 
phosphate ester containing at least two aromatic groups, 
such as n-butyl diphenyl phosphate or tricresyl phosphate; 
2) a polypropylene glycol ether having a molecular weight 
ranging from about 600 to about 1200, and particularly 
a combination of at least two polyalkylene glycol materi- 
als, eg, two polypropylene glycol ethers having substan- 
tially different molecular weights; 3) a dicarboxylic acid 
ester, eg, a diester of adipic acid such as dlisodecyl 
adipate; and 4) a small amount of certain halogenated 
organic selenides or tell ur ides, preferably a chlorinated 
aryl selenide such as 4,4 , -dichlorodiphenyl diselenide, or 
a chlorinated selenophene, or a chlorinated tellurophene, 
eg, tetrachloroselenophene or tetrachlorotellurophene. 24 
claims, no drawing figs. (Author) 

723. Abelson PH [Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC] 
AN EDITOR LOOKS AT FIRE SAFETY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The background of the development, application, and 
banning of Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate as a fire 
retardant, especially for children's sleepwear, leads the 
author, editor of Science and president of the Carnegie 
Institution, to express concern about major governmental 
policy decisions based on poor or trivial factual informa- 
tion. Companies dealing in consumer products are advised 
of the possibility of sudden, well-publicized attacks if they 
have not established a secure knowledge base ahead of 
time. Studies should be conducted both internally and 
by outside laboratories and should be thoroughly and 
completely defensible. 7 pages. 

724. Frisch KC [Univ Detroit, Detroit, MI, Polymer Inst] 
FLAMMABDLITY ASPECTS OF FOAMS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div of Ind and Eng Chem 

In order to combat the relatively large amount of un- 
favorable publicity on the combustion, smoke and toxicity 
aspects of foams, especially compared to more conven- 
tional building materials such as wood, the flammability 
aspects of foams are reviewed in detail, particularly 
methods of flame retar dance in polymers, effect of ele- 
mental constituents, synergism, methods for incorporating 
flame retardants, approaches to lowering combustion in 
foams and effect of inert fillers. Government and code 
regulations concerning plastic foams are discussed in brief. 
26 pages, 2 figs, 2 tables, 67 refs. 

725. Hathaway CE and Early CL [Monsanto Co, St Louis, 
MO, Fire Safety Center] 

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FOR FD*E SAFETY — A 
CHALLENGE OF THE 80'S 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

An effort is made to address some of the newer 
problems of product development for fire safety in a free 
market whose freedom is reduced by federal safety regula- 
tions and the influence of the consumer advocate. Five 
suggestions are advanced to allow a high degree of fire 



safety while allowing greater predictability of future 
needs: 1) cooperation between all parties affected by regu- 
lations; 2) development of a consistent set of criteria for 
vehicle fire standards through consensus groups; 3) better 
definition of the specific life hazards from fires in vehi- 
cles; 4) a systematic workable method for handling 
risk/benefit decisions; and 5) more public representation 
in the safety decision process. 7 pages, 1 ref. 

726. Lewin M [Israel Fiber Inst, Jerusalem, Israel] 
STATUS OF FD3ER FLAMMABILITY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Flame retardancy of fiber and fiber assemblies presents 
specific problems distinctly different from those encoun- 
tered in other polymeric and building materials. A higher 
level of performance, high durability to a variety of chemi- 
cals and conditions, and more stringent tolerances are 
required from the textiles. On the other hand, flame-re- 
tarding fibers alone are not sufficient for human safety, 
and steps to ensure a fire-safe environment are mandato- 
ry. Existing systems and mechanisms for flame retardancy 
of fibers are reviewed and trends for future development 
are discussed, with special emphasis on the feasibility 
of fire-safe micro- and macro-environments. (Only the ab- 
stract is included in this volume of Proceedings.) (Author) 

727. Mark HF [Polytech Inst, New York, NY] 
COMBUSTION OF POLYMERS AND ITS RETARDA- 
TION 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

A brief description is given of polymer combustion and 
its combat, followed by a few remarks concerning the 
cooperation of the individual ingredients with each other 
and a certain attachment of the protective agents to the 
polymer itself. As a result of the general aspects of the 
introduction, the individual components of a flameproofing 
system are identified. The polymer properties involved 
in heating and combustion, such as the glass point, melting 
point, and decomposition temperatures, as well as the 
specific heats and heat conductivities, are discussed. 12 
pages, 12 tables. 

728. Trabold EL [Douglas Aircraft Co] 

FDtE RESISTANT ADtCRAFT SEAT MATERIALS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Described in this paper is Phase I of a " Study to 
Develop Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials," 
a program which is part of the overall FIREMEN program 
and represents a pioneer effort under NASA direction 
and financial support. The ultimate objective of this pro- 
gram is the development of a range of significantly superi- 
or aircraft seats in terms of increased fire resistance, 
reduced smoke, and reduced fire-induced toxicity in a 
fire threat environment. The Phase I test program to 
develop a material data base is outlined in detail, consist- 
ing of screening tests, performance tests, and advanced 
tests. The screening tests consist primarily of standard 



131 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 

tests which can be readily incorporated in producibility 
specifications required in later phases of the program. 
The performance tests are related to current aircraft seat 
performance criteria. Those materials which have success- 
fully passed screening tests are subjected to advance tests, 
including animal toxicity, heat release rate, and flash fire. 
Test results and future work are discussed. 17 pages, 
3 figs, 7 tables, 5 refs. 

729. Jonas RG [Celanese Corp, Narmco Materials, Inc, 
Costa Mesa, CA] 

NEW LOW FLAME SPREADING AND LOW SMOKE 
EMITTING PREPREGS 

Science of Advanced Materials and Process Eng Symp and 
Exhibition, Nat, 21st; 1976, Apr 6-8, Los Angeles, CA, 
pages 1015-1020 

New low flame spreading and low smoke emitting adhe- 
sive prepreg and prepreg materials have been developed. 
These new systems contain no halogens, antimony, or 
phosphorus-containing compounds. The prepregs cure at 
250°F and give good mechanical properties in both 
laminate and sandwich constructions. The materials handle 
like normally used prepregs and in addition have 15-30 
days outtime at 75°F with no significant change in han- 
dleability or bonded mechanical properties. Data are 
presented comparing these new prepregs to epoxy 
prepregs currently being used throughout the industry. 
(Published in Bicentennial of Materials Progress, Science 
of Advanced Materials and Process Eng Series, Vol 21.) 
1 fig, 1 table. (Author) 

730. Maccalous JW [Martin Marietta Corp, Material 
Nonmetals Lab, Denver, CO] 

COMPOSITE SPRAYABLE INSULATION FOR 
FIREWALL, PROJECTILE AND ACOUSTICAL PRO- 
TECTION 

Science of Advanced Materials and Process Eng Symp and 
Exhibition, Nat, 21st; 1976, Apr 6-8, Los Angeles, CA, 
pages 704-7 1 1 

Methods of combining a flame resistant insulative 
material (MA-25S) with lightweight foam materials and 
various backup media are discussed. A unique, inexpen- 
sive test facility for surface temperatures up to 2000°F 
is described. Specimen weights and back face temperature 
rise under various surface temperature environments are 
presented. (Published in Bicentennial of Materials 
Progress, Series of Advanced Materials and Process Eng. 
Series, Vol 21.) 11 figs, 1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

731. McCarter RJ [Nat Bureau Standards , Washington, 
DC, Center for Fire Res] 

SMOLDERING COMBUSTION OF COTTON AND 
RAYON 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 269-286 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

Smolder of cottons and rayons was found to be induced 
by adsorbed inorganic impurities, which may be largely 
removed by a water rinse. Compounds identified as 
promoting smolder included salts and hydroxides of 
monovalent metals, and salts of iron, chromium, and lead. 
These compounds were found to effect an increase in 
the yield and reactivity of char formed during the pyroly- 



sis of cellulosics. The actions of smolder inhibitors were 
investigated. Conventional inhibitors appeared to intervene 
chemically in oxidation reactions on char surfaces. Vari- 
ous compounds in powder form were found to suppress 
smolder and may indicate innovative possibilities. Data 
were obtained indicating that fire radicals may influence 
smolder kinetics and have a key role. (A discussion of 
the paper follows on pages 287-290.) 3 figs, 6 tables, 
19 refs. (Author) 

f. STABILITY OF MATERIALS AT ELEVATED 
TEMPERATURES 

732. Alvares NL [Stanford Res Inst, Menlo Park, CA] 
FHtE ENDURANCE OF SOLDERED COPPER SPRIN- 
KLER SYSTEMS. PART 1 

Fire Technol; 13(3):231-237, 1977 

A research program was undertaken to investigate the 
endurance of soldered copper sprinkler systems. While 
it was necessary to expose the copper systems to a severe 
environment, it was also important to provide manageable, 
economical, and reproducible experimental conditions. 
The suggested solution was to scale and model to a 
manageable size Test No. 19 as described in UL 199- 
1969, using a liquid fuel and established engineering 
techniques of the dynamic similarity of freely burning 
fire. This paper discusses the scale modeling criteria used 
for this test. (This paper was presented at the 79th Annual 
Meeting of the National Fire Protection Association, 
which was held in Chicago, Illinois, in May, 1975.) 3 
figs, 6 refs. 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 

a. FIELD EVALUATION 

733. Rosendahl W 

FD*E PROTECTION IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN 

HIGH-RACK WAREHOUSES 

Maschinenmarkt; 82(95): 1844-1 847, 1976 (German) 

A distinguishing feature of high-rack warehouses is the 
dense concentration of valuable items in a comparatively 
small space. According to statistical data, the number of 
fires in high-rack warehouses in 1971 amounted to 0.5%, 
but the losses they entailed amounted to 60% of the total 
losses. In view of this fact, the fire protection of such 
facilities is especially important. Experimental fire tests 
are cited to determine the rate of fire spread in high- 
rack warehouses and the effectiveness of the fire alarm 
and extinguishing systems installed in them. The fire tests 
were carried out in an industrial building measuring 8 
x 10 m in area and 17 m in height equipped as a high- 
rack warehouse. Textile goods were placed on racks up 
to the fifth level, empty corrugated cardboard boxes above 
this level. The warehouse was equipped with an automatic 
water fire extinguishing system with sprinklers opened at 
a temperature of 68°C. The sprinkler heads were dis- 
tributed in accordance with the existing standards for 
warehouses, taking into account the accumulated ex- 
perience. The fire tests confirmed the prior theoretical 
calculations. It was found that the automatic sprinkler 
fire extinguishing system was capable of reliably protect- 



132 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 

a. Field Evaluation — Continued 

ing high-rack warehouses. The necessity of providing 
high-rack warehouses with fire alarm systems using ioniza- 
tion and smoke detectors is stressed. (RZh) 

b. FIRE BEHAVIOR 

734. Land RI 

TEST BURNS OF MATTRESS AND BEDCLOTHES. Har- 
vard Univ, Div Appl Sci, Cambridge, MA; Tech Rep No. 
24, 27 pages, 1 1 figs, 6 refs, Aug 1977 

Six carefully observed burns of mattress foam with 
sheet and ticking are compared with other fire tests of 
similar material. In particular, comparison is made with 
early stages of the fires in the full-scale testing program. 
Effects of ambient moisture and the ignition technique 
are considered in detail. Although the burning process 
appears to be complicated, for more than 100 seconds 
both the pyrolysis rate and surface spread rate maintain 
constant exponential growth rates (doubling times). For 
the cases where the relative humidity is below 50%, a 
spherical segment model is offered. High relative humidity 
changes the character of the fire, greatly decreasing the 
spread and pyrolysis rate. (Author) 

c. FIRE TESTING OF COMPONENTS AND 

STRUCTURES 

735. Butcher EG, Parnell AC and Eastham G [Fire Check 
Consultants Ltd, London, UK] 

OFFICE BUILDING FERE INTENTIONALLY STARTED 
TO TEST PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM 

Fire Internal; 5(55):18-31, 1977 (English, French, German; 
Spanish Summary) 

This article is identical to the one published in Fire Eng 
J 36(103): 16-1 9, 1976 entitled "Smoke Control by Pres- 
surization." For a review of the article see abstract 1676 
in FT A 1(5), 1977. 4 figs, 1 table, 9 photos. 



736. Johnson RS [Owens-Illinois, Inc] 
CONTROLLING PLASTIC MATERIALS FIRES 
WAREHOUSES 

Fire J; 71(3):43^5, 125-126, 128, 1977 



IN 



A complete picture is given of fire tests involving 
storage of plastics commodities conducted by the Society 
of the Plastics Industry (SPI) to date. All of the tests 
were conducted at the Factory Mutual Test Center. The 
initial program was planned for high-density polyethylene 
bottles in cartons, with pallets stored 17 to 18 feet high, 
decreasing density curves being developed to simulate ac- 
tual sprinkler system outputs. Other tests were conducted 
on 16-oz polystyrene tubs in corrugated cartons, 4- to 
16-oz nested, expanded polystyrene cups in corrugated 
cartons, and nested, foamed polystyrene meat trays and 
berry baskets wrapped in polyethylene sheets, either pal- 
letized or bulk-stored. More testing is planned to enable 
the SPI to conclude its program and to present a broad- 
paced data compilation to the NFPA General Storage 
Plastic Committee to assist the Committee in its develop- 
ment of fire protection needs for stored plastics. (This 
paper is from an address presented by the author to the 
Eightieth NFPA Annual Meeting, held May 17-20, 1976, 
in Houston, Texas, and an FM technical report prepared 
for SPI.) 1 fig, 1 table. 



737. Habicht S and Schwarz M [Schueco, Heinz 
Schuermann GmbH u. Co, Bielefeld, FRG] 
FERE-RESISTANT CLOSURE DOORS: STRUCTURE 
AND FERE BEHAVIOR OF A FERE- AND SMOKE-RE- 
SISTANT DOOR 

Schott Inf, (4):21-25, 1976 (German) 

The structure of a fire- and smoke-resistant door for 
the protection of building evacuation routes such as stair- 
wells, emergency exits, and the like in case of fire is 
described and illustrated in detail. The results of fire tests 
on one configuration consisting of a frame and fire-re- 
sistant glass panes with special wall seals are given, 
revealing fire performance superior to traditional designs 
without glass. 6 figs. 

738. Kiefer W and Seidel H [Jenaer Glaswerk Schott u. 
Gen, Mainz, FRG] 

SPECIAL GLASS DM THE FERE TEST: FDRE BEHAVIOR 
OF BUELDING COMPONENTS WITH FIRE-RESISTANT 
GLASS SURFACES 
Schott Inf; (4):13-20, 1976 (German) 

According to the specifications of the new draft of Ger- 
man Industrial Standard DIN 4102, requirements are im- 
posed on building materials with regard to both fire-pro- 
tective properties and fire endurance limit of the com- 
ponent proper. The requirements and methods of testing 
and analyzing the results of testing glass surfaces of 
buildings and structures are described in detail for the 
various fire-resistance classes. Test schedules and 
methods are described, requirements being different for 
glass used for different purposes and location in the build- 
ing, eg, outer and inner walls, partitions, or load-bearing 
walls. Test methods and results are illustrated in a number 
of photographs and in a table. 12 figs, 1 table, 9 refs. 

739. Bendersky C 
FULL-SCALE FERE TEST FACILITY 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Standard NBS wood fire exposures using gasoline are 
simulated. The results show that ASTM E-119 can provide 
conclusions as to the fire safety of an enclosure which 
are contrary to reality during an actual fire. (Only the 
conclusions, Figs 6-9, and a photograph are included in 
this volume of Proceedings.) 5 figs, 1 photo. 

d. FIRE TESTING OF MATERIALS 

740. Nelson GL, Bridgman AL [General Electric Co, 
Pittsfield, MA, Plastics Bus Div], O'Connell WJJ and 
Williams JB 

FLAMMABEUTY, TOXICITY AND SMOKE 

Aircraft Eng; 49(4):4-6, 8-9, 1977 

The results of a series of large-scale fire tests of mock- 
ups simulating both railroad car and bus interior configura- 
tions to determine the performance of materials in real 
world environments with regard to flammability, toxicity 
and smoke are reported. It was found that surprisingly 
small amounts of poorly performing materials in head or 
arm rests or leg carpets can adversely affect system per- 
formance. The importance of large-scale or assembly test- 
ing is stressed. 2 tables. 

133 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 
d. Fire Testing of Materials — Continued 

741. Day M, Suprunchuk T and Wiles DM [Nat Res 
Council Canada] 

CARPET FLAMMABILITY: METHODS OF RETARDING 
A BURNING QUESTION 

Can Text J; 94(9):23-24, 26, 28-30, 1977 

A carpet flammability test cabinet has been developed 
by the National Research Council of Canada to determine 
the ignitability of a carpet under external heat flux condi- 
tions and the behavior of a carpet in a developing or 
developed building fire. The ignitability can be determined 
under a wide range of conditions by adjusting the voltage 
supplied to the heater. The burn rate or flame spread 
across a carpet can also be determined under a variety 
of heat flux conditions by measuring the time it takes 
for the flame front to pass a series of markers. The smoke 
evolved is determined by measuring the amount of light 
obscuration occurring during a test by a simple light 
source photoelectric detection setup. A thermocouple is 
also located in the smoke stack to measure the tempera- 
ture of the exit gases leaving the cabinet, to give an 
indication of the heat output of a burning carpet. Factors 
influencing carpet flammability, such as pile fiber type, 
pfle density and weight, carpet style, primary and seconda- 
ry backing materials, latex back-coating, dying and finish- 
ing are discussed in detail. 6 figs, 8 tables, 9 refs. 

742. Condit DA and Cianciolo AD [Olin Corp Res Center] 
EVALUATION OF RIGID URETHANE INSULATION 
FOR RESIDENTIAL APPLICATION BY COMPART- 
MENT CORNER FIRE TEST 

Fire J, 71(3):32-38, 102, 1977 

A matrix of eleven Compartment Corner Combustibility 
Tests was conducted in the Olin Fire Test Laboratory 
to evaluate the use of a Class I (ASTM E 84 Flame 
Spread less than 25) polyurethane spray foam in re- 
sidential applications. The constructions used were a stan- 
dard 2x4 studded wall, backed with 3/4-in. Plyscore. 
The insulations tested were: 1) none; 2) Class I polyu- 
rethane spray foam; and 3) fiberglass batting. Three dif- 
ferent interior facings were included: 1) nonrated finished 
plywood paneling; 2) gypsum wallboard; and 3) finished 
plywood paneling over gypsum wallboard. Temperature, 
photographic and visual observations were recorded. The 
results of these tests show that the polyurethane spray 
foam involvement was substantially delayed when pro- 
tected by gypsum wallboard and did not contribute signifi- 
cantly to temperature development. Firestops had a 
beneficial effect in the gypsum-faced polyurethane foam 
test. The data suggest that the polyurethane spray foam 
applied behind an adequate thermal barrier presents a 
hazard no greater than fiberglass or no insulation. A single 
probe-type experiment using rated plywood paneling 
showed a delay in the time to reach maximum temperature 
when compared to a nonrated plywood paneling. How- 
ever, maximum temperatures were comparable. 6 figs, 4 
tables, 1 ref. (Author) 

743. Florence DM [Armstrong Cork Co, Lancaster, PA] 
A NOVEL FIRE TEST FOR PIPE INSULATION 

Fire Technoi, 13(3):199-210, 1977 

In the United States, several different fire tests are 
used by various authorities to test the fire hazard of 
materials used as pipe insulation. Each of the procedures 

134 



tests the specimen in the form of a flat sheet; not one 
assesses the materials under simulated use conditions — 
on a pipe. This paper reports the development of a 
procedure that assesses insulation materials installed on 
pipe and tested in both vertical and horizontal attitudes. 
For the vertical test, the insulated pipe is placed in a 
noncombustible pipe chase. In the horizontal test, the in- 
sulated pipe penetrates a rated wall. (This paper was 
presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the National 
Fire Protection Association, which was held in Houston, 
Texas, in May, 1976.) 11 figs, 1 table. (NFPA) 

744. Weaver JW 

RATE OF BURNING OF APPAREL FABRICS 

Text Chem Color; 8(11):46-51, 1976 

A brief analytical analysis is made of US methods of 
flammability testing of fabrics (CS 191 and NFPA 702). 
The discrepancy between the results obtained by the dif- 
ferent researchers is pointed out, along with the results 
of determining the burning rate of 65 cotton and 58 non- 
cotton fabrics (rayon, linen, wool, acetate, polyester, 
nylon, cotton-polyester blend). The tests were carried out 
in rigorous conformity with the methods of CS 191 and 
NFPA 702. It was found that the burning time of a stan- 
dard specimen of all cotton fabrics, depending on the 
density of the fabric, fits a single curve which can be 
described by the parabola equation BT-2.52 W + 0.17 
W 2 for the CS 191 method and by the straight-line equa- 
tion BT = 1.88 W for the NFPA 702 method. The max- 
imum deviation from these lines did not exceed 10%. 
The range of BT values was 5-35 sec for the CS 191 
method and 5-15 sec for the NFPA 702 method, fabric 
density varying from 70 to 315 g/m 2 . Many fabrics ex- 
hibited anisotropic properties during burning. The burning 
rates of the rayon and linen fabrics were close to those 
of cotton. The wool fabrics were slow-burning (greater 
than 35 sec by the CS 191 method). Samples of blends 
of polyester and cotton fibers burned almost like cotton 
fibers, demonstrating anisotropic properties. Prior to the 
tests, all the specimens were washed at least once. 8 
figs, 3 tables, 11 refs. 

745. Lee TG 

REPRODUCTBBLITY OF THE RADIANT PANEL TEST 
METHOD (ASTM E 162-67) USING POLYURETHANE 
FOAM, NEOPRENE AND HARDBOARD SPECIMENS. 

Nat Bureau Standards, Center for Fire Res, Washington, 
DC; NBSD* 77-1222, 39 pages, 9 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs, 
Mar 1977 

Interlaboratory evaluation of the Radiant Panel Method 
(ASTM E 162-67) for flame spread testing of two flexible 
foam and one hardboard specimens was made. Results 
obtained by 13 laboratories based on 4 replicate tests 
showed that the between-lab coefficient of variation on 
the flame-spread index QJ was 21% for Hardboard A, 
35% for Urethane B and 45% for Neoprene C. The 
within-lab coefficient of variation for the Hardboard was 
9.9% . The higher variability of results for the foam materi- 
als was caused by the rapid melting of the Urethane B 
and unstable flame front of the Neoprene C specimens 
during the tests. An important source of error for some 
laboratories was in the determination of 6, the calibration 
constants, and the inappropriate use of base stack tem- 
perature correction. Statistics on the reproducibility of 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TESTING 
d. Fire Testing of Materials — Continued 

the flame-spread factor (F,), heat evolution (Q) and I, 
are also given. A new pilot burner and other modifications 
of the method were found useful. (Author) 

746. Moussa NA [Massachusetts Inst Technol, 
Cambridge, MA] 

CONCEPTS IN FIRE TESTING OF POLYMERS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Recent advances in fire research on polymeric materials 
have increased the awareness and understanding of the 
role of test conditions in the flammability behavior ob- 
served in each test. The major factors in the test condi- 
tions are discussed, including sample geometry, size, and 
orientation on the gravity field, ignition conditions and 
environment. It is shown that in some instances these 
effects may completely overshadow those of the chemical, 
physical, and thermal properties of the materials being 
tested. (Only the abstract is included in this volume of 
Proceedings.) (Author) 

747. Peterson JM and Anderson RA [Boeing Commercial 
Airplane Co, Seattle, WA] 

COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE CABIN INTERIORS FIRE 
SAFETY — MATERIALS AND FULL-SCALE TESTING 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The topic discussed here is the contribution of interior 
cabin furnishings to the hazard that exists in a fuselage 
fire and how the aircraft industry, the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Ad- 
ministration, and material suppliers are working toward 
reducing the contribution of interior furnishings to the 
fire threat. 42 pages, 20 figs, 4 tables. 

748. LeBlanc RB and DiCarlo JP [LeBlanc Res Corp, 
East Greenwich, RI\ 

TESTS FOR EASE OF EXTINGUISHMENT 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 39-61 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

Described is a project to study four small-scale test 
methods for ease of extinguishment and to correlate these 
test methods with the observed behavior of A-line dresses 
on child-size mannequins. Three fabrics were used in the 
study: cotton sheeting, 65/35 cotton/polyester sheeting, 
and 50/50 cotton/polyester sheeting. The four small-scale 
tests involved jarring, dropping, moving, and contacting 
the burning specimen. Results are presented in tables. 
Of the four test methods studied, the dropping of 
specimens shows the least promise. Moving of burning 
specimens (at 2 and 3 mhs) and contacting the burning 
specimens with a burning plate showed the best correla- 
tion with mannequin testing. There is a poor correlation 
between the results of Class 1 MAFT (Mushroom Apparel 
Flammability Test) testing and mannequin testing for these 
fabrics with respect to increased safety. (The paper is 
discussed on pages 62-65 of the Proceedings.) 3 figs, 12 
tables. 



e. MODELING AND SCALING 

749. Sato K [Fire Res Inst Japan] 

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE CONCENTRA- 
TION DISTRIBUTION OF A RADIAL WALL JET ON 
A HORIZONTAL PLANE 

Fire Res Inst Japan. Rep; (43):13-19, 1977 (Japanese; En- 
glish Summary and Captions) 

An experimental study was made using a hydrodynamic 
analog model to determine the distribution of concentra- 
tion of a gaseous wall jet, as produced by a downward 
vertical jet of flammable gas or vapor impinging on a 
ground surface. The flammable gases (or vapors) were 
simulated by an alkaline solution containing mainly sodium 
hydroxide and a phenol-phthalein dye. This solution was 
discharged downward through a glass nozzle immersed 
in a pool of dilute hydrochloric acid, the concentration 
of which was varied within a range of less than the normal 
fraction and added 20 ppm phenolphthalein. The concen- 
tration profiles for the discharged alkaline solution were 
determined quantitatively by tracing the envelopes of the 
red-colored clouds at various concentrations of the am- 
bient acid solution. An analysis of the experimental results 
shows that, with a steady-state radial wall jet on the 
horizontal plane, the concentration profiles in any vertical 
section including the jet (y-) axis may be approximated 
by those of a linearly diluted vertical flow from an image 
source displaced half the nozzle height from the jet axis, 
and therefore the time-average concentration at an arbitra- 
ry point can be expressed in terms of the initial concentra- 
tion, nozzle diameter, a constant dependent on the 
Reynolds number, and nozzle height. 9 figs, 1 table, 11 
refs. (Author) 

750. Massoudi MS [Arya-Mehr Univ Technol, Tehran, 
Iran, Dept Mech Eng] 

THE BURNING OF SOLID POLYMERIC MATERIALS 
IN A REACTTVE ENVIRONMENT. PART 1. WOOD 

/ Fire Flammability; 7(3):347-357, 1976 

A mathematical model has been developed to describe 
the combustion characteristics of polymeric particles and 
the theoretical results have been compared with experi- 
mental findings obtained using wood particles in a stirred 
reactor. The particles used were between .02 and .08 cm 
in diameter and the reaction temperature varied between 
400-800°C. The mathematical model incorporates pyroly- 
sis-gasification process of the fuel and subsequent com- 
bustion of the char and the produced gases. Different 
reactive environments have been studied, ie, air and moist 
air, to determine the effect of water vapor on the burning 
rate of fuel particles. The overall goal has been to in- 
vestigate the effect of important parameters such as en- 
vironment, temperature, particle size and suspension den- 
sity on the burning behavior of particles. 3 figs, 2 tables, 
16 refs. (Author) 

751 . Alpert RL 

PRESSURE MODELING OF FIRES CONTROLLED BY 
RADIATION. Factory Mutual Res Corp, Basic Res Dept, 
Norwood, MA; FMRC 22360-5, 34 pages, 6 figs, 1 table, 
11 refs, Dec 1976 

Pressure modeling involves the reduction of all length 
scales as the minus 2/3 power of ambient air pressure 



135 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
e. Modeling and Scaling — Continued 

in order to preserve gas phase dynamics and solid phase 
thermal response during a fire. This concept has been 
critically tested until now only for convection dominated 
fires. The burning rate and radiant output of large-scale 
PMMA (poly methyl methacrylate) wall and pool fires 
dominated by radiative heat transfer are compared with 
model results in the present study. At ambient pressures 
from 5 to 35 atmospheres, measurements with PMMA 
walls from 10 to 41 cm high clearly show that modeling 
of fuel mass flux variations and overall burning rate of 
full-scale PMMA walls up to 360 cm high is highly suc- 
cessful. It is found that while radiative fluxes from the 
fire to the environment are often not modeled for such 
large wall fires, the net radiative feedback from flames 
to the fuel surface is approximately modeled. The com- 
puted magnitude of surface reradiation and the computed 
variation of flame radiation with pressure explain the 
detailed behavior of the model burning rate relative to 
that at full scale. The degree of success observed here 
in modeling burning rates of PMMA pool fires up to 122 
cm across at 1 atm is shown to be entirely consistent 
with the wall fire results. While the detailed behavior 
of the model pool and wall fires may not precisely simu- 
late full-scale effects, the accuracy of overall predictions 
based on model results is still impressive. (Author) 

752. Cagliostro DE and Parker JA [Nat Aeron and Space 
Admin, Moffett Field, CA, Ames Res Center] 
DYNAMIC MODELING OF THERMAL AND GAS TOX- 
ICITY IN FERES 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

A physiochemical model is presented which predicts the 
air temperature and gas concentration changes expected 
to occur in a compartment of an aerospace vehicle as 
a result of an unwanted fire. The change in compartment 
air temperature can be predicted from the heat release 
rates of the burning materials and the net heat loss from 
the compartment. The changes in gas concentration within 
the compartment are predicted from the temperature-de- 
pendent chemical kinetics of the material pyrolysis and 
the net mass loss from the compartment. Parameters used 
to measure thermal effects were the time to reach and 
the duration of an average skin temperature of 45°C and 
a body enthalpy of 100-252 kcal, representing a pain and 
metabolic threshold. The parameters used to measure 
toxic gas effects were the time to reach and the duration 
of time exposed to harmful levels of gas concentration. 
Synergistic effects of gas mixtures or of exposure to com- 
bined thermal effects and toxic gas and smoke are not 
considered in the analysis. The analysis was applied to 
the case of a small fire in the electronics area of an 
aerospace vehicle. In this case a polyvinyl chloride electri- 
cal insulation decomposes, generating HC1 gas, which is 
released into the compartment. A parametric study is 
made of skin temperature and body enthalpy as a function 
of heat release, ventilation rates, and physical stress 
levels. The results of the analysis showed that ventilation 
at relatively low rates could effectively reduce thermal 
and toxic gas effects while stress could increase and pro- 
long thermal effects. Survival times were still affected, 
even when thermal effects were minimized by ventilation, 
because the test gas, HCR, is toxic at very low levels 
of concentration. The analysis also emphasized the need 

136 



to determine the heat and mass transfer characteristics 
of the specific compartment in which the fire occurs, 
as well as determining the fire properties. The compart- 
ment properties can be as important as the fire properties 
in determining the threat level of the fire. 28 pages, 10 
figs, 2 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

753. Levine RS [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, DC, 
Center for Fire Res] 
MATHEMATICAL FIRE MODELING 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

An effort is made to develop a theme of continuing 
evolution of the technique of fire protection. Starting from 
early considerations, tests and standards have been 
evolved which are embedded in legal codes. They are 
not always satisfactory, however, especially as impacted 
by new materials, and the possibility of mathematical 
modeling exists as a way to develop a new generation 
of tests, standards, and subsequently codes for unproved 
fire protection. Two general methods of carrying out 
mathematical fire modeling are currently being developed, 
one called thermodynamic control volumes. The other, 
involving solutions of the field equations, with appropriate 
turbulence and combustion models, is called the partial 
differential equation method. Some of the models being 
developed and their features are described. 31 pages, 23 
figs. 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

a. BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

754. Anon 

NEW METHODS OF FERE PROTECTION USED FOR 
CITY OFFICE BUILDINGS 

Fire Prev; (120):12-16, 1977 

Recently evolved methods of fire protection, water- 
cooled external steel structure and pressurized ventilation, 
are allied with traditional extinguishing and detection in- 
stallations in a new office building in London (UK). Each 
complements the other within an overall fire protection 
system in a way which could be adopted increasingly 
in the future. 2 figs, 8 photos. (Author) 

755. Hashizume H, Oguri M and Takei H 

RECENT TRENDS EV FERE SAFETY SYSTEMS FOR 
BUILDINGS 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):955-958, 1976 (Japanese) 

Title only available. (RZh) 

b. DETECTION AND ALARM 

756. Litton CD and Hertzberg M [US Bureau Mines, 
Pittsburgh Mining and Safety Res Center, Pittsburgh, PA] 
A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF IONIZATION SMOKE 
DETECTION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW SEN- 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

SOR FOR COMBUSTION-GENERATED SUBMICRON 

PARTICLES; Paper No. 26, 

Coal Mine Techno! Conf, WW, Third, Proc; 1976, 

Aug 4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

A new prototype ionization-attachment fire detector was 
developed by the Bureau of Mines for detecting com- 
bustion generated submicron particulates. It is much more 
sensitive than the conventional ionization smoke detector, 
and has the following added features: 1) a primary charg- 
ing current of unipolar air ions is generated by a radioac- 
tive center electrode of a cylindrical diode; 2) submicron 
particulates are flowed axially through the unipolar cloud, 
are charged, and collected at a third electrode which 
directly measures the concentration of particulates; 3) ad- 
ditional electrodes analyze the particulates to determine 
their size distribution; and 4) a filter and cyclone protect 
against ambient dust. An analysis of conventional ioniza- 
tion smoke detector performance is also presented in 
terms of source strength, chamber geometry and applied 
potential. (The full text is not included in this volume 
of Proceedings.) 1 page. (Author) 

757. Hori T 

WEAK-CURRENT CIRCUITS OF ELECTRICAL FACILI- 
TIES. CIRCUITS OF AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION 
AND ALARM SYSTEMS 

Densetsu Kogyo; 22(13):5-13, 1976 (Japanese) 

The electrical circuits and operating principle of several 
modern fire detection systems developed and mass 
produced in Japan are described. It is pointed out that 
Japanese industry has developed several new types of 
fire detectors distinguished by high sensitivity and opera- 
tional reliability. Most of these detectors work on the 
principle of using two nonlinear thermistors, open and 
insulated. When the temperature of the medium in which 
the detectors are placed rises slowly, the open and insu- 
lated thermistors heat up almost uniformly and the detec- 
tor operates as a threshold device. But when the tempera- 
ture increases or decreases rapidly, the open thermistor 
heats up faster because its response is faster by a factor 
of 8-15 than that of the insulated thermistor, and the 
detector acts as a differential device. The most sensitive 
detectors are capable of covering an area of up to 200 
m 2 ; those included in the circuits being considered here 
are designed to monitor an area of 30-40 m 2 . All the 
circuits are designed for a waterproof embodiment and 
for operation in ambient environments with a humidity 
of up to 98% and in a temperature range of —50 to 
+60°C. Data are presented on the power-supply sources 
with a voltage of +24 or +100V. The block diagram and 
operating principle of a PR-INK complex all-purpose fire 
alarm system designed for unlimited range of application 
are described in detail. 12 figs, 3 refs. (RZh) 

758. Ray B [Graviner Ltd and Wilkinson Match Ltd, UK, 
Res Div] 

FLAME SENSING WITH ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION 
DETECTORS 

Fire Prev Sci Technoi, (17): 17-23, 1977 

An outline is given of the problems of flame detection 
generally and options that exist for detection of flame 



in the ultraviolet region of the radiation spectrum. The 
spectral emission curves of several flames in the ul- 
traviolet are shown and comparisons are made with 
background radiations from the sun and from high tem- 
perature blackbodies. Flame detection against solar 
backgrounds is possible in the ultraviolet at wavelengths 
below 270 nm and in the infrared above 5 microns without 
the requirement for special signal processing techniques. 
Four ultraviolet detectors are identified: silicon 
photodiodes, other semi-conducting photosensors, gas 
photoionization devices, photoemissive devices. Of these, 
photoemissive devices are the most readily suited to flame 
detection against radiant background ambients. Gas-filled 
photoemissive devices are described and the signal am- 
plifications achievable of 10 12 mark them as very useful 
devices for detecting the low level signals occurring during 
the early stages of a fire. The techniques used in an 
operational fire detection system to achieve warning to 
a specified flame signal to a 0.995 level of confidence 
are discussed; such systems have a calculated mean time 
between false warnings to background of once in 100 
years. 8 figs. (Author) 

759. Kobayashi H 

INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE CONCENTRA- 
TION OF GASEOUS PRODUCTS 

Haikan Gijutsu; 18(10):166-168, 1976 (Japanese) 

The circuitry, design, and operating principle, as well 
as the basic technical parameters of an EC-231 portable 
gas analyzer for rapid determination and indication (dial 
scale) of the level of saturation of the air in premises 
with gaseous combustion products, especially CO and 
CO2, are described. The analyzer is based on the extrac- 
tion of air samples and passing the air through a liquid 
reagent with a uniform, predetermined dielectric permea- 
bility. When exposed to a gaseous combustion product, 
the dielectric characteristics of the reagent change, and 
the process is recorded by means of an electrostatic bridge 
circuit. When the balance of the circuit is upset, a signal 
with a range of 0-10 mV, proportional to gas saturation 
of the air, appears in one of the arms of the bridge 
circuit. The instrument is small in size (250 x 110 x 200 
mm) and low in weight (4 kg). It operates off a 220 
V, 50/60 Hz a-c network, or off a built-in nickel-cadmium 
battery which has a potential of 15 hours of continuous 
operation without recharging. 6 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

760. Onishi M, Iwata S, Hirasawa M and Morita M 
FTRE ALARM RADIO SYSTEM FOR AN UN- 
DERGROUND TOWN 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):981-994, 1976 (Japanese) 

Title only available. (RZh) 

761 . Toyoda T, Saito H and Matsumoto Y 
DEVELOPMENT OF A FKE ACCIDENT PREVENTION 
CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A SKYSCRAPER 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):959-964, 1976 (Japanese) 

A survey and brief analysis is made of Japanese 
achievements in the area of development of complex auto- 
matic and semi-automatic fire alarm and extinguishing 
systems for use in premises of highrise office buildings 
with a particularly high fire hazard. 

137 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

762. Tato H 

FIRE DETECTORS OF THE NSS SERIES 

Kuki Tyowa to Reito; 16(12):97-112, 115-123, 1976 
(Japanese) 

A description is given of the circuitry, design and 
operating principle, as well as the basic technical parame- 
ters, of mass-produced Japanese (Nittan Co) fire detectors 
and various temperature measuring devices of the NSS 
series, which are intended to be used either independently 
or as part of complex fire-safety systems. Described in 
particular is the sensitive component of a thermometer 
forming part of a fire safety system for use in conjunction 
with large industrial furnaces and other fire-hazardous 
equipment. The thermometer is designed to measure tem- 
peratures up to 750°C. The signal circuit resistance of 
the two models put out by Nittan are 100 and 50 Ohms, 
resp; the length of the sensor is 50 and 35 mm with 
a diameter of 1.5 and 1.6 mm, resp. A platimum helix 
is inserted in the ducts of a 2-channel ceramic tube. The 
location of the windings of the helix is fixed by a filler. 
The latter is chosen such that thermal expansion and con- 
traction cause only elastic deformation of the wires, while 
negative hysteresis effects are essentially nonexistent. In 
another planned design the sensitive component is made 
of a high-purity, annealed platinum wire. The wire is her- 
metically sealed in an unstressed state in an aliminum- 
oxide tube, so that the characteristics of the component 
remain stable even when exposed to shock and vibration. 
This component is recommended for use with equipment 
containing motors, rotating parts and other assemblies 
which cause vibration. 48 figs. (RZh) 

763. Ishikawa M 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM WITH IMPROVED FIRE DE- 
TECTORS 

Ohm: Denki Zasshi; 63(13):73-84, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design, circuitry and 
operating principle of several complex automatic fire 
alarm systems being mass-produced by Japanese industry 
for use in multi-story administrative and public buildings, 
as well as in industrial shops. A feature of these systems 
is the use of new improved types of fire detectors. Con- 
sidered in particular are the characteristics of thermal de- 
tectors, each using 5-20 sensitive components made in 
the form of nonlinear semiconductor thermistors. The 
range of actuation temperatures is 35-1 20°C, the guaran- 
teed accuracy being not less than ±3°C. Each detector 
and its set of sensors monitors an area of 200-8000 m 2 . 
Also described are light detectors which use highly sensi- 
tive universal photon counters with almost instantaneous 
response. These detectors are designed for operation 
within a broad range of ambient parameters: from —20 
to +50°C and a relative humidity of up to 90%. These 
detectors make it possible to monitor premises with an 
area of up to 800 m 2 . Also discussed are smoke detectors 
using photoelectric and ionization sensors, which also 
form a part of the fire detection systems considered here. 
16 figs, 5 tables. (RZh) 

764. Jihaime F de 

POWER SUPPLY OF A SAFETY SYSTEM 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(158):56-59, 1976 



A detector must recognize and report every abnormal 
situation; the control panel must process the information 
received; and the alarm system must alert all involved 
persons. The manner in which these functions are accom- 
plished is illustrated using four circuit diagrams, which 
show the various settings in a clear fashion. The author 
discusses these circuits in detail, explains them and their 
functions, capabilities, range of application and limits. The 
progress made by these new designs compared to earlier 
systems is shown in the summary, where the low power 
required from current suppliers is demonstrated. 4 figs. 
(Fachdok 13/0802) 

765. Anon 

ELECTRONIC DETECTION SYSTEMS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(1 59): 73-74, 1976 (French) 

Not only fire, but other hazards must be detected and 
reported, such as toxic gases, vapors, leaks, etc. Elec- 
tronic detectors of recent vintage largely meet these 
needs: they are simple, easy to maintain and repair, 
respond rapidly, and have been standardized. A diagram 
of the different systems is given. They offer simple han- 
dling, collection and analysis of the data, good control, 
general and special alarms. They can be applied at critical 
points and can also provide supplemental information if 
it is of some significance. These systems are suitable for 
large-area operation in plants, supermarkets and other 
large structures, as well as in smaller facilities and for 
dwellings. 3 figs. (Fachdok 13/0825) 

766. Anon 

NEW TECHNIQUES — POCKET EXPLOSIMETER 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(161):72, 1976 (French) 

The dimensions of the explosimeter are 170 x 80 x 
55 mm, its weight is 800 g. The device detects the 
presence of any gas or combustible vapor in the at- 
mospheric medium and indicates this presence by acoustic 
signals and light frequency, as well as by the color of 
the signal lamp, which changes as a function of the con- 
centration of these substances. The device has a three- 
level signal system: when the atmosphere is normal, the 
signal lamp is green, and an acoustic signal is emitted 
every 30 sec; when the atmosphere gives cause for alarm, 
the lamp turns green, and an acoustic signal is sounded 
every second; when the atmosphere is hazardous, the 
lamp turns red and 10 signals per second are sounded. 
Intermediate stages are regulated from 10 to 50% of the 
lower explosion limit, the hazardous atmosphere level 
from 40 to 80% of this limit. Two measurement scales 
can be used for the detection of two gases, or two groups 
of different gases, or one gas with two intervals. The 
explosimeter is supplied by six 1.5 V dry cells or by 
five 1.2 V nickel-cadmium batteries. The device operates 
in the dark and in a temperature range of —40 to +50°C. 
1 fig. (RZh) 

767. Barbier D, Landre J-C, Lanwick B and Poujois R 
DETECTOR OF ABNORMAL PHENOMENA 

French Patent No. 2,313,723; CI G08B 23/00, Appl 2 Jun 
1975, Disci. 4 Feb 77, Assignee: Commissariat a rEnergie 
Atomique and Compagnie Centrale Siclie, France 

The patent relates to a detector of abnormal phenomena 
designed to trigger an alarm in case of either fire or 



138 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

intrusion. The detector consists of a sensor capable of 
converting a physical variable representative of the 
phenomenon into an electrical signal. The output of the 
sensor is linked to one of the inputs of a comparator, 
whose output is connected to a delay circuit; the output 
of the delay circuit controls a signal generator whose out- 
put is connected to the other input of the comparator, 
the signal emitted by the comparator being representative 
of the variations in the time of the signal transmitted 
by the sensor. 15 claims, 9 drawing figs. 

768. Hugon M 
THERMAL FIRE DETECTOR 

French Patent No. 2,312,076; CI G08B 17/06, Appl 22 
May 1975, Disci. 21 Jan 1977, Assignee: Societe Gamma 
Electronic, France 

A patent is disclosed for a fire detector based on the 
use of a thermistor which records a rise in temperature. 
It can be used to detect any rise in temperature due 
to a fire. The invention consists of a thermistor connected 
in a low- voltage resistor circuit, a background noise 
memory circuit, a detection amplifier circuit, and an alarm 
visualization circuit. 11 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

769. Institut National des Radio-Elements, Belgium 
IONIC DETECTOR 

French Patent No. 2,317,653; CI G01N 27/62, 23/00; A62B 
39/02, Appl 27 Oct 1975, Disci. 11 Mar 1977, Priority: 
Belgium, No. PVO 0/158.234, 11 Jul 1975, Assignee: In- 
stitut National des Radio-Elements, National Instituut 
voor Radio-Elementen, Belgium 

This invention relates to an ionic detector which can 
operate at a relatively low voltage, eg, of the order of 
12 volts. For this purpose, the radioactive alpha source 
is applied in the measurement chamber to a flat surface 
of the chamber wall, the second electrode of this chamber 
having a perforated flat part parallel to this flat surface 
and a rod perpendicular to this flat surface and located 
on the other side of the flat perforated part relative to 
the flat surface. Such detectors are used primarily in fire 
detectors. 9 claims, 4 drawing figs. 

770. La Basse PJ 

ELECTRONIC DETECTION AND ALARM CENTER 

French Patent No. 2,315,732; CI G08B 1/08, 25/00, Appl 
23 Jun 1975, Disci. 25 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

This center consists of an electronic system for analyz- 
ing information coming from an internal network of con- 
ventional detectors to permit triggering of various kinds 
of alarms. The electronic system is characterized by a 
certain number of branch cards forming different kinds 
of analysis curcuits which can be connected to male 
couplers installed in a matrix card. Once the information 
has been analyzed by the appropriate circuit, a command 
pulse actuates the alarm system or systems. A metal wall 
box housing this system also contains a cadmium-nickel 
battery for power supply, an electric-contact lock for day 
and night service, a push-button for the suppression of 
certain electronic circuits, and a terminal board, a cable 
plug, to receive the information provided by the internal 
detectors. This electronic detection and alarm center can 
be used in industry to warn of defects in automatic 
machine tools, hydraulic or pneumatic machines, etc, as 
well as for fire protection. 9 claims, no drawing figs. 



771 . Le Guyader A 

MANUALLY CONTROLLED, SELF-CONTAINED 

ALARM DEVICE 

French Patent No. 2,316,673; CI G08B 17/02, Appl 30 
Jun 1975, Disci. 4 Mar 1977, Assignee: Precision Metallur- 
gique et Industrie He, France 

A patent is granted for a manually-controlled, self-con- 
tained, electric fire alarm comprising an acoustic alarm, 
distinctive in that a battery associated with a charging 
circuit supplies the alarm with power via the switch actu- 
ated by an electromagnetic relay, the control button ac- 
tuating another switch which can open a transistorized 
blocking circuit, a relaxation oscillator circuit being con- 
nected in the power-supply circuit of the electromagnetic 
relay. 10 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

772. Malinowski WJ and Doherty WF 
SMOKE DETECTOR 

French Patent No. 2,317,647; CI G01N 15/06; A62C 39/02; 
G08B 17/10, Appl 23 Jun 1976, Disci. 11 Mar 1977, Priori- 
ty: US, Appl No. 589,044, 23 Jun 1975, Assignee: Pyrotec- 
tor Inc, Hingham, MA, USA 

For an abstract of this invention see FRG patent No. 
2,628,146 in this issue oiFTA. 

773. Siemens AG 

FTRE DETECTION AND FIREFIGHTING INSTALLA- 
TION 

French Patent No. 2,313,091; CI A62C 37/00; G08B 29/00, 
Appl 25 May 1976, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, Priority: FRG, 
No. P 25 25 286.2, 6 Jun 1975, Assignee: Siemens AG, 
FRG 

A patent is disclosed for a fire detection and firefighting 
system, distinctive in that the various fire detectors are 
connected in parallel by rectifiers of one polarity and 
the firefighting installations are turned on in series, and 
in accordance with the series connection, in response to 
the parallel connection formed by a resistor, strongly 
ohmic, and a rectifier of polarity opposite to that of the 
preceding rectifiers. Also distinctive in this installation 
is that the fire detectors can be set in operation when 
the current flows in one direction, while the firefighting 
installations are set in operation by reversal of the current. 
5 claims, 2 drawing figs. 

774. Beyersdorf H 

FDtE DETECTION SYSTEM WITH DD7FERENTIAL 
MAXIMAL DETECTORS 

FRG Patent No. 2^33,870; CI G08B 17/06, Appl 29 Jul 
1975, Disci. 17 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor, Scharberetz, 
FRG 

The invention relates to a fire alarm system with dif- 
ferential maximal heat detectors connected in parallel 
between two conductors of a line communicating with 
a central station. The detectors have a heating element 
which varies in resistance as a function of the ambient 
temperature, preferably a hot conductor, a reference unit 
whose resistance, time-delayed relative to that of the heat- 
ing element, is variable in the sense of keeping the poten- 
tial at a switching point between the heating element and 
the reference unit constant, and a signal transmission cir- 
cuit connected to the switching point which generates an 
alarm signal to the central station when a threshold value 

139 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

of time increase in ambient temperature and a prescribed 
maximum value of the ambient temperature are reached. 
12 claims, 5 drawing figs. 

775. Dunbar RA 

MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SUPERVISION OF 
REMOTE UNITS 

FRG Patent No. 2^36,946; CI G08B 26/00, Appl 19 Aug 

1975, Disci. 3 Mar 1977, Assignee: Damon Corp, Needham 
Heights, MA, USA 

The invention relates to a supervisory system to collect 
information from remote sensing units such as smoke de- 
tectors, temperature-sensitive switches, and the like, in 
a central station. According to the invention, a supervisory 
and control station is provided to which square-wave pul- 
ses are transmitted to generate square-wave signals which 
appear progressively with double wavelength, each signal 
being transmitted over a separate signal transmission line. 
A number of remote units is connected in parallel to 
the central station via the signal transmission lines, a su- 
pervisory line and a control line. 16 claims, 7 drawing 
figs. 

776. Malinowski WJ, Pembroke fnu and Doherty WF 
SMOKE GAS INDICATOR 

FRG Patent No. 2,628,146; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 23 Jun 

1976, Disci. 20 Jan 1977, Priority: USA, Appl No. 589,044, 
23 Jun 1975, Assignee: Pyrotector, Inc, Hingham, MA, 
USA 

The invention relates to a smoke detector which triggers 
an alarm signal. The detector is equipped with a sensor 
to detect the rate of increase in the concentration of 
smoke. In one embodiment an alarm signal is emitted 
when this rate of radiation exceeds a predetermined level. 
In another embodiment means are provided for the initia- 
tion of an alarm signal when the smoke concentration 
exceeds a predetermined value and the signal of the 
rate-of -increase detector brings about an increase in sen- 
sitivity of the smoke detector so as to trigger an alarm 
at a lower smoke concentration. 15 claims, 9 drawing 
figs. 

777. Miyabe A 
ALARM SYSTEM 

FRG Patent No. 2,633,534; CI G08B 21/00, 17/00, Appl 
26 Jul 1976, Disci. 24 Feb 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 
50-90,057, 25 Jul 1975, Assignee: Hochiki Corp, Tokyo, 
Japan 

The alarm system consists of a detector which generates 
an electrical output signal when a physical variable, eg, 
the concentration of fire products, detected by it reaches 
a threshold value at which an alarm signal, eg, a fire 
alarm signal, is to be generated. The detector can be 
one accessible to combustion products, eg, an ionization 
chamber in series connection with a reference chamber 
not accessible to combustion products, or a photoelectric 
detector. 26 claims, 12 drawing figs. 

778. Podany VO and Costa HS 
SMOKE DETECTOR 

FRG Patent No. 2,632,876; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 21 Jul 
1976, Disci. 27 Jan 1977, Priority: US, Appl No. 597,949, 
21 Jul 1975, Assignee: General Signal Corp, Stamford, 
CT, USA 



The invention relates to a safety device, in particular 
a smoke detector, characterized by a light-emitting diode 
arranged in or on the outer wall of a housing, the diode 
radiating light in ambient smoke, a photodetector provided 
with a rectifier contact in the housing which, when the 
ambient medium is disturbed, picks up reflected 
disturbances, a threshold device in the form of a switch 
or the like which reacts to a signal delivered by the 
photodetector when the disturbance is reflected, and an 
alarm device series-connected behind the threshold device 
and actuated by it. 13 claims, 4 drawing figs. 

779. Redfern DL 

HEAT DETECTOR EQUIPMENT 

FRG Patent No. 2,635,640; CI G01K 7/22, 3/10; G08B 
17/00, Appl 7 Aug 1976, Disci. 3 Mar 1977, Priority: Aus- 
tralia, No. 2721-75, Assignee: Wormald Internat Ltd, New 
South Wales, Australia 

Heat detector equipment is disclosed for the automatic 
indication of the presence of abnormal thermal states, 
consisting of a housing, means within the housing which 
respond to temperature changes and generate an analog 
electrical signal, means for the electrical processing of 
this signal to trigger an alarm when the signal exceeds 
a nominal value or which, relative to its value or size, 
increases at a rate exceeding a nominal rate. According 
to the invention, the housing exhibits at least one ther- 
mally conductive zone, and an electrical component is 
disposed in an integrated circuit within the housing in 
such a way that heat transfer from the conductive zone 
is possible, the integrated-circuit component enclosing a 
heat-responsive semiconductor element which generates 
the analog signal indicating a change in temperature. 3 
claims, 3 drawing figs. 

780. Solomon EE 
IONIZATION DETECTOR 

FRG Patent No. 2,603,373; CI G01N 27/70; G08B 17/10, 
Appl 19 Jan 1976, Disci. 13 Jan 1977, Priority: USA, 
Appl. No. 593,704, Assignee: Gulf and Western Mfg Co, 
New York, NY 

The aim of this invention is to produce a safe and 
reliable device for the detection of combustion products 
and aerosols in a gas, usually the atmosphere, which is 
achieved by providing an arrangement forming at least 
one chamber with a device for sampling gases from out- 
side the chamber, at least one pair of spaced fixed elec- 
trodes in the chamber, a radioactive source device which 
is disposed in the chamber to build up an ionization cur- 
rent between the fixed electrodes, an electrode adjustably 
disposed in the chamber between the fixed electrodes that 
can be rotated to change the ionization current, and a 
device associated with one of the fixed electrodes to de- 
tect changes in the ionization current. Another aim of 
the invention is to produce an improved ionization detec- 
tor with a double chamber configuration, one of the cham- 
bers forming the basic sensing chamber, a connection ex- 
isting between the chambers so that slight environmental 
changes can be compensated. The sensing chamber com- 
municates preferably with both the secondary chamber 
and the atmosphere around the chamber arrangement. 19 
claims, 6 drawing figs. (See also a related patent by this 
inventor, US No. 4,007,374, abstracted in this issue 
of FTA.) 



140 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

781. Thilo P and Moser OW 

METHOD AND EQUIPMENT FOR TRANSMISSION OF 
CONTROL COMMANDS IN A FIRE PROTECTION 
SYSTEM 

FRG Patent No. 2,533,354; CI A62C 37/00; G08B 17/00, 
Appl 25 Jul 1975, Disci. 27 Jan 1977, Assignee: Siemens 
AG, Berlin and Munich, FRG 

A method is disclosed for the transmission of control 
commands in a fire protection system in which individual 
fire protection devices connected in common lines are 
controlled from a central station, novel in that only one 
fire protection device of a series is cut in to receive 
control signals in a certain time interval, the duration 
of receptability being determined by the operating time 
of a timing circuit, and novel in that in the control station 
the starting instant of the timing circuit is processed as 
the address of the fire protection device and, if required, 
can be used for the transmission of control signals to 
the series during the operating time of the pertinent timing 
circuit. The process continues successively to the remain- 
ing devices in the series. 16 claims, 5 drawing figs. 

782. Thilo P and Walter O 

METHOD AND EQUD7MENT FOR TRANSMISSION OF 
MEASURED VALUES IN A FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 

FRG Patent No. 2J33J30; CI G08B 17/00, Appl 25 Jul 
1975, Disci. 27 Jan 1977, Assignee: Siemens AG, Berlin 
and Munich, FRG 

A method is disclosed for the transmission of measured 
values in a fire alarm system whereby measured values 
determined by individual fire detectors connected parallel 
in detection strings are transmitted in analog fashion to 
a central processor and are combined in the processor 
to yield differentiated disturbance or alarm signals. Ac- 
cording to the method, all the detectors of one string 
are addressed cyclically, each detector being induced to 
transmit a current pulse of a length proportional to its 
sampled value (tat, taa, ..., tzj after a lead time (tit, 
tw, ..., tij) characteristic of that detector, and the address 
of the individual detectors is determined by measuring 
the lead time in the central processor and its measured 
value is determined by measuring the pulse amplitude. 
7 claims, 3 drawing figs. 

783. Wallace RA 

SAFETY WARNING DEVICE 

FRG Patent No. 2^29,058; CI A62B 23/02, Appl 30 Jun 
1975, Disci. 3 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor, Sanford, CA, 
USA 

The invention relates to a heat-responsive, electrical 
safety warning device which permits the detection and 
indication of the presence of a predetermined threshold 
of certain toxic gases and which can emit an acoustical 
or optical warning signal. The device can be used as an 
independent instrument in all kinds of chemical installa- 
tions and mines or in combination with chemical filter 
breathing apparatus. The device consists of a container, 
two electrodes suitably spaced, an electrically conductive 
medium between the electrodes, a chemical agent in the 
container which has a heat-transfer relationship with at 
least one of the electrodes, is exposed to the ambient 
atmosphere outside the container and is of such a com- 
position that it heats up when the threshold values of 



certain toxic gases are reached. In addition, it contains 
an inert film on at least one electrode in the area of 
the electrically conductive medium, forming a barrier layer 
between the electrode and the medium; the film has high 
electrical resistance and a melting point lower than the 
heating temperature reached in the container when the 
chemical agent reaches the threshold value of a certain 
toxic gas. Also contained in the system is a signal device, 
series-connected with the electrode, which emits a warning 
signal when the film melts and the electrical resistance 
drops. 13 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 

784. OtaM 

AUTOMATIC FHtE-PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR A 
MECHANIZED, MULTI-RACK WAREHOUSE 

Japanese Patent No. 51-36559; CI 95 B 262, (A62C 3/00), 
Appl 1 Jul 1971, Disci. 8 Oct 1976, Assignee: Nomi Bosai 
Kogyo KK, Japan 

A patent is disclosed for the design and operating princi- 
ple of a complex fire alarm and extinguishing system 
designed for use in modern mechanized multi-rack 
warehouses for materials and finished products. The 
system contains the following main components: a net- 
work set of sprinkler heads distributed over the warehouse 
compartments, a pipeline system through which the extin- 
guishing solution is supplied to the sprinkler heads; a 
water tank, automatically filled as required from mains; 
a small tank with foam-forming powder extinguishant; a 
mixer and proportioned water being mixed with the 
powder in the rear portion; a network of fire detectors 
distributed over the warehouse compartments; a central 
automatic control panel connected with the detectors by 
electrical wiring; an electronic logic element which 
processes signals from the detectors, decides on the out- 
break of a fire in a specific area of the warehouse, and 
generates fire alarm and control signals; a unit which trig- 
gers the electromechanical actuator to actuate the fire 
pump (the triggering unit is initiated by a control signal 
at its input); and a device for remote control of the valves 
on the piping system, automatically actuated by the same 
control signals, to supply the extinguishing solution to 
the fire sector and adjacent sectors. 5 drawing figs. (RZh) 

785. Dobrzanski J, Gardner EB and Hart EV 
SMOKE ALARM 

Swiss Patent No. 584,950; CI G08B 17/10; A62C 39/02, 
Appl 22 Oct 1975, Disci. 15 Feb 1977, Priority: USA, 
Pat No. 3,934,145, 20 Jan 1976, Assignee: Emhart Indus- 
tries, Inc, Farmington, CT 

For a review of this patent, see FT A 1(6), Abstract 2067. 
10 claims, 7 drawing figs. 

786. Matsubara H and Honda H 
IONIZATION FTRE DETECTOR 

Swiss Patent No. 585,940; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 6 May 
1975, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Priority: Japan, No. U/49-55037, 
16 May 1974, Assignee: Cerberus AG, Maennedorf, Swit- 
zerland 

An ionization fire detector is disclosed which is inserta- 
ble in a base and is provided with an ionization sensing 
chamber and a housing enclosing a reference ionization 
chamber and the components of an electrical circuit, 
distinctive in that the reference ionization chamber and 

141 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 
b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

some of the components of the circuit are assembled on 
a support plate in the housing on the side facing the 
base, the said components of the electric circuit being 
arrayed about the centrally positioned reference chamber, 
and also distinctive in that a protective cover made of 
insulating material which protects the reference chamber 
and components is arranged between the reference ioniza- 
tion chamber and the above-mentioned components, on 
the one hand, and the base, on the other hand. 6 claims, 
1 drawing fig. (Author) 

787. Miyamoto T 

ALARM CENTER WITH A NUMBER OF INPUTS FOR 
CONNECTION OF A NUMBER OF SETS OF FIRE DE- 
TECTORS 

Swiss Patent No. 585,447; CI G08B 26/00, 25/00, Appl 
25 Jun 1975, Disci. 28 Feb 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 
49-73619, 27 Jun 1975, Assignee: Nohmi Bosai Kogyo Co, 
Tokyo, Japan 

This invention relates to an alarm center with a number 
of inputs designed for connection of a number of sets 
of fire detectors, an alarm signal being transmitted to 
the input belonging to a set when one detector of a set 
is tripped. A particular feature of the system is that a 
monitoring device is provided which continuously scans 
the individual inputs of the sets (1 to N), that a counter 
synchronized with the monitor is included, that an electric 
gate circuit is included to interrupt the counting process 
as soon as the input of a set issues an alarm signal during 
the monitoring process, and that an indication array is 
provided to indicate the status of the counter when the 
counting process is interrupted, thus indicating the detec- 
tor set which has been actuated. 4 claims, 1 drawing 
fig. (Author) 

788. Newington TJ and Swangepoel LP 
FIRE ALARM 

Swiss Patent No. 585,446; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 19 Jul 
1974, Disci. 28 Feb 1977, Priority: South Africa, No. 
73/4995, 23 Jul 1973, Assignee: Anglo-American Corp of 
South Africa, Ltd, Johannesburg, South Africa 

A patent is disclosed for a fire alarm system with a 
fire detector whose two-chamber ionization chamber hous- 
ing has one potential and whose grids, arranged in the 
chambers on at least one insulating component, have a 
second potential, the fire detector being connected to an 
electric circuit. The invention is characterized by at least 
one electrically conductive unit which contactably sur- 
rounds the insulating component, the electrically conduc- 
tive unit being connected via a lead to the electrical circuit 
and the second potential to prevent leakage current from 
the grids across the insulating component to the housing 
of the chamber. 4 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

789. Richardson EG 

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO FIRE PROTEC- 
TION SYSTEMS 

UK Patent No. 1,465 J24; CI A5A 14H, (A62C 35/02), 
Appl 23 Jan 1974, Disci. 23 Feb 1977, Assignee: National 
Research Development Corp, London, UK 

This invention relates to improvements in fire protection 
systems and, in particular, to smoke detection and fire 
prevention systems. In general, but not exclusively, the 

142 



invention relates to a protection system for use in the 
simultaneous protection of several areas or locations, each 
containing or housing, for example, units or modules of 
data processing equipment. According to the invention, 
the system can be used to detect smoke from one or 
more of a number of locations and can subsequently 
release extinguishant into these locations. It includes a 
main tube in fluid connection between, on the one hand, 
a number of sensing tubes in a pre-arranged distribution 
network with the open ends of the tubes extending into 
the locations to be protected and the open end of each 
tube containing a nozzle to restrict and control the air 
flow through the network, and, on the other hand, a con- 
trol unit including a pump arranged to draw air through 
the tube network and the main tube, a smoke detector 
arranged to sample such air and provide warning of the 
presence of smoke in the sampled air and means operable 
to seal off the smoke detection capability and initiate 
the release of a suitable extinguishant through the same 
main tube and distribution network as that utilized for 
the detection operation of the system. 14 claims, 4 draw- 
ing figs. 

790. Dunphy MJ 

OPTICAL FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 4,003,039; CI 340/228 R, (G08B 21/00), 
Appl 19 Jul 1975, Disci. 11 Jan 1977, Assignee: Pyrotector, 
Inc, Hingham, MA 

This invention relates to a fire detection system of the 
type utilizing an optical detector with discriminating photo- 
cells connected in series to form a voltage divider, with 
the rise in voltage at the junction of the photo-cells being 
utilized as the input to an amplifier to energize an alarm 
or actuate an extinguishing system, in which the ground 
wire to the remote optical detectors is also used as the 
ground wire between the amplifier and the actuating 
means for the alarm or the extinguishing system, whereby 
a break in the ground wire, which causes a rise in voltage 
at the junction, is prevented from causing a false alarm, 
since said break also breaks the circuit between the ampli- 
fier and the actuating means. 4 claims, 1 drawing fig. 
(Author) 

791. Franks JL 

SMOKE DETECTING DEVICE 

US Patent No. 4,001,800; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 19 May 1975, Disci. 4 Jan 1977, Assignee: Gentex 
Co, Holland, MI 

A patent is disclosed for a smoke detector and alarm 
system incorporating means for detecting airborne parti- 
cles of smoke and activating an alarm for fire warning 
purposes, the system including an illuminating circuit hav- 
ing a light emitting diode therein, a smoke sensing and 
compensation circuit having a pair of photoelectric cells 
incorporated therein, a comparator and a trigger circuit, 
and an alarm circuit. 30 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 

792. Grossi B and Budrys I 
ALARM CONTROL SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 4,012,727; CI 340/213 R, (G08B 25/00), 
Appl 21 May 1975, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Assignee: General 
Signal Corp, Rochester, NY 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

A patent is disclosed for a flexible, expandable alarm 
control system in which varying combinations of func- 
tional circuit blocks or modules can be selected and con- 
nected in positions on a control panel by the customer 
or user of the system. Thus, the system can be modified 
to satisfy changing functional requirements by substitution 
of modules; furthermore, it can be expanded by adding 
functional modules to a given control panel or by extend- 
ing the system to auxiliary control cabinets in which more 
circuitry can be mounted. 14 claims, 18 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

793. Paige RC and Wright JB 

GAS DETECTING AND WARNING SYSTEM 

US Patent No. 4,007,456; Q 340/237 R, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 1 Dec 1975, Disci. 8 Feb 1977, Assignee: Craftor 
Inc, Albany, NY 

Disclosed is a new and improved gas detecting and 
warning system of the type employing a metal oxide 
semiconductor gas detector device and incorporating a 
quad comparator integrated circuit means having four in- 
dependent comparator sections. One of the sections is 
arranged with the gas detector device to provide a digital 
limit detector operative to produce an output and a warn- 
ing alarm whenever the voltage developed across a load 
resistance in series with the gas detector device exceeds 
a predetermined value. Another comparator section is ar- 
ranged with an R-C timing circuit to inhibit operation 
of the warning alarm for a predetermined time after 
system energization to prevent false alarms during the 
initial warmup of the gas detector device. The other two 
comparator sections are arranged to cause intermittent 
energization of the warning alarm if there is a failure 
or malfunction of the gas detector device and/or a failure 
of its associated components. 19 claims, 3 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

794. Solomon EE 

IONIZATION DETECTOR WITH IMPROVED RADIA- 
TION SOURCE 

US Patent No. 4,007,374; CI 250/384, (G01T 1/18), Appl 
11 Sep 1975, Disci. 8 Feb 1977, Assignee: Gulf and 
Western Mfg Co (Systems), New York, NY 

The detector comprises a chamber having at least one 
radiation source disposed therein. The chamber includes 
spaced collector plates which form a part of a detection 
circuit for sensing changes in the ionization current in 
the chamber. The radiation source in one embodiment 
is in the form of a wound wire or ribbon suitably sup- 
ported in the chamber and preferably a source of beta 
particles. The chamber may also include an adjustable 
electrode and the source may function as an adjustable 
current source by forming the wire or ribbon in an eliptical 
shape and rotating the structure. In another embodiment 
the source has a random shape and is homogeneously 
disposed in the chamber. 13 claims, 5 drawing figs. (See 
abstract 198 of Vol 2, No. 1/2 ofFTA for a related article.) 
(Author) 

795. Weaver S, Blackwell LL and Staby PA 
MULTI-ELEMENT IONIZATION CHAMBER 

US Patent No. 4,012,729; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 19 Jun 1975, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Assignee: Statitrol 
Corp, Lakewood, CO 



A fire alarm system utilizes an ionization type aerosol 
detector having first and second ionization regions or 
chambers, intercommunicating and electrically in series, 
irradiated by a particle source. Electrodes are provided 
which operate in conjunction with a DC voltage source 
to establish a relatively large voltage gradient across the 
first region and a relatively small voltage gradient in the 
second region. Also, the location of the ion source and 
the effective volumes of the regions are arranged to 
establish a comparatively high ion density in the first re- 
gion. In operation, the impedance or resistance of the 
first region to ion current flow is substantially unin- 
fluenced by the presence of combustion or smoke aerosols 
due to the relatively high field gradient, while the im- 
pedance or resistance of the second region is measurably 
changed thereby. The insensitivity of the first region to 
the presence of smoke is due to the high voltage gradient 
therein, as well as to the high ion density therein. The 
detector operates by the method of employing the second 
region as a signal or sensing ion chamber and the first 
region as a reference chamber, thereby to develop electri- 
cal signals on the electrodes representative of detected 
smoke aerosols for driving the associated fire alarm cir- 
cuitry. The ion collecting electrode in the second region 
defines a sensing volume which communicates with the 
surrounding atmosphere to be monitored and which is 
located at the optimum distance from the particle source 
to maximize ion production and collection. 16 claims, 11 
drawing figs. (Author) 

796. Webb W, Jr 

BATTERY-OPERATED FERE DETECTION UNIT 

US Patent No. 4,004,288; CI 340/237 S, (G08B 17/10), 
Appl 29 Jan 1975, Disci. 18 Jan 1977, Assignee: Unitec, 
Inc, Denver, CO 

A patent is disclosed for a battery-operated fire detec- 
tion unit that is capable of independent monitoring through 
sensing of smoke with the unit maintaining monitoring 
capabilities over long periods of time. A smoke detector 
senses the presence of smoke indicative of a fire and, 
when above a predetermined threshold, produces an elec- 
trical output signal that is coupled through latch circuitry 
and a logic gate to an audible alarm, such as a horn. 
An oscillator is also provided, the output of which is 
coupled through a differentiator to a logic gate, which 
gate also receives the output from the latch circuitry con- 
nected with the smoke detector. In the absence of a 
sensed fire condition, a light is periodically energized at 
a rate dependent upon the oscillator frequency to indicate 
that the system is operable, and the light is constantly 
energized to indicate the sensed presence of fire. An auto- 
matic battery or low-voltage monitoring circuit is also pro- 
vided to actuate the audible alarm when the sensed voltage 



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143 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

b. Detection and Alarm — Continued 

drops below a predetermined minimum to indicate the 
need for battery replacement. 11 claims, 5 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

797. Wise JW 

ALARM SYSTEM FOR COMBINED HAZARD DETEC- 
TIONS 

US Patent No. 4,001,819; CI 340/420, (G08B 19/00), Appl 

31 Jan 1975, Disci. 4 Jan 1977, Assignee: Wise Security 
Corp, Washington, DC 

A patent is disclosed for a combined intrusion detection 
and fire detection, or hazard detection, alarm system in- 
corporating, for example, a plurality of intrusion, or first 
hazard, detection loop circuits, all of controlled resistance, 
operatively associated to a regulated voltage source. In- 
tegrated circuit operational amplifiers are operatively as- 
sociated, or connected, with said detection loop circuits, 
or protective loops, as comparators to compare the voltage 
drop across said protective loops with reference voltages 
to provide sensing of variation in the voltage drop across 
the respective protective loop corresponding to a short 
or an open circuit condition having developed in the 
respective loop by detecting variance of the respective 
protective loop voltage drop relative to said reference volt- 
ages so that open and closed circuit detector devices may 
be and are connected within the same protective loop 
and mixed therein. Integrated circuit logic in this alarm 
system provides memory of the occurrences of security 
breaches, entry and exit delays, pulsating or steady alarm 
indication outputs to differentiate between hazard detec- 
tions, for example, fire breach of security, intrusion 
breach of security or fire and intrusion breaches of securi- 
ty, and enunciator indication of breach, or breaches, of 
security in any one protective zone or in any combination 
of a plurality of said protective zones. Security alarm 
is also provided to assure correct and proper operation 
of the system, and individual intrusion protective loops 
may be and are selectively disabled without disabling the 
fire protective loop associated with the same protective 
zone. A protective loop includes a fixed terminating re- 
sistance and a pair of wires between said terminating re- 
sistance and the pair of terminals thereof so that normally 
closed alarm detector devices may be and are wired in 
series with said terminating resistance and normally open 
detector devices may be and are wired in parallel with 
said terminating resistance with the same pair of wires. 

32 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 

c. EVACUATION MEANS AND ESCAPE 

SYSTEMS 

798. Haessler WM 

MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE DESIGN OF EMERGEN- 
CY EXIT REQUDtEMENTS 

Fire Eng; 130(9):36-39, 1977 

The factors influencing the design of emergency exit 
requirements under a 90-second time constraint (the time 
required by building occupants exposed to a fire environ- 
ment to evacuate to a safe area) are outlined. Required 
are flow data combining units of exit width, corridor width 
and orderly evacuation velocity to establish maximum 
travel distance limits. Flows of people for corridor widths 
of 4 and 6 feet, and per 22-inch unit of exit width, up 



and down stairs, are illustrated in charts and graphs. Ob- 
scuration by smoke, the effect of light scattering, and 
ideal directional assistance by lamp and public address 
system are considered. 4 figs. 

799. Dalhoff W, Knippertz HJ and Timmerberg CH 
NEW EMERGENCY ESCAPE GUIDANCE SYSTEM 

Fire Internal; 5(55):57-65, 1977 (English, French, German) 

Following a review of conventional guidance systems 
along escape routes, the statutory regulations governing 
such routes, and an examination of human behavior in 
actual fire situations, an escape system is described in 
which a series of visual signals in the form of a continuous 
chain of lights indicating the direction of the escape route 
supplemented by continuous directional "beeps" or pre- 
programmed spoken instructions is proposed. The 
complete system comprises a choice of power sources, 
system control units, route indicators, and fittings. Bat- 
tery-operated power supplies or power supplies separate 
from the control unit are needed. The control units and 
route indicators are described. The design and application 
of such emergency escape guidance systems are outlined, 
as is on-site testing of the new system. 4 photos, 16 
refs. (For a related article by these authors see the 
"Author Index" in this issue of FTA.) 

800. Yamamoto J, Akasawa K, Uneta T and Oguri M 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE GUIDANCE SYSTEM 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):971-976, 1976 (Japanese) 

An analysis of severe fires in multi-story and highrise 
buildings occurring in Japan in the period 1958-1975 has 
shown that spontaneous crowd flows in panic situations, 
especially in the first stage of fire outbreak and develop- 
ment before arrival of the firefighting units, are the deci- 
sive factor of an organizational nature that negatively in- 
fluence the process of occupant evacuation and fire sup- 
pression. In such cases especially rigid requirements must 
be imposed on the reliability and effectiveness of auto- 
matic evacuation control systems using acoustic signals 
(appropriate instructions, tape-recorded and broadcast 
through loudspeakers) and lighted signs. Such systems can 
be made effective and feasible by combining them with 
automatic fire alarm devices or systems, yielding minimum 
delay in triggering evacuation control systems, since the 
delay does not depend on subjective factors associated 
with the intervention of a human operator in the control 
system loop. A description is given of block diagrams, 
the design and operating principle of several such complex 
fire safety systems installed in multi-story buildings to 
perform the following functions: fire detection by means 
of a network of fire detectors (in the examples, photoelec- 
tric smoke detectors); initiation of an emergency optical 
and acoustic fire alarm loop; actuation of a self-contained 
sprinkler system; transmission of an alarm to the public 
fire service by telephone; automatic disconnection of 
fire-hazardous equipment; actuation of the emergency 
smoke-extraction system; triggering of the occupant 
evacuation control system, in particular, turning on the 
tape-recorded instructions and the luminous arrows and 
other signs distributed in rooms, corridors, and stairwells 
which, taken as a whole, should ensure the most rational 
sequence of action in evacuating occupants. The technical 
characteristics of these complex systems and their in- 
dividual assemblies are given. It is pointed out that the 



144 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems — Continued 

two most important parameters of occupant evacuation 
control systems are their operational reliability and the 
suitability of the lighted symbols. 10 figs, 1 table, 9 refs. 
(RZh) 

801. Dalhoff W, Knippertz HJ and Timmerberg CH 
ESCAPE GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR THE EVACUA- 
TION OF PEOPLE FROM BUILDINGS IN CASE OF 
DANGER 

VFDB Z; 26(2):46-51, 1977 (German; English and French 
Summaries) 

On the basis of the psychological behavior of humans 
in dangerous situations, eg, fire, bomb threats, terroristic 
actions, and hostage taking, escape guidance systems with 
optical and optical-acoustic operation designed for 
directional evacuation of humans from buildings are 
presented in part 2 of this 2-part article (for the review 
of part 1 see FTA 1(6), abstract 2277). The technological 
improvement of electronically controlled modular systems 
makes it possible to design not only acoustic alarm 
systems, but also "fluid" guidance systems and the neces- 
sary parallel- and series-connected safety illumination. A 
risk analysis using a checklist is recommended for 
planning and application of this new system. In the mean- 
time, the escape guidance system presented here has been 
introduced to a large number of interested specialists at 
the Klaus Esser KG, Co, 4040 Neuss 21 (FRG) in a 
test section installed under near-actual conditions with in- 
tense, blinding smoke. 7 figs, 16 refs. (For a related article 
by these authors see the "Author Index" in this issue 
of FTA.) (Author) 

802. Borthayre JL and Lantheaume M 

SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR RESCUE AND RAPID 
EVACUATION IN ANTICD?ATION OF FIRE 

French Patent No. 2,314,734; CI A62B 1/06, Appl 16 Jun 
1975, Disci. 18 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventors 

A third addition to the main patent is disclosed for 
a system of attachment and suspension of a click-winch 
for rescue purposes, immediately applicable without tools, 
to be used with all types and various arrangements of 
presently known windows or French windows and also 
to permit parallel attachment, on the same horizontal bar, 
of several click- winches for descent, thus making simul- 
taneous evacuation of several persons possible. The inven- 
tion is distinctive in that the horizontal bar of the second 
addition to the main invention is replaced by two struts 
braced to the upper and lower corners of the outer win- 
dow enclosure and converging either to a common point 
which they sustain, thus forming the point of the descent 
cable from the click-winch, or to a transverse horizontal 
bar to which several click-winches are or can be attached 
side by side for independent or simultaneous operation. 
The slope of the davit and, consequently, the projection 
required by the thickness of the walls and the possible 
presence of balconies, is determined by the adjustable 
length of the struts and the length of the cable fixed 
between the interior and exterior suspension bars. 7 
claims, 3 drawing figs. (See also French patents 2,312,265; 
2,316,975; and 2,313,950 abstracted in this issue of FTA.) 



803. Borthayre JL and Lantheaume M 

SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR RESCUE AND RAPID 
EVACUATION IN ANTKTPATION OF FTRE 

French Patent No. 2,312,265; CI A62B 1/06, Appl 28 May 

1975, Disci. 28 Jan 1977, Assignee: Inventors 

The invention relates to a davit for suspension of a 
rescue device and is an addition to the patent for an 
individual rescue apparatus. The davit can be fastened 
without delay above any window, even one not fitted 
in advance with hook-up devices provided in the main 
patent, for rapid evacuation of people in case of fire. 
It also consists of various structural modifications and 
modifications to the arrangement of the braking system 
which, by adding supplementary braking surfaces, make 
the system more effective and more flexible and ensure 
dispersion of the heat generated by friction. Supplementa- 
ry components can also be added to the system to permit 
simultaneous evacuation of several persons. 12 claims, 
2 drawing figs. (See also French patents 2,313,950; 
2,314,734; and 2,316,975 abstracted in this issue of FTA.) 

804. Borthayre JL and Lantheaume M 

SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR RESCUE AND RAPID 
EVACUATION IN ANTICIPATION OF FIRE 

French Patent No. 2,313,950; CI A62B 1/06, Appl 10 Jun 

1976, Disci. 11 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventors 

This invention is the second addition to the principal 
invention for an individual rescue apparatus and relates 
to a fixed davit for suspension of the rescue apparatus 
and a drum winch which displaces the point of suspension 
away from the building, thus providing a safety gap 
between the building wall and the person who is descend- 
ing. Another feature of the apparatus is that it is sufficient 
to set it crosswise and above the sills of open windows 
for it to remain solidly fixed solely by the weight of 
the person who is descending. This davit permits the use 
of the descent apparatus described in the main patent, 
as well as any other models of descending apparatus, 
winches or pulleys, without the use of prepositioned at- 
tachment devices, embedded brackets or hook, snaphook 
or rod attachments. 10 claims, 2 drawing figs. (See also 
French patents 2,312,265; 2,314,734; and 2,316,975 ab- 
stracted in this issue of FTA.) 

805. Borthayre JL and Lantheaume M 

SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR RESCUE AND RAPID 
EVACUATION IN ANTICIPATION OF FIRE 

French Patent No. 2,316,975; CI A62B 1/06, Appl 7 Jul 
1975, Disci. 11 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventors 

This patent represents the fourth addition to the main 
patent for a davit, winch and descent control mechanism 
for an individual rescue system which can be attached 
above a window, even one not previously provided with 
attachment devices, for the rapid evacuation of persons 
in case of fire. 10 claims, 6 drawing figs. (For related 
patents see also French patents 2,314,734; 2,313,950; and 
2,312,265 abstracted in this issue of FTA.) 

806. Hottelet M 

LINEAR BRAKE BY CONTROLLABLE AUTOMATIC 
CLAMPING 

French Patent No. 2,316,479; CI F16D 63/00; A62B 1/06; 
B66D 5/00, Appl 4 Jul 1975, Disci. 4 Mar 1977, Assignee: 
Inventor 

145 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems — Continued 

A patent is disclosed for a device which permits mea- 
surement of stress and strain and braking of linear velocity 
relative to a weight or pulling force by easy regulation. 
It consists of an axle of one piece with two wheel disks 
having sets of rollers and their locking mechanism, as 
well as a turning handle and its locking mechanism. A 
rope or some other line rolls up on the axle during opera- 
tion; the sets of rollers act as guides, as regulators, and 
as a control of the pitch required during pull for automatic 
braking relative to their number, obtained by means of 
the locking mechanisms. The invention can be used for 
rescue in case of fire, for physical culture, mountain 
climbing, etc. 3 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

807. Katsube A 
RESCUE SLEEVE 

French Patent No. 2,310,138; CI A62B 1/02, Appl 7 May 
1975, Disci. 7 Jan 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

This invention relates to a rescue sleeve, comprising 
a certain number of descending vertical passages, each 
consisting of a flexible tubular section and a backing and 
arranged inside any one of several columns vertically 
oriented for rescue operations, each pair of descending 
passages being contiguous and arranged at different levels 
in different columns. An opening between these passages 
permits endangered persons to move from an upper to 
a lower passage, at least one of the passages, in addition 
to the one above it, opening directly to the outside to 
permit endangered persons to enter it. The invention is 
intended for rescue from buildings. 5 claims, 6 drawing 
figs. 

808. Krankkunen KV 
RATE-OF-DESCENT CONTROL 

French Patent No. 2,315,287; CI A62B 1/12, Appl 27 Jun 
1975, Disci. 25 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A patent is disclosed for a device designed for lowering 
objects and people from great heights. It consists of a 
drum which rotates around a mechanism made up of two 
cylinders, the first filled with liquid, the second with gas, 
in such a way that rotation of the drum, brought about 
by the pull exerted on a cable wound around the drum, 
causes transfer of the liquid from the one cylinder to 
the other and compression of the gas in the latter, result- 
ing in progressive deceleration of the rate of descent. 
15 claims, 7 drawing figs. 

809. Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm 

DEVICE TO PREVENT INJURIES CAUSED BY THE 
FALL OF PERSONS SUSPENDED BY ROPES 

French Patent No. 2,312,269; CI A62B 35/00, 1/16, Appl 
21 May 1976, Disci. 28 Jan 1977, Priority: FRG, No. 
P25 24 012.4, 30 May 1975, Assignee: Messerschmitt-Boel- 
kow-Blohm GmbH, FRG 

The invention relates to a device for the prevention 
of injuries caused by falls, especially spinal column inju- 
ries to persons suspended by a rope, by means of com- 
bined seat and chest straps, such as those used by 
parachutists, mountain climbers, scaffold workers, et al. 
The device comprises an elastic element between the seat 
strap and the point of rope attachment which transmits 
the shock due to arrest of the fall from the seat strap 
to the chest strap so that the force exerted to the spinal 



columns by the shock becomes a tractive force instead 
of a compressive force. 

810. Borger M 

APPARATUS FOR THE RAPID EVACUATION OF 
BWLDINGS 

FRG Patent No. 2,621,135; CI A62B 1/20, Appl 13 May 
1976, Disci. 10 Feb 1977, Priority: Belgium, Conv Appl 
No. 832,076, 4 Aug 1975, Assignee: Inventor, Willebrock, 
Belgium 

An apparatus is disclosed for the rapid evacuation of 
buildings. According to the invention, it consists of a 
shaft spanning the entire height of the building with a 
spiral slide disposed in the shaft and an entrance tube 
on each floor, one end leading into the shaft and tangen- 
tially into a loop of the slide, the other end being con- 
nected with an adjacent floor of the building. 8 claims, 
6 drawing figs. 

81 1 . Fabrik Albert Boecker 

RESCUE CAGES ON THE OUTSIDE OF MULTI-STORY 
BUHJHNGS 

FRG Patent No. 2^31,228; CI A62B 1/02; B66B 9/00, 
Appl 12 Jul 1975, Disci. 3 Feb 1977, Assignee: Fa Albert 
Boecker, Werne, FRG 

The invention relates to two track-guided cages along 
the facades of buildings which descend alternately, 
without the application of power, solely by the force of 
gravity. While a cage which is fully loaded at the higher 
floor is guided to the ground and hydraulically braked, 
the empty cage is pulled upward from the ground floor 
by means of two connecting cables. After each floor is 
evacuated, the cage can be lowered to the next floor 
beneath it either by gravity or by means of a crank, 
thus successively evacuating all the floors by this principle 
using the shuttling action of the two cages. 4 claims, 
3 drawing figs. 

812. Matsumoto K 

DESCENT-CONTROLLED ESCAPE OR RESCUE AP- 
PARATUS 

FRG Patent No. 2^28,410; CI A62B 1/00, Appl 25 Jun 
1975, Disci. 13 Jan 1977, Assignee: Matsumoto Kiko Co, 
Ltd, Tokyo, Japan 

See the related US Pat No. 4,000,881 in this issue of FT A 
for an abstract of this patent. (Author) 

813. Okada S 
MECHANIZED RESCUE LADDER 

Japanese Patent No. 51-39798; CI 95 C 0, (A62B 3/00), 
Appl 13 Mar 1972, Disci. 29 Oct 1976, Assignee: Toyo 
Syatta KK, Japan 

A patent is disclosed for the design and operating princi- 
ple of a system for evacuating people from the windows 
of multi-story and highrise buildings in case of fire. The 
system consists of a set of rope ladders, normally folded 
on the roof of the building. When a fire breaks out, 
the retainer of the horizontal, roof -mounted metal axle 
on which the ladders are wound is released (the system 
is actuated manually by means of a remote-controlled 
lever). As a result, the ladders reel off the axle by 
suspended weights and take up a vertical position along 
the walls of the building in such a way as to facilitate 



146 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems — Continued 

access to the ladders from the windows. A roof-mounted 
electric motor, also actuated in case of fire, sets a system 
of blocks and tackles, rigidly connected to the rope lad- 
ders, in motion, thus moving the ladders, ensuring max- 
imum evacuation convenience and safety. Since each 
ladder forms a closed loop and is, therefore, "continuous," 
continuous ladder motion is ensured. The ladders can be 
interlinked and can be moved synchronously. In another 
embodiment only certain ladders can be set in motion. 
12 drawing figs. 

814. Banner PM 

BUILDING EMERGENCY EXIT MEANS 

US Patent No. 4,010,822; CI 182/18, (A62B 1/20), Appl 
20 Feb 1974, Disci. 8 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A patent is disclosed for a building emergency exit 
means mounted to a wall of a building, a modular enclo- 
sure of interlocking design comprising one-story units hav- 
ing a built-in emergency door, a ladder, a platform with 
a climb-through opening, an alarm system, lighting, ven- 
tilation and communications for all sizes of buildings. 11 
claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 



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815. Johnson PC 
EMERGENCY EXIT LATCH 

US Patent No. 4,003,047; CI 340/274 R, (G08B 13/08), 
Appl 21 Mar 1975, Disci. 11 Jan 1977, Assignee: Revere 
Copper and Brass, Inc, New York, NY 

An emergency exit latch is disclosed for locking and 
unlocking a portal such as a window or door and sending 
a signal to a remote point when the portal has been un- 
locked. The latch includes a latch operator which is 
rotatably mounted on the portal. The latch operator in- 
cludes a tang which is integral with the operator and 
performs a locking function by mating with means as- 



sociated with the frame when the latch operator is rotated 
into the locked position. When the operator is put in 
the locked position, the tang also actuates a switch. Thus, 
when the operator is rotated out of the locked position, 
the switch changes state and provides an indication that 
the door is no longer properly locked. In the preferred 
embodiment, the design of the exit latch is such that 
the switch will change state even before the window has 
become completely unlocked. 6 claims, 3 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




816. Matsumoto K 

SLOWDOWN ESCAPING APPARATUS (DESCENT CON- 
TROL) 

US Patent No. 4,000,881; CI 254/157, (B66D 5/04), Appl 
19 Jun 1975, Disci. 4 Jan 1977, Assignee: Matsumoto Kiko 
Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan 

The invention relates to an apparatus which may be 
preliminarily attached to the outside elevated place of a 
hotel, department store or any other building or structure, 




147 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

c. Evacuation Means and Escape Systems — Continued 



whereby in case of an emergency such as a fire or 
earthquake a person suitably attaches his or her body 
to a rope and descends to escape to a safe place. A 
novel feature of the apparatus is that in the housing of 
the apparatus containing a braking mechanism, a rotational 
motion transmission mechanism and a rope-carrying 
grooved pulley, the braking mechanism includes a brake 
disk having a special shape and a plurality of brake shoes 
so that a positive braking action is ensured when the 
brake disk is rotated in either the forward direction or 
the reverse direction, that a partition plate is mounted 
to divide the housing into two chambers, one containing 
the braking mechanism and the other containing the rota- 
tional motion transmission mechanism, so as to prevent 
any dust from entering into the former chamber from 
the latter, and that means for removing the loop of a 
rope is provided in the chamber containing the grooved 
pulley. 2 claims, 11 drawing figs. (Author) 



817. Zephinie G 
RESCUE APPARATUS 

US Patent No. 4,005,762; CI 182/48, (A62B 1/20), Appl 
2 Jul 1975, Disci. 1 Feb 1977, Priority: France, No. 
74.20410, 5 Jun 1974, Assignee: Societe Soberal SA, Lux- 
embourg, Luxembourg 

This invention, which relates to a rescue apparatus for 
enabling persons to escape safely from burning buildings, 
for instance, comprises a flexible tubular device which 
is elastic only in the transverse and circumferential 
direction to slow the rate of descent of a body falling 
through the tubular device, various means being provided 
for fixing the open upper end of the tubular device to 
the elevated point whence the body or person is to be 
rescued through the lower open end of the device at a 
point therebelow. 3 claims, 11 drawing figs. (Author) 

d. EXTINGUISHING AGENTS, ADDITIVES, AND 
EQUIPMENT 

818. Hoeppe W [Kali-Chemie AG, Hannover, FRG] 
HALONS FOR SAFETY 

Brandschutz; 31(8):218-222, 1977 (German) 

A report is made on the chemical structure of Halons 
and their chemical mechanism as "anti-catalysts" in extin- 
guishing fires. Human tolerance, ie, the effect of 
fluorinated hydrocarbons on test animals and humans by 
inhalation, incorporation or skin contact, is discussed on 
the basis of review articles. The small concentrations 
required for extinguishment are of no effect on humans. 
The risk in fires is more from CO and CO2. Good results 
have been obtained from Halons in vehicle fires; they 
are clearly superior to powders. German industrial stan- 
dard DIN 14406 is used for assessment of effectiveness 
in the FRG. A number of advantages of Halons is cited 
as guarantees of the operational safety of Halon extin- 
guishers. 9 figs, 1 table, 30 refs. (Fachdok 13/1173) 

819. Russell G [John Kerr and Co, Ltd, UK] 
THE VALUES OF DRY POWDERS 

Fire; 70(868): 248-250, 1977 



With the proposed introduction of a common European 
Standard for fire extinguishers, which for the first time 
will rate extinguishers according to their firefighting poten- 
tial, added stimulus has been given to the development 
of dry powders. Provided in this article is a useful, brief 
outline of the types of dry powders currently available, 
how they work, and how they compare. 2 photos. 

820. Ford CL [EI du Pont de Nemours and Co, Inc] 
PROTECTION OF HIGHRISE COMPLEXES 

Fire Fighting Canada; 21(4):16, 19-20, 22, 1977 

Installed fire protection systems for highrise buildings 
will probably either be required or highly desired in addi- 
tion to exhaustive fire protection measures, and water 
sprinkler installations have been espoused. The extensive 
piping network required for sprinkler systems, the relative 
insensitivity of the sprinkler head, and the difficulty of 
rearrangement to meet changing occupancy are listed as 
deficiencies inducing consideration of other protection 
systems, in particular, the compaitmented air handling 
system with injection of Halon 1301 into the air handling 
unit for distribution throughout a floor area proposed here. 
The features of this system, a cost analysis compared 
with water sprinklers, small- and large-scale Halon 1301 
distribution tests are described. 3 tables, 4 refs. 

821 . Yamashika S [Fire Res Inst Japan] 

PHASE CHANGE OF UQUEFTED-GAS-TYPE EXTIN- 
GUISHING AGENTS DUE TO PRESSURE DROP 

Fire Res Inst Japan. Rep; (43): 1-6, 1977 (Japanese; En- 
glish Summary and Captions) 

Since extinguishing agents of the liquefied gas type, 
such as carbon dioxide and Halon 1301, are, in the normal 
state, gases, they are stored in a cylinder after being 
compressed and liquefied. But when these agents are ap- 
plied, the pressure drops, so that they vaporize and bub- 
ble. They become a mixture of liquid and gas in the 
cylinder, and the mixture flows in the pipes of extinguish- 
ing systems. In this study, the phase change of liquefied 
extinguishing agents due to a drop in pressure during use 
is examined by experiments and calculations. 8 figs, 5 
refs. (Author) 

822. Beyler GL [Univ Maryland, College Park, MD, 
College ofEng, Fire Prot Curriculum] 

AN EVALUATION OF SPRINKLER DISCHARGE CAL- 
CULATION METHODS 

Fire Technol; 13(3): 185-194, 1977 

Velocity pressure and total pressure calculation methods 
are evaluated in the light of an alternate hypothesis 
derived from an energy balance at the sprinkler tee. Utiliz- 
ing the K-f actor as determined by tests with 1.5-in. pipe, 
the velocity pressure method best predicted the results 
of the tests. T-statistics determined for each method were 
0.54, 1.46, and 1.72 for the velocity pressure method, 
the total pressure method, and the alternate hypothesis, 
respectively. A least squares regression indicated that the 
K-f actor that would best fit the data was 5.53, 5.16 and 
5.70 for the velocity pressure method, the total pressure 
method, and the alternate hypothesis. 7 figs, 2 tables, 
3 refs. (NFPA) 

823. Nakakuki A, Motoe T and Na gayam a K 
SPRINKLER EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Kasai; 26(5):51-54, 1976 (Japanese) 



148 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment — Continued 



Chronological data providing a brief characterization of 
the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the development 
of sprinkler fire-extinguishing systems in Japan from 1920 
to the present are presented. Some predictions are also 
offered on the most promising trends for the improvement 
of such systems. A description is given of a comparatively 
complex, self-contained, fixed sprinkler system designed 
for use in large facilities lacking a central water supply. 
The trunk and distributing mains (with sprinklers), as well 
as the pneumo-hydraulic tank, are continually filled with 
water, which is accomplished by a pump. The tank pres- 
sure is maintained by means of an air cushion, which 
is maintained by a special compressor. The tank is 
equipped with a level gage, which triggers light and 
acoustic signals when the water level drops, a manometer, 
a safety valve, and an electric pressure pickup which 
is actuated when the pressure in the tank drops, triggering 
a signal on the supervisory control panel to actuate the 
system. The tank capacity was chosen for a water supply 
adequate to provide the design number of sprinklers dur- 
ing the period of time required for automatic actuation 
of the automatic pump triggering system. The pump is 
triggered automatically by the above-mentioned electrical 
pickup, which is actuated when the pressure in the trunk 
mains of the sprinkler system drops. 9 figs. (RZh) 

824. Okajima T [Albert C Martin and Associates, Los 
Angeles, CA] 

COMPUTERIZED FIRE SPRINKLER DESIGN 

Plumb Eng; 5(0:26-28, 1977 

The "Hydraulically Calculated Automatic Fire Sprinkler 
System Program" (HCSP) was developed to assist the 
fire protection engineer in system design and performance 
evaluation of an automatic sprinkler system by computer 
simulation of a system that meets both the water density 
and coverage requirements. It also performs the hydraulic 
calculation in conformity with the requirements of Na- 
tional Fire Protection Association Standard No. 13. 7 figs. 

825. Dinevich V 
VISCOUS WATER 

Pozhar Delo; (1):26, 1977 (Russian) 

In the Latvian SSR water to which 0.05% sodium car- 
boxymethylcellulose has been added is used to extinguish 
fires. The use of this solution has made it possible to 
increase the fire-extinguishing capability of water and to 
reduce fire damage. The solution has a stabilizing proper- 
ty, making it possible to get a highly stable foam. (RZh) 



826. Kurbatskiy O and Isavnin N 
POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 
HOUSEHOLD 

Pozhar Delo; (1):27, 1977 (Russian) 



FOR THE 



Among the extinguishers used in households dry-powder 
extinguishers are the cheapest. Three extinguishers 
produced in the USSR up to 1975 are described, the Sput- 
nik OP-1, Turist OP-1 and Turist OP-2. Since 1976 a new 
type has been produced, Moment OP-1, with a capacity 
of 1 liter; it is being improved in 1977 and will be adapted 
for temperatures of —20 to +50°C. Technical details of 
this extinguisher can be seen in the figure. (Fachdok 
13/0927) 



827. Medvedov O, Kochnev A and Abramov A 

FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT WITH HIGH-EXPANSION 
FOAM 

Pozhar Delo; (2):25-26, 1977 (Russian) 

The basic principles of recommendations for the extin- 
guishment of fires in premises with limited access 
openings (basements of residential and industrial buildings, 
cable tunnels, ship holds, etc) using foam with an expan- 
sion ratio of 800-900 are explained. A distinguishing fea- 
ture of extinguishing fires in premises using high-expan- 
sion foam is the abrupt decrease in temperature. When 
the foam reaches to within 0.8 to 0.5 m of the seat of 
the fire, the combustion process becomes unstable, and 
when the distance decreases to 0.2-0.15 m, flaming com- 
bustion of solid materials ceases. The reduction in com- 
bustion intensity is explained by the formation, in the 
combustion zones, of an inert medium consisting of com- 
bustion products and by the evaporation of the foam con- 
centrate owing to oxygen deficiency in the bubbles of 
disintegrating foam. The standard rate of foam concentrate 
supply to the solution is 0.6 /7m 3 per minute. Technical 
data of the foam generators are given. 4 figs, 1 table. 
(RZh) 

828. Anon 

AUTOMATIC WATER FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(160):41-43, 1976 (French) 

Statistical data on the effectiveness of sprinkler systems 
are analyzed by the prevention section of the Plenary 
Assembly of Insurance Companies (France). In 12 years 
(1962-1974) there were 375 fires in sprinkler-protected 
premises in France. In 251 cases up to 4 sprinkler heads 
were actuated, 5-10 in 60 cases, and more than 10 in 
64 cases. In all, 164 fires were extinguished without 
human involvement; in 110 cases the sprinkler systems 
aided successful extinguishment; only one fire was not 
extinguished. The greatest number of fires was extin- 
guished in plants of the textile industry. A large number 
of successful sprinkler operations was also recorded in 
commercial buildings, in the paper and rubber industry, 
in flour mills and wood-processing plants, and in 
warehouses. Data are presented on fire causes. Also 
analyzed are statistical data for 1975, it being noted that 
on the whole the results of sprinkler operations were 
favorable. The data for France agree with the statistical 
data for the group of countries belonging to the European 
Insurance Committee. Of the 485 fires occurring in these 
countries in 1975, 70% were extinguished by sprinkler 
systems alone. In Great Britain, however, 8 failures were 
recorded. In three cases the cause of failure was an explo- 
sion preceding the fire which knocked out the sprinkler 
network; in the other cases technical and other faults 
were the cause. Technical and organizational measures 
for further improvement of sprinkler effectiveness are 
listed. (RZh) 

829. Anon 

METHOD OF EXTINGUISHING FIRES OF PETROLEUM 
PRODUCTS STORED IN TANKS 

Sekiyu to Sekiyu Kogaku; 20(12):72, 1976 

A method recently developed in Japan for the extin- 
guishment of petroleum product fires in large tanks by 
introducing foam directly into the volume of the product 



149 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment — Continued 



through the wall of the tank is described. The extinguish- 
ment mechanism is considered, by which a high-expansion 
foam in the form of air bubbles rapidly rises to the top 
and forms a layer on the surface of the petroleum product 
which prevents atmospheric air from reaching the surface. 
A design diagram illustrates the system, which consists 
of a pump, a foam generator, and a special sleeve connec- 
tion installed in the wall of the tank (toward the bottom) 
with a high-pressure valve, to receive the pipe from the 
foam generator. The effectiveness of the method is 
verified by the results of tests during which a fire in 
a tank with a diameter of 8.7 m, a height of 8 m, and 
a content of about 180,000 liters of gasoline was extin- 
guished repeatedly using this method. 2 figs. (RZh) 

830. Sthamer IE 

RECENT INF ORMATION IN THE FIELD OF FOAM 
AND WETTING AGENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION 

VFDB Z; 26(2):52-56, 1977 (German; English and French 
Summaries) 

Information relating to the application of chemical 
firefighting agents does not usually become so quickly 
known, in general, as do new extinguishants and extin- 
guishing methods. Good or poor results in the use of 
extinguishants are not often distinctly related in fire re- 
ports. Sometimes the information, depending on its nature, 
is welcomed or accepted without any clear insight into 
the chemical or physical circumstances from which they 
result. In this article an attempt is made to review the 
information obtained recently from the use of various 
kinds of foam and wetting agents, intentionally omitting 
all descriptions which, in view of the present state of 
the art, should be assumed to be basic knowledge. 
Described first are air-foam agents (protein, fluoroprotein, 
synthetic multipurpose, film-forming with comparative 
figures, combined, and chemical), followed by wetting 
agents, additives to reduce the pressure loss during water 
application, equipment and training, and environmental 
protection. (The article is a reprint of a paper presented 
at the Tenth Symposium of the CTTF.) 

831. Biroet Fils 

PROCEDURE FOR THE USE OF LOW- AND MEDIUM- 
EXPANSION FOAMS TO EXTINGUISH FIRES OF 
LIQUIDS 

French Patent No. 2,313,952; CI A62D 1/00, Appl 10 Jun 
1975, Disci. 11 Feb 1977, Assignee: Biro et Fils, France 

The object of this invention is a procedure for the use 
of low- and medium-expansion foams to extinguish fires 
of liquefied products. The procedure permits the simul- 
taneous use of low- and medium-expansion foams issuing 
from generators to extinguish fires in liquefied gases, the 
distinctive feature being the fact that the medium-expan- 
sion foam is entrained by the low-expansion foam to yield 
a greater reach. 5 claims, 2 drawing figs. 

832. Comerzan OGS 

A NEW FIRE-FIGHTING MEANS AND TECHNIQUE 

French Patent No. 2,315,290; CI A62C 1/14, Appl 23 Jun 
1975, Disci. 25 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

This new firefighting means and technique, especially 
for forest fires, uses liquid or solid nitrogen to reduce 
temperatures. Even the carbon dioxide resulting from 



combustion can be used to smother the flames. This 
means and technique can also be adapted for other condi- 
tions of fighting other types of fires. 2 claims, no drawing 
figs. 

833. Dynamit Nobel AG 

DEVICE FOR THE THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL AC- 
TUATION OF FIRE PROTECTION INSTALLATIONS 

French Patent No. 2,315,959; CI A62C 37/26, 39/02; G08B 
17/06, Appl 2 Jul 1976, Disci. 4 Mar 1977, Priority: FRG, 
No. 25 29 838.8, 4 Jul 1975, Assignee: Dynamit Nobel 
AG, FRG 

The invention relates to a device for the thermal and 
electrical actuation of fire protection installations. The 
device consists of a counter-tumbler in the form of a 
piston which can slide in a box in the direction of the 
tumbler and can suppress the locking action exerted by 
the spacing component on the tumbler and, on the side 
opposite the spacing component, the piston, is placed an 
ignition device which can be triggered electrically, releas- 
ing a pressurized gas. This device can be used, eg, for 
extinguishing systems in large stores, assembly halls, 
storage warehouses, and the like. 6 claims, 1 drawing 
fig- 

834. Geddes AB 

VALVE FOR CONDITIONAL RELEASE OF FLUID 

French Patent No. 2,314,415; CI F16K 15/18; A01G 27/00; 
A62C 37/06; F16K 17/38, Appl 10 Jun 1976, Disci. 11 
Feb 1977, Priority: UK, No. 24.859/75, 19 Jun 1975, As- 
signee: Mather and Piatt Ltd, UK 

A patent is disclosed for valves governing the condi- 
tional release of fluid and is applicable primarily for sprin- 
kler firefighting installations. The distinctive feature of 
the valve is that it comprises a disc rotating about an 
axis which is offset with respect to the geometrical axis 
of the disc, to which is connected a lever which 
cooperates with a retention mechanism maintained in a 
fixed position to oppose displacement of the lever and, 
consequenUy, of the disc, and a control unit operating 
under a prescribed condition which serves to release the 
retention mechanism in order to permit displacement of 
the lever and disc, resulting in opening of the valve. 11 
claims, 9 drawing figs. 

835. Gerdes DF 

FIRE FIGHTING APPARATUS FOR A PAINTING 
BOOTH 

French Patent No. 2,316,978; CI A62C 1/24, 3/12, Appl 
25 Jun 1976, Disci. 11 Mar 1977, Priority: US, Appl No. 
591,162, 27 Jun 1975, Assignee: Binks Mfg Co, USA 

A patent is disclosed for a firefighting apparatus for 
a painting booth. It consists of a water fog head inside 
the booth, a primary reservoir containing the ofl used 
to eliminate the excess paint, a secondary reservoir, 
separated from the primary reservoir by a hopper door, 
and a primary pipe designed to remove only the water 
used to extinguish a fire. 

836. Loos H and Hartmann W 

CONTROL DEVICE WITH TEMPERATURE SENSOR 

French Patent No. 2,316,655; CI G05G 15/00; A62C 37/00; 
F03G 7/06; G05G 21/00, Appl 1 Jul 1976, Disci. 4 Mar 
1977, Priority: FRG, No. P 25 29 251.7, 1 Jul 1975, As- 
signee: BAVARIA Feuerloesch-Apparatebau, FRG 



150 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment — Continued 



The invention relates to a control device with tempera- 
ture sensor for fire extinguishers. The device consists of 
a pressure tank filled with a pressurized agent whose pres- 
sure increases with increasing temperature. A control 
system that can be actuated by the pressurized agent is 
connected to the tank via a duct. The outlet of the pres- 
sure tank is closed by means of a stop valve, opening 
when a predetermined temperature is reached, correspond- 
ing to the triggering temperature, when the valve allows 
the pressurized agent to flow through the duct to the 
control device. 6 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

837. Rhone-Poulenc Ind 
POWDER EXTENGUISHANTS 

French Patent No. 2,313,093; CI A62D 1/00, Appl 4 Jun 
1975, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, Assignee: Rhone-Poulenc Indus- 
tries, France 

This invention relates to powders suitable for the extin- 
guishment of various kinds of fires. According to the 
invention, these powders contain binary mixtures based 
on finely powdered phosphorus and nitrogen as the active 
materials. 3 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

838. Thery JP, Alban C and Jordi A 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING DEVICE FOR PROTECTION OF 
LARGE SPACES AND AREAS 

French Patent No. 2,310,141; CI A62C 37/30, Appl 6 May 
1975, Disci. 7 Jan 1977, Assignee: Compagnie Francaise 
des Petroles, France 

This invention is designed for the protection of large 
spaces by networks of thermoplastic pipes which, when 
they rupture, bring about a decrease in pressure and open 
tanks containing inhibiting agents. Each pipe in the net- 
work is connected to a pressure circuit (air or inert gas) 
by means of a valve and a capillary tube, as well as 
to a differential valve of the tank. 

839. Wald L 

DEVICE FOR REGULATING THE INTERNAL PRES- 
SURE OF EXTINGUISHERS 

French Patent No. 2,315,958; CI A62C 13/00, Appl 1 Jul 
1975, Disci. 4 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A patent is disclosed for a device to control the internal 
pressure of pressurized extinguishers. The device contains 
a valve and is arranged between the pressurized gas tank 
and the pin designed to perforate the cover of the gas 
tank. 1 claim, no drawing figs. 

840. Colome J, Duchene A and Regnier J 
EQUIPMENT FOR EXTINGUISHING A COMBUSTIBLE 
FLUID BY SEALING 

FRG Patent No. 2,633,960; CI A62C 3/14, 1/18; G21C 
9/00, Appl 28 Jul 1976, Disci. 17 Feb 1977, Priority: 
France, Appl No. 7,620,522, 5 Jul 1976, Assignee: Com- 
missariat a l'Energie Atomique, Paris, France 

The invention relates to equipment designed to permit 
rapid extinguishment of a combustible burning liquid by 
rapidly sealing the liquid off from the ambient air, to 
be used in particualar when a cloud of high-temperature 
sodium escapes by accident from the cycle of a nuclear 
reactor, especially one working with fast neutrons. 15 
claims, 8 drawing figs. 



841 . Gottschall H 

DRY POWDER EXTINGUISHANT 

FRG Patent No. 2,534,949; CI A62D 1/00, Appl 5 Aug 
1975, Disci. 17 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor, 
Schwaebisch-Hall, FRG 

A patent is disclosed for a dry powder extinguishant 
containing a bitartrate, novel in that it consists almost 
entirely or partially of crude tartar and contains a fungi- 
cide agent in a quantity less than 1 weight %, in particular, 
0.01 to 0.5 weight %, relative to the total quantity of 
powder. 2 claims, no drawing figs. 

842. Hoelter H and Igelbuescher H 

FIRE PROTECTION CONTROL MECHANISM, 
PREFERABLY FOR MINE FOSTERS 

FRG Patent No. 2,535,431; CI A62C 37/02, Appl 8 Aug 
1975, Disci. 17 Feb 1977, Assignee: Hoelter H, Gladbeck, 
FRG 

The invention relates to a control mechanism for a fire 
protection system, preferably mine filters. According to 
the invention, the foaming-agent container has a floating 
valve which is connected to the control valve in such 
a way that when the foaming agent no longer supports 
the floating valve, the water supply is cut off and the 
ventilator is also disconnected. 1 claim, 1 drawing fig. 

843. Hoelter H and Igelbuescher H 

PRESSURIZED CONTAINER-EXTINGUISHER, 

PREFERABLY FOR MINE FILTERS 

FRG Patent No. 2J535,432; CI A62C 35/18, Appl 8 Aug 
1975, Disci. 17 Feb 1977, Assignee: Hoelter H, Gladbeck, 
FRG 

An extinguishing system is disclosed, especially for mine 
filters, consisting of a container filled with extinguishant 
connected to a pressure bag and/or a pressure flask from 
which a high pressure is built up to discharge the extin- 
guishant when required. 2 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

844. Lemke H 

SELF-EXTINGUISHING WASTE BIN FOR COMMERCE 
OR HOUSEHOLD 

FRG Patent No. 2^39,078; CI A62C 3/00; B65F 1/00, 
Appl 3 Sep 1975, Disci. 10 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor, 
Koenigswinter, FRG 

The waste bin automatically releases its extinguishant, 
eg, foam, dry chemical, halons, CO2, but usually water, 
at a temperature of about +70°C in case of fire. When 
water is the extinguishant, the end section of the extin- 
guishant supply line is made in the form of a hose around 
an air bag, preventing circulation of the water in the extin- 
guishant container, the result of which would be that all 
the water used as extinguishant would have to be heated 
to +70°C. The self-extinguishing waste bin can be 
designed as a nonfixed, compact system, but in case of 
need, eg, in bar areas, it can be installed separate from 
the extinguishant container. Usually the extinguishant con- 
tainer is located above the waste bin, so that the natural 
fall of the water can be utilized. If the water is drawn 
from the water main, an acoustic signal must be installed 
to prevent unnecessary water damage. 1 claim, no drawing 
figs. 



151 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment- 



-Continued 



845. Loos H and Hartmann W 

CONTROL DEVICE WITH A TEMPERATURE SENSOR 

FRG Patent No. 2^29,251; CI F03G 7/06; F01K 25/02; 
A62C 37/24, Appl 1 Jul 1975, Disci. 20 Jan 1977, Assignee: 
Bavaria-Feuerloesch-Apparatebau Albert Loos, Nuern- 
berg, FRG 

The invention relates to a control device with tempera- 
ture sensor which is triggered when a certain temperature 
is reached and controls a process or an apparatus, eg; 
fire extinguishing systems. The temperature sensor is a 
pressurized container filled with a pressure medium which 
increases in pressure with increasing temperature. When 
a specified pressure is reached, an orifice in the container, 
sealed by a locking means, is opened by a control unit 
connected to the orifice which is actuated by the pressure 
medium. 6 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

846. Mmimax GmbH 
FERE EXTINGUISHER 

FRG Patent No. 2J32J62; CI A62C 13/42, 23/00, Appl 
21 Jul 1975, Disci. 10 Feb 1977, Assignee: Minimax 
GmbH, Bad Oldesloe, FRG 

The invention relates to a fire extinguisher with an extin- 
guishant container and a fitting adapter introduced into 
the extinguishant container; inside the container a high- 
pressure flask, a gas pipe for the propellant gas, and 
a riser feedpipe for the extinguishant discharged during 
operation are attached to the fitting; the adapter fitting 
is provided on the outside with a hose and a carrying 
handle, as well as an orientable trip lever which is pro- 
tected against inadvertent release by means of a safety 
mechanism. Movably disposed in the fitting is a trip spin- 
dle provided with a valve unit, actuable by the trip lever, 
which ruptures the seal of the high-pressure flask. The 
fitting also has a partitioning component which seals off 
an extinguishant chamber acting as a discharge channel 
for the extinguishant from a gas area near the trip spindle 
which encloses the high-pressure gas flask. 6 claims, 6 
drawing figs. 

847. Muench K 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

FRG Patent No. 2^32,163; CI A62C 35/22, Appl 18 Jul 

1975, Disci. 3 Feb 1977, Assignee: Verband der Sachver- 
sicherer eV, Cologne, FRG 

The invention relates to a sprinkler system with a pres- 
sure-controlled alarm valve, the pressure chamber of the 
valve being provided with a discharge pipe and a shutoff 
valve. According to the invention, the shutoff valve is 
driven pneumatically and its pressure chamber is con- 
nected to a pressurized gas line which leads from a pres- 
surized gas source via a nonreturn valve, the junction 
with the shutoff valve and a check valve to the supply 
line for the extinguishant, and discharges into this supply 
line. 8 claims, 6 drawing figs. 

848. Sobolev GG, Kozlyuk AI, Kolyshchenko MV, 
Makurenko VL, Vasflenko W, Nishnevskiy LD and 
Kukhno VI 

INERT GAS GENERATOR SYSTEM 

FRG Patent No. 2,614,611; CI A62C 35/36, Appl 5 Apr 

1976, Disci. 24 Feb 1977, Priority: USSR, Appl No. 
2,157,152, 13 Aug 1975, Assignee: VNJJ Gornospa- 
satel'nogo Dela, Donetsk, USSR 



The invention relates to equipment for generating inert 
gases based on a jet engine. The system consists of the 
engine, and, successively disposed at the engine exhaust, 
a jet intake duct, an afterburner, systems for the supply 
of fuel to the engine and the afterburner, and a water 
supply system to cool the afterburner and the gas stream. 
According to the invention, at a certain distance from 
the exhaust of the afterburner is disposed a diffusor with 
its tapered end facing the afterburner and the area 
between the diffusor and the afterburner is enclosed in 
a housing forming a low-pressure chamber. The low-pres- 
sure chamber has a collector with an annular slit through 
which an inert pressurized gas, eg, nitrogen, is supplied 
to the chamber. A nozzle for the supply of freon to 
the exhausting gas jet is disposed in the diffusor of the 
low-pressure chamber. 3 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

849. Linden G, Lay D and Tiedtke K 

METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION AND 
EXTINGUISHMENT AND FIXED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING 
SYSTEM TO IMPLEMENT THE METHOD 

Swiss Patent No. 584,434; CI G08B 17/10, 17/12; A62C 
37/26, Appl 4 Mar 1975, Disci. 31 Jan 1977, Assignee: 
Inventors 

A patent is disclosed for a method of automatic fire 
detection and extinguishment with fire detectors which 
control a fixed fire extinguishing system, distinctive in 
that after smoke detectors of a detection line have been 
tripped at least twice in succession and have transmitted 
a fire alarm, a flame detector is tripped, and only after 
it has transmitted a fire alarm is the extinguishing system 
addressed and actuated. If after the extinguishing system 
has discharged its first fixed quantity of extinguishant 
the flame detector is tripped a second time after a certain 
delay, the extinguishing system is again actuated to 
discharge a second quantity of extinguishant, etc. Also 
disclosed is a fixed fire extinguishing system to implement 
the method with smoke and/or heat and flame detectors 
which address a valve located between the container for 
extinguishant and at least one discharge nozzle via a fire 
control center, distinctive in that the circuit contains a 
regulation unit between the control center and the valve 
and in that several fixed amounts of extinguishant can 
be released from the extinguishant tank in succession via 
the valve unit. 9 claims, 5 drawing figs. (See also the 
US patent granted to these inventors, No. 4,005,754, ab- 
stracted in FT A 1(6), abstract 2154.) 

850. Toyoshima S, Honda M, Nakamura K and Seki K 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 

Swiss Patent No. 584,043; CI A62C 37/00, Appl 4 Apr 
1975, Disci. 31 Jan 1977, Assignee: Nohmi Bosai Kogyo 
Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan 

The invention relates to a fire protection system with 
a number of fire protection units actuated by fire, means 
to actuate the initiation devices of the individual units 
in succession, whereby first one unit is triggered, then 
all the rest, either after the preceding one has been in- 
itiated or, if the preceding one has failed to function, 
automatically, after a certain delay, distinctive in that at 
least one fire detector is associated with each initiator 
and that the means for actuating the initiators of the fire 
protection units are provided with power from an as- 
sociated fire detector as well as from an adjacent initiator. 
8 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 



152 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment — Continued 



851 . Stokes WR 
FIRE-PROTECTIVE DEVICE 

UK Patent No. 1,464,622; CI A5A 7, (A62C 7/00), Appl 
15 Jun 1974, Disci. 16 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

This invention relates to fire-protective devices of the 
type adapted for use in smothering or suppressing, or 
at least containing the spread of, flames in localized fire 
emergencies such as kitchens, thereby preventing or 
minimizing panic and protecting persons and property. The 
device comprises, in combination, a manually operable 
frame of fire-resistant material which is readily extensible 
to and collapsible from an operative position and, suitably 
engaged with the frame at appropriate points thereof, a 
flexible and foldable incombustible fire blanket, the latter 
being normally folded relative to the collapsed frame, and 
the construction and arrangement of the device being such 
that upon extension of the frame, the blanket will be 
automatically opened out into stretched condition for im- 
mediate application over a fire source. 11 claims, 1 draw- 
ing fig. (Author) 

852. Anderson JR 

ADJUSTABLE DRY PENDANT SPRINKLER HEAD AS- 
SEMBLY 

US Patent No. 4,007,878; CI 239/209, (B05B 15/08), Appl 
19 Aug 1970, Disci. 15 Feb 1977, Assignee: Central Sprin- 
kler Corp, Lansdale, PA 

An adjustable drop nipple is disclosed for installing fire 
protection sprinkler systems which comprise sprinkler 
head assemblies of the dry, pendant type. The 
downwardly extending length of a drop nipple having a 
sprinkler head thereon is adjusted by sliding the nipple 
axially in a collet having an externally tapered section 











of a stationary collet holder. When a selected drop length 
has been established, the collet is then compressed axially 
against the collet holder with tightening means whereby 
the nipple is firmly gripped by the collet so that axial 
sliding thereof is prevented, thereby maintaining the nipple 
at the selected drop length. 20 claims, 6 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

853. Chiesa PJ, Jr 

FIRE FIGHTING COMPOSITIONS 

US Patent No. 4,038,195; CI 252/3, (A62D 1/00), Appl 
19 Nov 1974, Disci. 26 Jul 1977, Assignee: Philadelphia 
Suburban Corp, Bryn Mawr, PA 

This aqueous foam type film-forming firefighting com- 
position contains a surfactant having a fluorocarbon radi- 
cal and is of relatively simple and effective structure, 
but not suitable by itself for use with sea water, combined 
with a foamability-improving surfactant that is suitable 
for use with sea water and in an amount that makes 
the entire composition suitable for use with sea water. 
6 claims, no drawing figs. (Author) 

854. Gow QW 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

US Patent No. 4,011,911; CI 169/29, (A62C 37/30), Appl 
11 Jul 1975, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A compact portable fire extinguisher is described which 
distributes, through the action of centrifugal force, a fire 
extinguishing liquid or chemical over a well-defined area. 
In one embodiment of the invention a spring- wound bell- 
shaped dispensing housing is constrained against rotational 
movement by a band secured to the housing and a non- 
rotatable bottom plate. The band, which is locked in posi- 
tion by a fusible element, also serves to seal the liquid 
or chemical dispensing apertures which are peripherally 
disposed about the bottom portion of the bell-shaped hous- 
ing. When the fusible element parts in presence of an 
abnormally high temperature condition, signaling the 
presence of an incendiary situation, the band falls away 
from the bottom plate and the housing simultaneously 
permits the spring-wound housing to commence rotating 
and the liquid or chemical extinguisher to be discharged 
through the peripherally disposed apertures. The rotating 
bell-shaped housing, through its generated centrifugal 




153 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment — Continued 



force, will expel the extinguishing liquid or chemical in 
a well-defined circular pattern over the burning area. In 
other embodiments of the invention the rotating force is* 
supplied through the release of the fire extinguishing sub- 
stance through jet-like nozzles, so that the reaction force 
will cause the unit containing the fire extinguishing sub- 
stance to rotate, or cause the nozzles themselves to rotate, 
thus dispersing the liquid or chemical extinguisher. Ap- 
paratus is also provided for automatically lowering the 
fire extinguisher from a ceiling or the like when a fire 
breaks out and retracting it after it has served its function. 
9 claims, 44 drawing figs. (Author) 

855. Hummel F, Jr and King EB 

REMOTE CONTROL FOR LARGE-AREA SPRINKLER 

SYSTEMS 

US Patent No. 4,004,612; CI 137/624.11, (A01G 25/16), 
Appl 28 Apr 1975, Disci. 25 Jan 1971, Assignee: Inventors 

A remote control is disclosed for a large-area sprinkler 
system, where the sprinklers are to be operated in a 
sequential manner according to a specified program. The 
sprinklers are hydraulically operated and are controlled 
by a four-way latch valve whose piston, or core, will 
shift to either a sprinkler-open state or a sprinkler-closed 
state, the shifting being by energizing opposing solenoids. 
The electrical system to power the solenoids is a low 
voltage, low amperage control circuit permitting the use 
of small diameter wires to be extended from a central 
power supply source for substantial distances therefrom 
and to each sprinkler. A capacitor in the circuit adjacent 
to latch valves builds up a charge sufficient for one of 
the solenoids to be energized to shift the latch valve to 
either open or close the sprinkler. Each solenoid is con- 
nected in the circuit by a connective lead which includes 
an electronic gate such as an NPN transistor which will 
normally prevent a flow of current through the lead but 
which may receive a signal voltage, as at the base of 
the transistor to permit current to flow, as from the 
capacitor to the solenoid. The signal voltage need not 
be large, and the current thereby generated very small; 
hence, very small diameter wire leads can be used to 
signal the gate even though they may be extended for 
long distances from a control station. Preferably, however, 




an AC coded signal can be superimposed upon the control 
circuit which can be picked up by a discriminator at a 
selected sprinkler to signal the proper gate at the sprinkler 
for off or on operation. This coded signal will thus permit 
any one of a large number of sprinklers to be selectively 
operated, and a computer can be used and programmed 
to control any selected operative sequence for the sprin- 
klers. 10 claims, 11 drawing figs. (Author) 

856. Jackson J and Roquemore WD 
ADJUSTABLE STEM SPRINKLER DROP 

US Patent No. 4,007,877; CI 239/209, (A05B 15/08), Appl 
18 May 1976, Disci. 15 Feb 1977, Assignee: James C 
Hayes, Macon, GA 

An adjustable stem drop apparatus and method are dis- 
closed for a fire extinguishing sprinkler mounted on a 
pipe located above the ceiling of a building and arranged 
in such a manner that the position of the sprinkler can 
be adjusted from below the ceiling after the ceiling has 
been permanently installed. 5 claims, 3 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




857. Weise G 

REMOTE ALARM SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF FIRE 

EXTINGUISHER REMOVAL 

US Patent No. 4,003,048; Q 340/280, (G08B 21/00), Appl 
23 Feb \976, Disci. 11 Jan 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A patent is disclosed for a detection and alarm system 
for detection and removal of a fire extinguisher from its 




154 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES , 

d. Extinguishing Agents, Additives, and Equipment- 



-Continued 



usual location including an electrically conductive 
breakaway lanyard positioned around the neck of the fire 
extinguisher, its ends connected to two male prongs 
plugged into a female receptacle of a supervisory circuit 
leading to an alarm circuit. When the supervisory circuit 
is interrupted by the removal of a fire extinguisher, a 
relay trips the alarm circuit. 6 claims, 4 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



858. Zehr WJ 

RUPTURE HEAD FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

US Patent No. 4,006,780; CI 169/26, (A62C 35/02), Appl 
24 May 1976, Disci. 8 Feb 1977, Assignee: The Protec- 
toseal Co, Bensenville, IL 

The invention relates to a device for rupturing a pres- 
surized cylinder containing a fire extinguishing product 
wherein when the temperature is high enough to melt 
the fusible link, it will cause a spring-loaded punch to 
forcibly propel the punch downwardly to rupture a rup- 
turable disk in the cylinder to allow the contents to be 
ejected therefrom. 4 claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 



- 18 




e. FIRE LOADS AND HEAT EFFECTS ON 
STRUCTURES 

859. Feklov AI 

FTRE RESISTANCE OF PHENOLIC LAMINATE INSU- 
LATING BULKHEADS 

Bezop Tr Prom-sti; (3):31-35, 1977 (Russian) 

A report is made on the principal properties of phenolic 
laminates of the FRP type, conditions and results of 
fire-endurance testing of a phenolic-laminate barrier ex- 
posed to a set fire in a training shaft of the Paramilitary 
Mine Rescue Unit. 3 figs. (RZh) 

860. Harrison GA [Arabian Amer Oil Co (ARAMCO)] 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE OF UNPROTECTED 
OFFSHORE STEEL PLATFORM LEGS 

Fire 7; 71 (3):99-101, 1977 



Offshore platforms that process hydrocarbons often 
have their support legs fireproofed for protection against 
fires involving liquid hydrocarbons on the water surface. 
Application of data generated by a fire research program 
sponsored by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 
has shown that certain types of platform support legs 
do not require fireproof ing because of their total mass 
and, more importantly, their wall thickness. The heat 
transfer relationship for unprotected steel columns derived 
from the ASTM E 119 fire-test methods, modified for 
conditions typical for platform flammable-liquid fires, on 
which the conclusions are based, is given. 2 figs, 1 table. 
(Author) 

861 . Anselmo G 

INVESTIGATING THE STATE OF DETERIORATION OF 
CONCRETE IN A FHtE-EXPOSED STRUCTURE BY UL- 
TRASONIC METHODS 

Inf Constr; 29(286):61-73, 1976 (Spanish; English, French 
and German Summaries) 

When a building with a reinforced concrete structure 
catches fire, the members of the structure are affected 
to a varying degree, depending on the duration and max- 
imum temperatures of the fire. Described in this article 
is a nondestructive method that makes it possible to calcu- 
late the average calcination depth of the structural mem- 
bers by measuring the time of transmission of ultrasonic 
beams through the fire-exposed elements. Suitable con- 
siderations and indications are proposed for the develop- 
ment of an electronic calculation program to handle the 
large amount of data obtained from a medium-level fire. 
18 figs. (Author) 

f. FIRE PREVENTION AND HAZARD REDUCTION 

862. Giacomo E 

FIRE PREVENTION IN GARAGES OF HIGHRISE 
BUILDINGS 

Antincend Protez Civ; 28(7):507-509, 1976 (Italian) 

According to the Italian standards, garages located under 
ground level in highrise buildings must be of only one 
floor with an area not greater than 700 m 2 or a volume 
not greater than 14,200 m 3 . The garage area must be parti- 
tioned off from the rest of the building by structural com- 
ponents with a fire endurance not less than 4 hrs. The 
fire endurance of load-bearing structures and partitions 
in the garage must not be less than 2 hrs. Stairs or eleva- 
tors must be enclosed with a fire-resistant (2 hr) cladding 
and "Class A" fireproof doors. The garage must be venti- 
lated naturally and with fans which exchange the air 3 
times per hour. These garages must be provided with 
sprinkler systems, inside fire hydrants, and primary fire 
extinguishing means. Garages located above ground level 
in highrise buildings must not be of more than three floors 
and not higher than 24.38 m above the ground surface. 
Unpartitioned garage spaces must not exceed 3,800 m 2 . 
Evacuation routes must lead directly outside with no 
fewer than two stairs per floor. The width of the evacua- 
tion routes depends on the number of people who may 
be in the building at the time a fire breaks out and must 
not be less than 0.76 m for up to 50 people, 1.10 m 
for up to 220 people, etc. The maximum distance between 
any point in an area to an exit must not exceed 45 m 
(or 30 m in a straight line) when there are two evacuation 



155 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

f. Fire Prevention and Hazard Reduction — Continued 

exits and 18 m (12 in a straight line) when there is one 
exit. 2 tables. (RZh) 

863. Richmond JK and Liebman R [Pittsburgh Mining 
and Safety Res Center, Pittsburgh, PA] 

ON THE PROPAGATION AND CONTROL OF COAL 
MINE EXPLOSIONS 

Arch Termodyn Spal; 8(1):27-41, 1977 (English; Polish and 
Russian Summaries) 

Because underground coal mining continues to be the 
most hazardous of all industrial occupations, research on 
coal mine health and safety continues to receive much 
attention in the United States, as well as in other coun- 
tries. Although deaths due to explosions of coal dust and 
fire damp have been greatly reduced, these dangers con- 
tinue to exist. Recent research directed toward the abate- 
ment of these hazards is recounted here, showing how 
the Experimental Mine of the US Bureau of Mines has 
been equipped to shed new light on the problem. Princi- 
ples of fluid dynamics are used to show how the ignition 
of coal dust deposits can generate pressure waves and 
gas motion which disperses the dust in advance of flame. 
Recent measurements of temperature and ranges of 
flammability of mixtures of coal dust and rock dust show 
how the explosions may be further controlled by properly 
designed triggered explosion barriers. 9 figs, 6 refs. 
(Author) 

864. Duch CD 
EVALUATION OF THE FIRE RISK 

ASELF; (58):24-25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 36-37, 39, 41, 1976 
(Spanish) 

The various factors which go to make up the fire hazard 
of an installation are combined into three groups in ac- 
cordance with various specific features: those characteriz- 
ing the rate of development of a fire in an enclosure; 
those relating to the risk of damage to material valuables 
being stored or processed, to equipment, building struc- 
tures, etc; and those dealing with human fire safety. In 
analyzing the factors essential for fire hazard it is con- 
cluded that it is expedient to take effective fire safety 
measures, but in view of the large number of factors 
differing in physical nature, evaluation of the fire hazard 
is often subjective and does not correspond to the actual 
hazard conditions for outbreak and development of a fire. 
In order to systematize the procedure for evaluating the 
fire hazard of an installation, methods have been worked 
out in a number of countries to calculate the risk of 
fire outbreak based on a quantitative assessment of the 
factors. One of the best known methods was developed 
by a Euralarm committee (European Firefighting Associa- 
tion). According to this method, calculation of the risk 
of fire outbreak and development is based on a joint 
assessment of the fire-damage risk of a building and its 
contents. A formula containing the following variables is 
given for the first hazard term: fire load, combustibility, 
heat load, fire spread factor, a factor allowing for the 
delay in start of suppression, and a risk reduction factor. 
The risk of damage to the building content is evaluated 
by a formula which takes into account the fire hazard 
for people, equipment, and other material valuables, as 
well as a factor allowing for the aftereffects of smoke 
filling the building. Another method which is widely used 
in European countries, known as the Graltiner method, 



is used to evaluate the fire hazard of industrial buildings 
based on the concept that any building has a fire-outbreak 
risk composed of the fire ignition and development risks. 
Formulas which take into account the various factors are 
given for a quantitative evaluation of the risk of ignition 
or development. 1 fig, 5 tables. (RZh) 

865. McGehan FP [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, 
DC] 

FIRE HAZARDS OF MOBILE HOMES 

Fire Internat; 5(55):45-48, 1977 (English, French, German; 
Spanish Summary) 

Although fire strikes a mobile home no more often than 
it does a conventional house, fire damage has been three 
to five times greater for the mobile home, both in loss 
of life and in loss of property. To remedy this situation, 
the National Bureau of Standards has been called on to 
assist and advise in updating the regulations of the Federal 
Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards. The 
NBS mobile home fire research involves kitchen range 
fires and fire spread in corridors, living rooms, and 
bedrooms. Tests resulted in the recommendation that an 
insulation-backed sheet metal hood be placed above 
kitchen ranges and that improved fire-resistant materials 
be used for the wall and ceiling assemblies in corridors. 
Related research regarding egress has resulted in a 
proposal that an egress device should permit 95% of all 
mobile home occupants to escape safely within 30 
seconds. 1 photo. 

866. Anon 

HAZARDS AND PRECAUTIONS IN ELECTROSPARK 
MACHINING 

Fire Prev; (120):23-24, 1977 

The particular hazards of spark discharge in electrospark 
machining processes are identified and precautions to be 
taken to prevent fires are compiled. The machinery 
process is described and case histories of two fires result- 
ing from electrospark machining are cited. 

867. Anon 

HOW ELFORD LTD CONTROL RISKS FROM 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

Fire Prev; (120):19-22, 1977 

A study is made of the methods used by uford Ltd 
(UK) at its Brentwood photographic film manufacturing 
plant to handle the hazards posed by bulk quantities of 
flammable liquids and other hazards associated with the 
production of photographic materials, such as disposal of 
waste materials. Described are the firefighting and detec- 
tion systems, the plant fire brigade, workforce training, 
and precautions in the stillhouse and laboratories. 9 
photos. 

868. Anon 

FHtE PROTECTION IN COMPUTER CENTERS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(161):36, 41-42, 44-45, 1976 (French) 

In May, 1976, the Belgian Society of Economics and 
Applied Mathematics held a conference on the topic 
of "fire prevention in computer centers!' This article was 
prepared by one of the conference participants, a Fire 
Brigade member (France). General statistical data on fires 
in France are presented. The annual losses amount to 



156 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

f. Fire Prevention and Hazard Reduction — Continued 

0.3% of the gross national product. Of the 100,000 fires 
occurring annually, 50 result in losses exceeding 6 million 
francs. Fires occur in computer centers about once a 
month. The fundamental principles of fire safety and the 
fire-behavior classification of materials and structures are 
outlind. The most hazardous points in computer centers 
are the voids above suspended ceilings and beneath the 
floor. Potential fire sources are analyzed, and information 
is provided on the functional purpose of the main areas 
of computer centers. The fire safety requirements which 
must be met in equipping and operating computer center 
buildings are enumerated. The automatic fire detection 
and extinguishing systems required for the protection of 
computer center premises are briefly described. (RZh) 

869. Larsson C 

APPARATUS FOR THE PREVENTION OF SPONTANE- 
OUS COMBUSTION OF ORGANIC OR MINERAL SUB- 
STANCES 

French Patent No. 2,313,090; CI A62C 35/02, Appl 1 Jun 
1976, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, Priority: Sweden, No. 06.266- 
1/75, 2 Jun 1975, Assignee: Kisa Tra AB, Sweden 

The invention relates to a device for the prevention 
of spontaneous combustion of a piled material or continu- 
ous material in a silo or other receptacle. The apparatus 
comprises at least one tubular injector, perforated, bearing 
regulating valves and connected by a flexible hose to a 
source of fluid, eg, air, water vapor, combustion gas, 
or a mixture of saline solution and air, to prevent the 
establishment, within the pile, of conditions favorable to 
spontaneous combustion. Temperature sensors can be in- 
troduced into the pile to permit automatic control of the 
operation. The apparatus can be applied to the storage 
in piles of wood debris, tree bark, peat, and other materi- 
als susceptible to spontaneous combustion and, if necessa- 
ry, to the treatment of these materials. 8 claims, 4 drawing 
figs. 

g. PRESSURE EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES 

h. PROTECTIVE COMPONENTS AND CONTROL 
SYSTEMS 

870. Wasowski J 
FIRE VENTILATION 

Bezpieczen Pr; (1): 1-3, 1977 (Polish) 

Some fire ventilation systems are examined, an auto- 
matic system of the Finnish Halton company being of 
the greatest interest. It is made in the form of a fire 
damper with a variable angle of deflection of the louvers 
and can be installed in the openings of fire partitions 
or in closed ventilation ducts. The principal advantage 
of the system is the maintenance of conditions in which 
the temperature in premises, even those involved in in- 
tense fires, will not exceed 500°C over a considerable 
period of time. This is especially important for industrial 
buildings, because rapid heating of metal structures causes 
them to fail as early as 4-5 min after the outbreak of 
a fire. 6 figs. (RZh) 

871. Voellinger H [Dortmund Prof Fire Dept, FRG] 
THE AUTOMATIC DOOR STOP 

Brandschutz; 31(8):223-226, 1977 (German) 



The development of guidelines for automatic doorstops, 
the content of the guidelines (concepts, construction prin- 
ciples, testing principles, and guidelines for use), licenses 
for stops with magnets, with door closers, with mechanical 
stops, and with shift locks, and, most importantly, the 
coupling of door stops with fire alarm systems are 
discussed. 5 figs. 

872. Bamert AE [Brand-Verhuetungs-Dienst fuer Ind u. 
Gewerbe, Zurich, Switzerland] 

FIRE PROTECTION IN UNDERGROUND PREMISES 

Fire Internal; 5(55):35-41, 1977 (English, French, German; 
Spanish Summary) 

Fires in underground structures are to some extent com- 
parable to highrise building fires, with some essential dif- 
ferences. For example, the removal of smoke, fumes, 
and heat from underground floors generally presents more 
serious problems than in highrise buildings. This report 
deals with the question of how to combine various fire 
protection installations such as smoke detectors, fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems, and automatically controlled 
smoke and heat vents in various types of underground 
structures. 

873. Sekiguchi Y, Murayama K and Kimura M 
DISASTER PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR MEDIUM 
BUILDINGS 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):965-970, 1976 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design and operating princi- 
ple, and also the principal tactical and technical charac- 
teristics, of several models of complex modem fire safety 
systems installed in medium-sized urban buildings and 
designed specifically for these buildings. The charac- 
teristics of these systems differ from analogous systems 
designed for highrise and lowrise buildings in size, number 
of sprinkler heads and fire detectors, required electrical 
power, the power and capacity of the emergency power 
sources, the magnitude of the operating pressure for the 
electromechanical fire pumps and playpipes, and several 
other parameters. These fire safety systems are designed 
to use modern CO2 and foam extinguishing solutions 
which are harmless, or almost harmless, to the human 
organism during relatively short periods of direct contact 
of human beings with these solutions. Considered in detail 
are block diagrams and the operating principle of upright 
control systems, which are rectangular panels with pull- 
out radio-circuit modules. The two panels (which are 
located in special compartments beneath the station con- 
trol consoles) are distinctive in that they contain diagnostic 
assemblies that continuously monitor the working order 
of the control equipment. 7 figs, 3 tables, 4 refs. (RZh) 

874. Owaku T and Kuroki K 
FIRE-FIGHTING DAMPER TEST RESULTS 

Kasai; 26(3): 148-1 55, 1976 (Japanese) 

The design and operating principle and the results of 
operational and laboratory tests of a control system for 
automatic fire dampers to be used in the main and branch 
ducts of building air-handling systems are described. A 
study is made of the factors and devices relating to the 
operating reliability of the damper control system, in par- 
ticular the automatic thermal fire detectors, the analyzers 
of radio signals transmitted by the detectors, the a-c and 



157 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems- 



-Continued 



d-c electromagnetic relays which, when their contacts 
close on the outbreak of fire (detectors are actuated), 
apply network voltage to the actuator devices which set 
the dampers in motion, and the actuators which convert 
electrical energy into mechanical energy by means of elec- 
tromagnetic solenoids and which thus close off the cross- 
section of the ventilation ducts by turning the fire dampers 
into the appropriate position. Various damper designs are 
investigated; in particular, comparative tests are made of 
the efficiency of using two basic types of dampers — 
one-piece dampers and composite dampers consisting of 
several integrally interconnected (mechanically) rectangu- 
lar shutter-type components. Recommendations are of- 
fered as to the optimal combinations of the technical 
parameters of the emergency fire-control systems for such 
dampers in the design and development of complex 
systems of emergency and normal air-handling installa- 
tions. 9 figs, 3 tables, 4 refs. (RZh) 

875. Anon 

FIRE VENTILATION 

Norsk WS; 19(12):874, 877-878, 1976 (Norwegian) 

The purpose, basic requirements, operating principles 
and types of ventilation systems used for the removal 
of smoke and hot gases from production areas during 
fires are discussed. 3 figs. (RZh) 

876. Shtrikh N, Polikarpov S, Popov V, Zusmanovskaya 
E, Shabanin V and Simonov E 

LIGHT-WEIGHT SIDINGS OF THE VOLGA AUTO 
PLANT 

Pozhar Delo; (2):27, 1977 (Russian) 

Specialists of the Volga Auto Plant have proposed a 
method of reducing the fire-hazard of lightweight sidings. 
For this purpose, the grooves of the corrugated surface 
are filled with perlite sand, which adsorbs the bituminum 
released during burning and prevents air from reaching 
the combustion zone. Because of the low bulk weight 
of this sand, the load on the weight-bearing members 
is not greatly increased. Fire tests have shown that the 
rate of fire spread over lightweight sidings with this pro- 
tection is sharply reduced. (RZh) 

877. Silcock A 
SMOKE REMOVAL 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(162): 16-34, 1976 (French) 

Discussed in this article are the overall regulations, the 
operation of smoke vents, firefighting in buildings, the 
advantages and disadvantages of the various smoke vents, 
their layout, operating principle, and installation. Exam- 
ples are presented of the spread of smoke in buildings 
and of the consequences for people and property and 
the subsequent damage, as well as the incalculable smoke 
damages in highrise buildings. The topic is also discussed 
from the viewpoint of suitable building materials. Smoke 
detectors, their types, and the most advantageous number 
and distribution are described, as are mechanical or auto- 
matic venting, venting in newly built houses and test 
results with real fires. 24 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. (Fachdok 
13/0949) 



878. Blayez P 

FIRE-STOP DAMPER FOR REGISTERS 

French Patent No. 2,316,513; CI F16K 17/38; A62C 3/14; 
F24F 11/02, Appl 1 Jul 1975, Disci. 4 Mar 1977, Assignee: 
Inventor 

The invention relates to a fire-stop damper for a re- 
gister, distinctive in that it comprises a unit made up 
of a sleeve of any cross section, eg, circular, with, on 
the fire side, a raised inner end forming a seat, and, 
in the immediate vicinity of this seat, an axis of rotation 
extending diametrally from one edge to the other of the 
sleeve to rest against the wall, and two half -discs, hinge- 
fixed to the axle, with constant thrust toward the seat 
by means of a spring, the discs being maintained in open 
position relative to each other by means of a fusible 
U-link. 5 claims, 4 drawing figs. 

879. Gubri M 

IMPROVEMENTS TO SMOKE VENTS FOR VENTILA- 
TION SHAFTS 

French Patent No. 2,314,342; CI E06B 5/16; A62C 3/14; 
F16K 17/38; F24F 11/00, Appl 13 Jun 1975, Disci. 11 
Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

This invention relates to smoke vents, flaps or hatches 
installed in ventilation shafts. According to the invention, 
the shutter comprises, among other components, a frame 
formed by, on the one hand, a fore-frame made of shaped 
sections and suitable for embedding in a seat reserved 
for this purpose and, on the other hand, a fillister frame 
designed to receive, in the workshop, a movable shutter 
and a control device for automatic and/or manual opening 
of the shutter. The preferred application of the shutter 
is in ventilation shafts of highrise buildings. 9 claims, 
3 drawing figs. 

880. Isobe M 
FD1E SHUTTER 

French Patent No. 2,313,088; CI A62C 2/02, Appl 28 Jan 
1975, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 93.599/74, 
14 Aug 1974, Assignee: Inventor 

The object of the invention is a firefighting device capa- 
ble of extinguishing a fire by cutting off the air input 
and preventing the spread of fire, smoke or toxic gas, 
and heat. The device is in the form of a fabric shutter 
fixed to the ceiling and capable of completely closing 
the opening formed by the ceiling, the floor, and columns 
or walls, eg, of a corridor, when it is lowered. During 
use the shutter is continually wetted with water from a 
perforated pipe in such a way that the entire surface 
of the shutter remains covered with a film of water. Part 
of the water collects in pockets at the bottom of the 
shutter to weight the shutter and hold it in place. A slot 
and flap permit exit of endangered persons. This fire 
shutter is particularly suited for buildings with framework 
made of incombustible materials. 34 claims, 7 drawing 
figs. 

881. MonmaK 

PROCEDURE AND SYSTEM FOR FIREFIGHTING IN 
A MULTI-STORY BUILDING 

French Patent No. 2,314,737; CI A62C 3/14, 1/02, Appl 
16 Jun 1976, Disci. 18 Feb 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 
72.046/75, 16 Jun 1975, Assignee: Inventor 



158 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems- 



-Continued 



The invention relates to a firefighting procedure and 
system applicable to multi-story buildings such as 
highrises. Each floor of the highrise is subdivided into 
a plurality of fire-attack compartments. An outbreak of 
fire in one of the compartments is detected by the detec- 
tion units and is transmitted to a surveillance center whose 
main control panel issues an alarm signal only to the 
floor on which the compartment is located (in order to 
avoid panic). Operations synchronized by a computer as- 
sociated with the panel ensure the following operations: 
closure of the fire-stop doors; discharge of a nonaqueous 
liquid extinguishant through nozzles; and intake and ex- 
haust of flames and smoke through outlets. 16 claims, 
4 drawing figs. 

882. Strulik WP and Mealares C 

AUTOMATIC DAMPER FOR VENTILATION DUCTS 

French Patent No. 2,315,651; CI F16K 17/38, 24/04; F24F 
7/04, 11/02; A62C 3/14, Appl 24 Jun 1975, Disci. 25 Feb 
1977, Assignee: Inventors 

The invention relates to an automatic ventilation duct 
damper comprising elastically deformable blocking means. 
Each damper contains at least one pair of flaps, each 
flap being mounted on an elastic pivoting fastener and 
made of an elastically deformable sheet material, the en- 
semble arranged so as to occupy two positions, one in 
the duct as a block in which the flap is essentially flat, 
the other in the opening in which the flap is bent to 
fit the inner wall of the duct. The invention can be used 
to improve the flow conditions, primarily for registers. 
9 claims, 7 drawing figs. 

883. Svenska Flaktfabriken 

IMPROVEMENTS TO FIRE-STOP OR FIRE-RESISTANT 
DAMPERS USED PRINCIPALLY IN BUIIJMNG X5R- 
HANDLING SYSTEMS 

French Patent No. 2,313,089; CI A62C 3/14, 2/00; F16K 
17/38; F24F 11/00, Appl 23 Sep 1975, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, 
Priority: Sweden, No. 06.424-6/75, 5 Jun 1975, Assignee: 
AB Svenska Flaktfabricken, Sweden 

A patent is disclosed for a fire-stop damper of a building 
air-handling system comprising a spring, normally in ten- 
sion, housed and guided in an annular support and con- 
nected to a flap, the spring being released in case the 
temperature rises abnormally to cause the flap to close 
the air duct completely. The invention makes it possible 
to prevent the spread of fire through air ducts. 14 claims, 
6 drawing figs. 

884. Bendler H and Bretfeld A 

EQUD7MENT FOR THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL 
TRIGGERING OF FTRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

FRG Patent No. 2^29,838; CI A62C 37/26, 39/02; G08B 
17/06, Appl 4 Jul 1975, Disci. 27 Jan 1977, Assignee: 
Dynamit Nobel AG, Troisdorf , FRG 

The invention relates to a device for the thermal and 
electrical triggering of fire protection systems with a hous- 
ing, and in the housing, slidable bearings and counter- 
bearings between which a spacer component is disposed 
to facilitate displacement of the bearing toward the 
counter-bearing by a continuously acting force when a 
prescribed temperature is reached, and an auxiliary 
device, electrically actuable. The device is novel is that 



the counter-bearing is configured as a piston, displaceable 
toward the bearing in the housing, cancelling the detaining 
effect of the spaces on the bearing, and in that an ignition 
device that generates pressurized gas and is electrically 
triggerable on the side facing away from the spacer com- 
ponent is provided. 6 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

885. Jenkel K 

FLASHBACK-PROOF EQUIPMENT AND PRODUCTION 
METHOD 

FRG Patent No. 2J34J25; CI A62C 4/00; B65D 87/48; 
F16L 15/00, Appl 31 Jul 1975, Disci. 3 Feb 1977, Assignee: 
Fa FA Sening, Hamburg, FRG 

The invention relates to a flashback-proof device with 
a flashback screen disposed in a housing and a method 
of producing the device. The device is designed to provide 
flashback protection during the pressurization or venting 
of tanker cars, fixed tanks and the like. 11 claims, 1 
drawing fig. 

886. Monma K 

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FIRE EXTINGUISH- 
MENT IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 

FRG Patent No. 2,627,055; CI A62C 1/18, Appl 16 Jun 
1976, Disci. 20 Jan 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 72046-75, 
16 Jun 1975, Assignee: Inventor 

The aim of the invention is to provide a method for 
rapid extinguishment of fires in highrise buildings, 
achieved by sealing off a firefighting area in the buildings 
after the occupants have escaped and then venting the 
flames, smoke and air from this area and applying an 
estinguishant, either inert gas, liquid nitrogen, foam or 
a foaming liquid. 14 claims, 4 drawing figs. 

887. Futurumverken AB 
FIRE DAMPER DEVICE 

UK Patent No. 1,465,119; CI A5A 22, (A62C 3/14), Appl 
29 Aug 1974, Disci. 23 Feb 1977, Priority: Sweden, Conv 
Appl No. 7,312,425, 12 Sep 1973, Assignee: Futurumver- 
ken AB, Byske, Sweden 

According to the invention, there is provided an auto- 
matically operable fire damper for a gas duct, comprising 
a pipe section to form part of the gas duct for gas flow 
therethrough and a valve flap which, in the inactive open 
position to permit such gas flow, has substantially the 
whole area of a major surface thereof generally contiguous 
with the inner wall of the pipe section and is attached 
to it by a separate pretensioned spring and by a fastening 
means made as a melting fuse adapted to melt under 
the influence of hot gases in the duct, thereby to allow 
the spring to move the flap into a closing position cutting 
off substantially the whole of the flow area of the pipe 
section. 12 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 

888. Gebrueder Trox GmbH 

CLOSURE FOR FTRE SECTIONS IN VENTILATING 
AND Am CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 

UK Patent No. 1,465,429; CI A5A 22, F2V E1B, (A62C 
3/14), Appl 2 Apr 1975, Priority: FRG, Conv Appl No. 
7,411,489, 2 Apr 1974, Assignee: Gebrueder Trox GmbH, 
Neukirchen-Vluyn, FRG 

The invention relates to a closure for fire sections in 
ventilating and air-conditioning systems in which an anti- 



159 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems — Continued 



fire gate is inserted into a metal casing in the form of 
a pipe or a duct so as to be pivotable about a pivoting 
axis. The gate is constructed as an asbestos-cement gate. 
6 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

889. Hoganas AB 

A VENTILATION DEVICE FOR USE WITH SMOKE EX- 
HAUST COVERS 

UK Patent No. 1,466,014; CI F4V, A1A, A5A 22, (F24F 
7/02), Appl 9 Apr 1975, Disci. 2 Mar 1977, Priority: 
Sweden, Conv Appl No. 7,404,972, 11 Apr 1974, Assignee: 
Hogenas AB, Hogenas, Sweden 

The object of the present invention is to provide a 
smoke exhaust device having means for ventilation in such 
a manner that a substantial savings in cost is achieved. 
The smoke exhaust device is adapted to be mounted on 
the roof of a building and includes a cover pivotally fitted 
in a casement, said cover having a ventilation opening 
and an upwardly directed flange surrounding said opening, 
a lid comprising a top portion and a downwardly directed 
flange along its perimeter, said lid having a larger cross- 
section than the opening, and means for moving said lid 
substantially parallel to the plane of the cover. 3 claims, 
4 drawing figs. (Author) 

890. Boyd MC 
FIRE-RESPONSrVE TANK TOP 

US Patent No. 4,004,708; CI 220/224, (B65D 87/227), Appl 
19 Dec 1975, Disci. 25 Jan 1975, Assignee: Philadelphia 
Suburban Corp, Bryn Mawr, PA 

The invention relates to a floating tank top pivotally 
carrying upwardly projecting weather shield plates around 
its periphery for biasing outwardly against the inside sur- 
face of a tank wall. It has a bias mechanism arranged 
to tilt the plates inwardly in response to fire to expose 
the roof seal at the site of fire and to help direct 
firefighting foam into the exposed location. 4 claims, 6 
drawing figs. (Author) 




891 . Erickson L 
HOSPITAL LATCH 

US Patent No. 4,007,954; CI 292/165, (E05F 15/20), Appl 
10 Nov 1975, Disci. 15 Feb 1977, Assignee: Walter Kidde 
and Co, Inc, Belleville, NJ 

The invention relates to a latch bolt mechanism of the 
push-pull type which includes a stop lever maintained nor- 
mally in an inactive position by means of a fusible pin, 
the lever being adapted to drop into a position where 
it blocks the movement of the latch-withdrawing 
mechanism when the pin melts at a predetermined tem- 
perature due to a fire condition. 6 claims, 6 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



3Z- 




892. Fujiwara A 

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ELECTRICITY IN 
CASE OF FHtE 

US Patent No. 4,009,055; CI 429/112, (H01M 6/30), Appl 
3 Jun 1975, Disci. 22 Feb 1977, Priority: Japan, No. 
49-81,557, 15 Jul 1974, Assignee: Inventor 

The invention relates to a method of and an apparatus 
for producing electricity when a fire breaks out, the ap- 




160 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURES 

h. Protective Components and Control Systems- 



Continued 



paratus comprising a normally sealed vessel of breakable 
material having an amount of activation electrolyte therein 
and a water-activated cell provided close to the vessel 
and which can produce electricity when it touches the 
electrolyte, so that if a temperature rise is sensed the 
vessel is broken from which the electrolyte is burst out 
and the cell is activated by touching and reacting with 
the electrolyte. 15 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 



i. WATER SUPPLIES 

893. Kessinger WB 
FIRE HOSE CABINET 

US Patent No. 4,006,948; CI 312/242, (A47B 67/02), Appl 
23 Jan 1976, Disci. 8 Feb 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

A fire hose cabinet including a cabinet body with a 
hose-receiving spool mounted on a rear wall of the body 
is disclosed. A water line extends to an on-off valve 
located within the spool with the outlet of the valve 
running through a swivel to an elbow on the outside of 
the spool. A fire hose is attached to the elbow and 
wrapped around the spool. A door closing the open side 
of the cabinet may be readily opened to provide access 
to the fire hose when needed. 2 claims, 4 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




894. Thompson WS 

PRESSURE REDUCING FDIE VALVE 

US Patent No. 4,008,735; CI 137/495, (F16K 31/14), Appl 
13 Dec 1975, Disci. 22 Feb 1977, Assignee: Elkhart Brass 
Mfg Co, Inc, Elkhart, IN 



A fire valve having a cooperating valve seal and shifta- 
ble valve part is disclosed. The valve part is carried by 
a floating valve stem. The first valve includes a piston 
and cylinder combination which is operatively associated 
with the valve stem and which causes the valve part to 
be selectively spaced from the valve seat in response 
to fluid pressure in the valve. 5 claims, 5 drawing figs. 
(Author) 

4C 




6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. AGRICULTURE AND WILDLANDS 

[For more complete coverage of the forest fire litera- 
ture see Forest Fire Control Abstracts (Canada).] 

b. COMMERCIAL OCCUPANCIES 

895. Anon 

WORLD TRADE CENTER FIRE/COMMUNICATIONS 
SYSTEMS INSURE HIGH-RISE SAFETY 

Electr Constr Maint; 76(2):53-57, 1977 

A multifaceted life-safety/security system for the World 
Trade Center in New York City which integrates modern 
equipment and techniques to increase the comprehensive- 
ness of the existing network by extending the tenant and 
core-area fire detection and communications coverage 
(ionization detectors, audio amplifiers, and loudspeakers 
tied into a monitoring and control center) and establishing 
an automatic elevator recall procedure is described. 2 figs, 
11 photos. 

896. Dinner C 

FIRE PREVENTION IN HIGHRISE HOTELS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(161):46-50, 1976 (French) 

The economic and qualitative advantages of highrise 
buildings in the hotel business are well known. But there 
are police, municipal, and safety regulations relating to 
buildings, which are reported here by the author, who 
then goes into venting and removal of fire-generated 
smoke, the necessary firefighting aids, such as access for 



161 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

b. Commercial Occupancies- 



-Continued 



firefighting and extinguishing devices, pipelines for all 
kinds of extinguishants, detection and alarm installations, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems, sprinklers, water 
mains with connections, hand fire extinguishers, power 
generators, in-house fire extinguishing teams, and the like. 
The article concludes with some statistical data on the 
greatest fire damages of recent years. 4 figs. (RZh) 

c. ELECTRICAL 

897. Anon 

SAFE USE OF ELECTRIC POWER IN PLANTS WITH 
AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE [Bezopasnoe Primenenie 
Elektricheskoy Energii na Predpriyatiyakh so Vz- 
ryvoopasnoy Atmosferoy] 

AN SSSR. Sektor Fiz-tekhn Gornykh Probl In-ta Fiz 
Zemli, Moscow, USSR; 97 pages, 1976 (Russian) 

Computational and measurement methods of assessing 
the spark safety of electrical circuits by shortening the 
duration of electrical discharges are described in this 
digest of papers. The most dangerous conditions of labora- 
tory tests of circuits with high-speed protection are deter- 
mined on the basis of theoretical and experimental data. 
An examination is made of the problems of finding and 
studying new transformer components for sensors to 
monitor the explosion hazard of materials containing satu- 
rated hydrocarbons, as well as of the possibility of mass- 
spectrometric gas analyzers to monitor the atmosphere 
of facilities of the mining and oil-processing industries. 
(RZh) 

898. Wright LD [General Electric Co, Bloomington, IL] 
THE TESTING OF COMBINATION STARTERS IN EX- 
PLOSION-PROOF ENCLOSURES; Paper No. 76-25, 
Petroleum and Chemical Ind Conf, Annual, 23rd, Conf 
Record; 1976, Aug 30-31, Sep 1, Philadelphia, PA, pages 
234-237 

Sponsor: IEEE 

Explosion-proof enclosures for electrical equipment and 
the components mounted inside are tested at extremes 
of pressure in explosive atmospheres for the purpose of 
determining the margin of safety in the containment of 
electrically initiated explosions. Combination starters, 
which are a motor starter for machinery control in series 
with a circuit breaker for branch circuit protection, are 
one of the electrical products tested extensively. In explo- 
sionproof enclosures the combination starter interrupts 
current flow initiating the chemical explosion and also 
adds electrical energy to the internal energy of the enclo- 
sure. The results given here demonstrate the effects of 
short circuit energy contribution to the internal pressure 
in the enclosure. The various tests described here illustrate 
the steps taken to insure the margin of safe containment 
of explosions. These tests are necessary for the Un- 
derwriters' Laboratories (UL) label on explosionproof 
combination starters. 3 tables, 2 refs. (Author) 

899. Annemaler D [Chemisette Febrile Gruenau GmbH, 
Illertissen, FRG] 

FIRE PROTECTION OF ELECTRICAL CABLES IN IN- 
DUSTRIAL FAcmnES 
Chem Tech (Heidelberg); 6(5):201-205, 1977 (German) 



Polyvinylchloride is by far the most frequently used 
insulating and sheathing material for electrical cables in 
industry. But PVC cable fires result not only in immediate 
fire damages, but also in subsequent damages owing to 
the hydrogen chloride of the fire gases, namely, corrosion 
of machines, electrical installations, and electronic com- 
ponents and, finally, of the reinforcement in reinforced 
concrete. Fire damages from PVC cables can be 
minimized by coatings, by compartmenting, and by special 
fire partition walls. A report is made in this article on 
the potential direct and subsequent damages resulting from 
burning of such cables and the present-day possibilities 
of protecting electrical cables from fire. 9 figs, 10 refs. 

900. Davis RH [AMAX Coal Co, Indianapolis, IN, 
Information Services] 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS (FOR COMPUTERS) 
Data Manage; 14(1 1):11-14, 1976 

The consequences of fire to a computer facility with 
its essential electronic components, data storage devices, 
and stored data, and the steps involved in selecting an 
adequate fire protection system, as well as added mea- 
sures to be taken, are considered. 

901. Anon 

CABLE WITH FLAME- AND RADIATION-RESISTANT 
INSULATION 

Drahtwelt; 62(12):499, 1976 (German) 

A brief report is made of a new flame- and radiation- 
resistant electrical cable called Samicaflex-SI, which con- 
sists of stranded copper conductors whose main insulation 
is a wrapping of several layers of a combination of mica 
strips and glass fabric saturated with silicone resin. The 
insulation is resistant to incandescence, mineral ofl, and 
chemicals. It can withstand operating temperatures of up 
to 180°C, is flame- and radiation-resistant. 1 table. 

d. INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

902. Molinos OF 

FIRE FIGHTING MEANS 

ASELF; (58):49, 51, 53, 55, 61, 1976 (Spanish) 

Selecting the most expedient ways and means for fire 
protection of a plant and determining the number and 
time frame of fire prevention measures are preceded by 
a detailed analysis of the fire hazard of all production 
line premises and assemblies and determination of the 
degree of risk of fire outbreak and development in all 
stages of production. Fire protection measures are most 
effective when they are provided for in the design stage. 
If deviations from the fire safety standards have been 
permitted in some areas during design, these areas wul 
have to be watched carefully during operation. Proper 
attention must also be paid to training technical personnel 
in fire-extinguishing techniques using primary firefighting 
means. Sometimes it is expedient to install fixed fire- 
extinguishing systems which, along with other measures, 
may amount to 2% and sometimes 5% of the total cost 
of the plant. In addition, an all-encompassing fire suppres- 
sion plan should be developed for the plant (in case the 
fire spreads) which should include all technicians. (RZh) 



162 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

903. HerrickLK, Jr(Ed) 

INSTRUMENTATION FOR MONITORING TOXIC AND 

FLAMMABLE WORK AREAS 

Chem Engl Deskbook Issue; 83(22): 147-152, 1976 

The sources and effects of toxic gases and vapors, terms 
relating to the degree of exposure to toxic gases and 
vapors ("threshold limit value," "time-weighted average',' 
and "ceiling level"), monitoring techniques for single loca- 
tions, portable direct-reading instruments for toxic-gas de- 
tection, electrolytic-cell and flame-ionization detectors, 
flammable hazards, catalytic- and electrolytic-cell flamma- 
ble gas detectors and alarm signalling are discussed as 
they relate to protection against hazards typical of the 
chemical industry. 6 figs. 

904. Beddows NA 

SAFETY AND HEALTH CRITERIA IN PLANT LAYOUT 

Chem EnglDeskbook Issue; 83(22):133-136, 1976 

The principal parts of occupational industrial safety and 
health standards relating to walking and working surfaces, 
means of egress, health and environmental controls, 
hazardous materials, fire protection, compressed gas and 
equipment, machinery and machine guarding, welding, 
cutting and brazing, and the interrelationships of opera- 
tions and activities are reviewed. 2 figs. 

905. Weiby P and Dickinson KR [Hallanger Engineers, 
Inc, San Francisco, CA] 

MONITORING WORK AREAS FOR EXPLOSD7E AND 
TOXIC HAZARDS 

Chem EnglDeskbook Issue; 83(22): 139- 145, 1976 

Following a definition of explosive and toxic hazards, 
often existing simultaneously, sampling criteria are 
identified, representative sampling points are established, 
sample pretreatment for analysis, frequency of analysis, 
analytical equipment required and equipment selection 
criteria are discussed. A few of the applications of equip- 
ment, as well as some of the manufacturers of available 
equipment, are compiled in a table. General purchaser 
specifications for equipment are enumerated. Rapid 
identification of the location of a source of alarm is 
stressed. Problems of analysis of particle hazards are 
briefly examined. 5 figs, 2 tables. 

906. KingR 
PLANT HAZARDS 

Engineering (London); 216(4):277-279, 1976 

Designers of chemical process plants work under the 
handicap of not having any "hazard scale" on which they 
can base plant design and layout. Considered in this article 
is the question of whether the hazard potential of a plant 
or process is properly recognized in its design, in the 
standards and safety factors used in the design and con- 
struction and in the preventive and protective features 
employed, limited to the fire and explosion hazards as 
they apply to the United Kingdom. It is recommended 
that the UK employ a hazard index for process plants 
similar to that developed by the Dow Chemical Company 
in the USA in its Fire and Explosion Safety and Loss 
Prevention Guide. Hazard Classification and Protection, 
which was brought out in 1973. 16 refs. 



907. Waters D [Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd, Wilton, 
UK] 

THE FU*E PROTECTION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 

Fire; 70(867): 185- 186, 189, 1977 

Effective fire prevention and firefighting depend basi- 
cally on three important factors: knowledge of the condi- 
tions under which a substance will ignite; how the sub- 
stance burns once ignited; and how to deal with the situa- 
tion to prevent loss of life and to minimize damage. In 
addition, spread must be prevented by good separation, 
protection, effective isolation, and use of the correct 
firefighting media. Oa the basis of these considerations, 
the particular situation of hydrocarbon burning charac- 
teristics and the fire protection of petrochemical plants 
is considered. 

908. Yamoaka I 

COMPARISON OF METAL AND PLASTIC TANKS FOR 
THE STORAGE OF FTRE-HAZARDOUS PETROLEUM 
PRODUCTS 

Haikan to Sochi; 16(ll):20-27, 1976 (Japanese) 

The circumstances surrounding the outbreak, develop- 
ment and aftereffects of several major fires of fixed tanks 
for the storage of fire-hazardous petroleum products are 
described. The fires occurred as a result of the accumula- 
tion of considerable electrostatic potentials on the surface 
of the tanks during the transfer of contents and during 
storage. The mechanism of electrostatic charge formation 
on the surface of tanks of varying configuration made 
of various materials is analyzed. Some results of compara- 
tive tests of metal tanks and of tanks made of an FRP 
plastic especially developed for this purpose are 
presented. It is pointed out that positive experience has 
already been gained in the operation of FRP tanks in 
Japan and the USA, indicating improved dielectric and 
thermal properties of the new tank material. Tests have 
been carried out with 20-30,000-liter tanks. Recommenda- 
tions are made as to the safest methods of operating 
the tanks; in particular, a method has been developed 
for filling tanks with petroleum products with minimum 
electrification. In this method the filling hose is connected 
successively to connecting pipes mounted 0.8 meters apart 
around the top of the tank. The product is first passed 
through a lower connecting pipe located at the very base 
of the tank at a flow rate of 2 m/sec. Then, after the 
product being transferred has reached the 0.8 m mark, 
the filling hose is transferred to the next pipe, etc. During 
the tests the tank was also filled through a single pipe 
without a stop, the potential accumulated on the surface 
of the tank not exceeding the critical value, owing to 
the comparatively large surface conductivity of the FRP 
material. Data are presented which indicate that when 
mass produced the cost of FRP tanks is almost one-third 
that of steel tanks. 6 figs, 2 tables, 13 refs. (RZh) 

909. Pesyukov VN, VaysengoFts VA, Telyavskiy ID and 
Golubev RG [All- Union Res Inst for Explosion-Proof and 
Mine Electrical Equipment, USSR] 

NEW EXPLOSION-PROOF INDUCTION MOTORS FOR 
CLASS D7 EXPLOSION HAZARDS 
Prom Energ; (l):25-28, 1977 (Russian) 

New induction motors for use with class-IV explosion 
hazards in the power range of 2.2 to 11 kW have been 



163 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies — Continued 

developed by the All-Union Research Institute for Explo- 
sion-Proof and Mining Electrical Equipment of the USSR. 
The motors are designed to drive various continuously 
operating mechanisms and can be installed in all classes 
of premises and on outdoor facilities where explosive 
class-IV vapor-gas-air mixtures can form. These motors 
are widely used in the chemical, gas, petrochemical and 
other branches of industry in geographical areas with tem- 
perate and tropical climates. 1 fig, 1 table, 2 refs. 

910. Wakabayashi K 

ANALYTICAL STUDY OF A COMPLEX (FIRE- AND EX- 
PLOSION-HAZARDOUS) SYSTEM 

Soda to Enso; 27(ll):367-382, 1976 (Japanese) 

Interim results are presented of continuing analytical 
studies aimed at model mathematical description of com- 
plex fire- and explosion-hazardous systems to determine 
the relationships between their fire and explosion hazard 
(in definite units of measurement) and analogous and other 
reliable indicators of components, individual assemblies, 
parts and elements comprising, in combination, complex 
systems. It is pointed out that at each instant of time 
the probability of the fire state of a system (eg, an indus- 
trial system) will depend in the future only on its state 
and extraneous factors affecting the system during the 
following time period. In this case the probability of a 
given fire state depends on when and how (in the past) 
the system reached this state. Thus, from the viewpoint 
of deterioration and the resultant fire hazard, the process 
of change of the fire hazard can be considered as a Mar- 
kov process, because for cases of complex technical as- 
semblies the random Markov processes are determined, 
in which the future development depends only on the 
present status and not on the "pre-history" of the process. 
An analytical calculation of the fire hazard is made by 
the methods of the theory of Markov processes using 
the example of an abstract technical aggregate with 
statistical reliability factors given in general form. 8 figs, 
4 tables, 4 refs. (RZh) 

911. Wakabayashi K 

FDtE AND EXPLOSION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY 

Soda to Enso; 27(8):264-282, 1976 (Japanese) 

A method of analytical simulation of large systems 
(production-line systems and complexes) is developed for 
the purpose of determining their fire and explosion safety 
from the fire and explosion safety of their individual com- 
ponent assemblies and sub- assemblies. The method makes 
it possible to calculate the fire safety of industrial 
processes and systems on a computer by a program using 
statistical evaluation methods. In the present stage of the 
research, the possibilities of applying the theory of con- 
tinuous Markov chains have been determined. It is as- 
sumed that from the viewpoint of fire and explosion 
safety, an industrial process or system can be in several 
different states corresponding to a range of minimum and 
maximum hazards as a function of the states of the assem- 
blies and sub-assemblies. It is shown that the mathemati- 
cal tool of the theory of continuous Markov chains makes 
it possible to set up linear differential equations for the 
state probabilities, as well as linear algebraic equations 
for the limit state probabilities that reflect the relative 
period of time the system is in each state. It is pointed 
out that these methods are a convenient mathematical 



apparatus only when the number of possible system states 
is comparatively small. When the number is large (tens 
or hundreds of states), this type of method becomes inap- 
plicable, because the simultaneous solution of a large 
number not only of differential, but also algebraic equa- 
tions, is difficult even using modern highly sophisticated 
computers. 19 figs, 4 tables, 14 refs. (RZh) 

912. Anon 

GUIDELINES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A PLANT 
FDtE PROTECTION PLAN 

Steir Feuerwehrbl; 26(2):11, 1977 (German) 

The specifications of existing directives for the 
establishment of fire protection plans for industrial plants 
are outlined. Deterrnining the extent of the plans depends 
on the size of the plant. Graphic diagrams of the arrange- 
ment of facilities and adjacent access routes are recom- 
mended as aides in formulating the fire protection plans. 
If there are multi-story buildings, each floor must have 
its own plan. The fire protection plan in written form, 
using conventional signs and symbols on the diagrams, 
should include the following information: building types, 
roof construction, fire barriers, and their purpose, en- 
trances, stairwells, etc; storage points for fire-hazardous 
and toxic materials; production systems and materials 
which will catch fire when exposed to moisture; the loca- 
tion of high-pressure containers and power-supply 
systems; water supplies for firefighting, firefighting and 
fire warning equipment, the location of chemical extin- 
guishers, the location of shutoff devices for gas, combusti- 
ble agents and power supply systems; and devices for 
actuating smoke removal systems. Appropriate supplemen- 
tal information is given for particularly hazardous areas. 
Copies of the plans are kept by the plant management, 
the responsible safety supervisor, and in the fire safety 
office. The fire protection plans are checked and corrected 
annually. (RZh) 

e. INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 

f. MINING 

[For more complete coverage of the mining literature 
see SMRE Safety In Mines Abstracts (UK).] 

913. Anon 

MINE SHAFT VENTILATION AND PREVENTION OF 
ENDOGENOUS FIRES [Ventilyatsiya Shakht i Preduprezh- 
denie Endogennykh Pozharov] 

Vost NTJ po Bezopasn Rabot v Gorn Prom-sti, USSR; 
168 pages, 1975 (Russian) 

Presented in this volume of papers, issue 26 in the 
series of transactions entitled Trudy Vostochnogo 
Nauchno-issledovateT skogo Instituta po Bezopasnoy 
Rabote v Gornoy Promyshlennosti, are the results of stu- 
dies of the aerogasdynamics of active mine workings, 
determination of the coefficient of respiration and the 
magnitude and rate of oxygen sorption as a function of 
the governing factors. A description is given of the 
method of choosing a rational variant of working mines 
based on the factor of methane Liberation into the 
workings. An estimate is made of air filtration rates in 
choosing ventilation schemes. Problems involved in 
prevention of endogenous fires are examined. The results 



164 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

f. Mining — Continued 

of studies devoted to increasing safety during work with 
explosives are reviewed. (RZH) 

914. Anon 

MINE VENTILATION AND SAFETY ENGINEERING 

[Rudnichnaya Ventilyatsiya i Tekhnika Bezopasnosti] 
Tekhniya, Kiev, USSR; 124 pages, 1977 (Russian) 

Articles devoted to aspects of ventilation and safety 
engineering of coal mines have been compiled in this 
digest, issue 46 in the series entitled Razrabotka 
Mestorozhdeniy Poleznykh Iskopaemykh. Rrspublikanskiy 
Mezhvedomstvennyy Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy Sbornik. The 
results of investigations aimed at combatting sudden erup- 
tions of coal, gas, and ores, at clarifying the role of 
the gas and the physico-mechanical properties of coal, 
and at the development of methods of predicting the ex- 
plosion hazard of coal seams are presented. Some of the 
articles are devoted to calculations of shaft ventilation 
and to ventilation control. Also examined are aspects of 
the thermal conditions in deep shafts, of thermal calcula- 
tions of mine workings during underground fires, and 
fighting fires in mine workings. (RZh) 

915. Lindenau NI, Maevskaya VM and Krylov VF 
ORIGIN, PREVENTION, AND EXTINGUISHMENT OF 
ENDOGENOUS FIRES IN COAL MINES 

[Proiskhozhdenie, Profilaktika i Tushenie Endogennykh 

Pozharov v Ugol'nykh Shakhtakh] 

Nedra Press, Moscow, USSR; 1st edit, 320 pages, 1977 

(Russian) 

The results of research aimed at determining the degree 
of spontaneous ignition of coal as a function of the genesis 
of coal and mining-geology factors are presented. Methods 
of determining the degree of spontaneous ignition of coal 
by samples extracted from mine workings and geological 
survey boreholes are examined. The characteristics of dis- 
tribution of the degree of spontaneous ignition of coal 
over the area of a seam and a method of predicting the 
spontaneous ignitability of coal in opened horizons and 
deposits under survey are outlined. Results of modeling 
the spontaneous-ignition process of coal and quantitative 
values of the basic factors governing the development 
of the process are given. A method is proposed for pre- 
dicting the endogenous fire hazard of fields being ex- 
cavated, and fire-safety methods of opening and preparing 
systems for developing and ventilation conditions of mines 
and stopes, as well as special fire-prevention measures, 
are considered. Ways and means of extinguishing en- 
dogenous underground fires and their range of application 
are examined. The book is intended for engineers and 
technicians of plants of the coal industry, planning and 
research institutes. 94 figs, 53 tables, 90 refs. (Author) 

916. Cooper LR [Nat Coal Board, Mining Res and Dev 
Estab, Burton-on-Trent, UK] 

TRANSDUCERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 

IN BRITISH COAL MINES; Paper No. 28, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

The requirements for transducers to monitor the pit en- 
vironment and details of portable and semi-portable or 



fixed instruments are described. The concept adopted is 
that of unitized instruments which connect to an indepen- 
dent data transmission system by a standard interface. 
The first of these instruments, the BM1 methane monitor, 
illustrates these principles and additional requirements of 
operational safety. Many parts of the BM1 are used with 
other monitors, for airflow, conditions in the methane 
drainage (concentration, suction and flow) and tempera- 
ture and humidity, whose sensors are individually con- 
sidered. Work on fire detection and towards carbon 
monoxide and oxygen sensors is described, together with 
some details of peripheral equipment such as power sup- 
plies and zener diode barriers. 15 pages, 7 figs, 8 refs. 
(Author) 

917. Formica PM and Smith NS, Jr [West Virginia Univ, 
Dept Elect r Eng, Morgantown, WV] 
CHARACTERIZATION OF TAGUCHI GAS SENSORS; 

Paper No. 27, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

Taguchi Gas Sensors are metal-oxide semiconductor 
devices which exhibit resistance changes when exposed 
to combustible gases. Tests were conducted to determine 
the dependance of sensor sensitivity upon gas type, sensor 
heater voltage and gas relative humidity. Results of these 
tests and long-term baseline studies are presented, and 
an equivalent circuit for the gas sensor is proposed and 
evaluated. 18 pages, 10 figs, 1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

918. Johnson GA [US Bureau Mines, Twin Cities Mining 
Res Center, Minneapolis, MN] 

DEVELOPMENT OF A MINE SHAFT FIRE AND SMOKE 

PROTECTION PROTOTYPE SYSTEM; Paper No. 20, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

In May of 1974 the Bureau of Mines let a metal and 
nonmetal health and safety contract to FMC Corporation, 
San Jose, Calif, to 1) evaluate the mine shaft fire and 
smoke hazard problem, and 2) develop and demonstrate 
a low-cost, reliable mine shaft fire and smoke protection 
system. This system was to be flexible in design so that 
(with modifications) it would be applicable to the majority 
of noncoal shafts and shaft stations, especially for deep 
mines. After the definition of the fire and smoke problem, 
which was accomplished by extensive in-mine examina- 
tions of the hazard, and analysis of the qualitative infor- 
mation available, the design criteria for the system were 
defined in the winter of 1974-75. The system involves 
both thermal and smoke detectors, and remotely con- 
trolled smoke doors and sprinklers. Fire testing of the 
system's prototype hardware was conducted in March 
1975 in a shaft/shaft station mockup built at FMC's facili- 
ties in San Jose, Calif. An in-mine demonstration of the 
system (involving the successful sensing and remote extin- 
guishment of an actual fire) took place in April of 1975. 
The shaft fire testing was conducted in the SUver Summit 
shaft near Wallace, Idaho. Long-term, in-mine validation 
tests of the system and cost-effectiveness evaluations of 
optional designs are currently underway via a 15-month 



165 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

f. Mining — Continued 

followup contract modification which started in July of 
1975. This paper outlines the steps taken by FMC and 
the Bureau to define the mine shaft fire and smoke hazard 
problem, then design and in-mine test prototype hardware 
for a shaft fire system that is better than the shaft collar 
water ring now commonly used. 4 pages. (Author) 

919. Wagner JP [Gillette Res Inst, Rockville, MD] 
EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETECTING LN- 
CD7LENT FIRES IN MINES; Paper No. 30, 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, Proc; 1976, Aug 

4-6, Morgantown, WV 

Sponsor: WV Univ, College of Eng, and IEEE Ind Appl 

Soc 

Performance data are presented for products of com- 
bustion, optical view-field and contact type fire detectors 
for a range of simulated mine environmental extremes. 
Pyrolytic, flaming, and smoldering combustion conditions 
were investigated in two test chambers — a Factory Mu- 
tual (FM) GRI modified smoke box and a 4' x 4' x 8' 
Qength, width, height) enclosure employing a radially ex- 
panding ceiling jet. The fuels examined included various 
plastics, moist and dry wood, liquid hydrocarbons, and 
a standard calibration source — punk smoke. Mine am- 
bient contaminants included water mists and rock dust 
clouds. Detector performance was related to smoke con- 
centration expressed in terms of percent obscuration per 
foot, Ou, derived from attenuation of a light beam of 
fixed path length. Detailed functional dependences of Ou 
or the percent obscuration per foot at alarm, Ou* (for 
those detectors that have present alarm conditions), on 
flow velocity and rate of generation of smoke expressed 
by AOu/At were obtained for pyrolytic combustion. The 
effect of particle size on the performance of ionization 
detectors was also investigated. A pneumatic gas sampling 
system was developed, and associated data are presented. 
15 pages, 4 tables, 17 refs. (Author) 

920. Schwetzoff V 

PROCEDURE AND APPARATUS FOR THE REDUCTION 
OF LIFE SAFETY HAZARDS FROM EXPLOSIONS AND 
FERES IN AREAS OF ACCUMULATION OF GAS, DUST, 
AEROSOLS OR FLAMMABLE SOLIDS OR LIQUIDS 
French Patent No. 2,313,092; CI A62C 39/00; E21F 5/00, 
17/18; G01N 33/22, Appl 4 Apr 1975, Disci. 4 Feb 1977, 
Assignee: Inventor 

A patent is disclosed for procedures and apparatus 
designed to perform direct tests of the flammability of 
gases or flammable mixtures under conditions presenting 
the risk of explosion or fire, eg, in a gassy coal mine. 
The distinctive feature of the invention is that testing 
is triggered by remote control, in the absence of person- 
nel, who would be exposed to the risk. 12 claims, no 
drawing figs. 

921. Hinsley RS, Roebuck B and Rooker K 
IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO A DEVICE 
FOR RAPIDLY DISCHARGING LIQUID 

UK Patent No. 1,466,675; CI FIR, I5A, A5A 28, (F04B 
9/12), Appl 8 Jun 1973, Disci. 9 Mar 1977, Assignee: 
The Secretary of State for Energy, London, UK 

According to the present invention, a device for rapidly 
discharging a liquid when actuated by a wind or rise in 



dynamic atmospheric pressure comprises a container for 
the liquid, a second container which can be charged with 
a compressed gas, barrier means for normally forming 
a barrier between the first and second containers, and 
vane means displaceable in use by a wind or rise in 
dynamic atmospheric pressure arranged to remove the bar- 
rier formed by the barrier means on displacement, 
whereby the compressed gas is released into the first con- 
tainer and the liquid is rapidly discharged. The device 
is suitable for preventing an explosion from propagating 
along a tunnel by spraying water in a flat sheet across 
the tunnel. 

922 Eicker H 

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE 
CONCENTRATION OF ONE GASEOUS COMPONENT 
IN A MIXTURE OF GASES 

US Patent No. 4,012,692; d 324/71 SN, (G01N 27/12), 
Appl 12 Sep 1974, Disci. 15 Mar 1974, Assignee: West- 
faelische Berggewerkschaftskasse, Bochum, FRG 

The concentration of one or more gaseous components 
of a mixture of gases is determined using a metallic oxide 
semiconductor, the electrical resistance of which changes 
in the presence of reducing gases. The speed of reaction, 
relative to the speed of sorption and desorption, of dif- 
ferent gases with the semiconductor varies at different 
temperatures. Since the speed of reaction of a hydrocar- 
bon is substantially lower at certain temperatures than 
the speed of reaction of carbon monoxide, carbon monox- 
ide can be indicated at those temperatures while the varia- 
tion in resistance determined by hydrocarbons is negligibly 
small. 18 claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 

g. POWER PLANTS 

h. PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

I. RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

923. Gaydukov NS 

TORE SAFETY OF RESIDENTIAL AND PUBLIC 

BUILDINGS [Pozharnaya Bezopasnost Zhilykh i 

Obshchestvennykh Zdaniy] 

Budivel'nik Press, Kiev, USSR; 3rd edit, 168 pages, 1977 

(Russian) 

The book contains fire safety specifications for general 
plans and structural details of buildings. The problems 
examined in the book are as follows: the fire -resistance 
maximum number of floors for residential and public 
buildings; fire protection requirements for interior design 
and emergency evacuation of these buildings; fire com- 
part mentation; fire-resistance requirements for structural 
components; fire safety of heating and ventilating systems; 
electrical equipment; the design of all types of water 
supply systems for firefighting; and the design and 
description of new electrical fire alarm and automatic gas 
fire extinguishing systems. The book can be used as a 
manual in the design, construction, and operation of re- 
sidential and public buildings. It is intended for design 
engineers, builders, fire service personnel, and for stu- 
dents of construction and fire-engineering educational in- 
stitutions. 11 figs, 35 tables, 23 refs. (Author) 



166 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

i. Residential Occupancies — Continued 

924. OUe-Domingo P 

FIRE PROTECTION IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING 

ASELF; (58):73, 79-80, 1976 (Spanish) 

In recent decades the fire hazard of residential buildings 
has been reduced appreciably by the broad use of fire- 
resistant building structures made of brick, concrete, stuc- 
co, etc. But the interiors of dwellings contain combustible 
materials (furniture, clothing, coverings, books, etc). The 
problem of ensuring the fire safety of residential buildings 
is acute in connection with the construction of multi-story 
buildings, in which fire extinguishment and evacuation of 
residents present obvious difficulties. The Spanish Hous- 
ing Resources Ministry, in 1974, issued instructions relat- 
ing to the maintenance of fire safety standards in re- 
sidential buildings. In particular, these instructions 
specified the fire endurance limit of load-bearing walls 
to be 60 min. The width of door openings must not be 
less than 1.2 m. A residential building must not have 
fewer than two evacuation routes at least 1.2 m wide 
for 750 m 2 of living space or 7 apartments and two routes 
not less than 1.5 m wide for 4,500 m 2 or 45 apartments. 
The standards stipulate separation by fire-resistant parti- 
tions of floors, stairwells, areas in which elevator equip- 
ment is housed, etc. The necessity of installing fire 
hydrants, extinguishers, firefighting water lines, sprinklers, 
and detectors is pointed out. (RZh) 

j. TRANSPORTATION (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 

925. Brown AS and Wadhwa KB [Fluor Engrs and 
Constructors, Inc, Los Angeles, CA] 

ELECTRICAL SAFETY AT DOCKS FOR SHIPS TRANS- 
FERRING HAZARDOUS CARGOS; Paper No. 7646 
Petroleum and Chemical Ind Conf, Annual, 23rd, Conf 
Record; 1976, Aug 30-31, Sep 1, Philadelphia, PA, pages 
288-294 
Sponsor: EEEE 

The absence of regulations and codes for protecting 
against the danger of spark occurrence when ships are 
transferring hazardous cargos warrants the necessity for 
reviewing present practices. This paper discusses bonding 
and isolating methods and lists the procedures used by 
concerned industries and major harbor and port authorities 
throughout the world. The paper should be read keeping 
in mind the necessity for a worldwide uniform code. 
Sources of ignition are also discussed, including a review 
of the nature of electrical currents and potentials in ship- 
to-shore faculties. 2 figs, 13 refs. (Author) 

926. Troy JJ 

FIRE PROTECTION FOR RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS 

Fire Internal; 5(55):81-87, 1977 (English, French, German; 
Spanish Summary) 

This article is essentially identical to one published in- 
F'vre J 70(1):13-17, 1976. For a review see abstract 401 
in FTA 1(1/2), 1976. 

927. Richwien A 

FIRE PROTECTION OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 

Schienenfahrzeuge; 20(11):396, 1976 (German) 

Owing to the large quantities of fuel and lubricants and 
the high exhaust temperatures, diesel locomotives present 
an especially high fire hazard. The most frequent fire 



causes are deficiencies or defects in the electrical heating. 
Various measures being taken by the Deutsche Reichsbahn 
(GDR) to correct these faults in the newer locomotives 
are described. 

928. Gooden WE [Parsons, Brinkerhqff, Quade and 
Douglas, Inc, Tudor Eng Co] 

METROPOLITAN ATLANTA RAPID TRANSIT 

AUTHORITY (MARTA) FIRE PROTECTION, LIFE 

SAFETY, AND SYNTHETIC MATERIALS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

An effort is made to give some exposure to the con- 
siderations of fire protection or fire safety in the planning, 
design, construction, and eventual operation of a rail 
rapid-transit system involving a variety of factors, ie, con- 
sideration of the f acuities, vehicle, operations planning 
in cooperation with public agencies, etc. The paper is 
accompanied by 33 pages of charts, graphs, and diagrams 
illustrating the MARTA system and systems planning. 28 
pages. 

929. Litant I [Dept Transport, Cambridge, MA, Transport 
Systems Center] 

ITRE HAZARDS IN MASS TRANSPORTATION 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Fire is considered by transport officials to be the prin- 
cipal safety threat in mass transportation and will become 
increasingly so as plastics replace metal at an accelerated 
pace. Materials selection is a primary way to reduce the 
fire hazard. A subway train on fire in a tunnel is an 
example of a fire situation unique to this mode of trans- 
portation. A fully automated, unattended transit vehicle 
operating on a guideway requires a somewhat different 
view of the potential of its particular hazards. Materials 
of concern in ground transportation vehicles in various 
applications are discussed. A major material research pro- 
gram whose fire goals have been defined in advance and 
whose performance will be measured by adequate test 
methods is recommended. 13 pages. 

930. Sheehan DF [US Coast Guard, Merchant Marine 
Tech Div] 

A SURVEY OF POLYMER USE IN INTERNATIONAL 
SHIPPING 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The evolution of fire safety requirements for interna- 
tional shipping is outlined. Detailed attention is paid to 
the "hotel" or quarters areas of passenger, cargo and tank 
vessels. 31 pages, 8 refs. (Author) 

931. Taylor AM [Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seattle, 
WA\ 

WIRE AND CABLE INSULATION FOR RAPID TRANSIT 
SYSTEMS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 



167 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) — Continued 

The results of a DOT (Department of Transportation) 
funded program to develop a standard flarnmability test, 
smoke emission test, and toxic gas evolution test applica- 
ble to electric wire and cable insulating materials for use 
on rapid transit systems are presented. The tests are in- 
tended to be applicable to wire and cable used in rapid 
transit vehicles and associated wayside stations. Included 
is a discussion of the need for such standard tests, the 
criteria for the selection of a test method, the development 
of the test details, a description of the standard tests, 
and the results of applying the tests to wire and cable 
insulating materials presently in use on rapid transit 
systems and to the newer polymeric materials being 
proposed as candidates for application to rapid transit 
systems. (A two-page comment on the paper is contained 
within the volume of proceedings.) 41 pages, 14 figs, 5 
tables. (Author) 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. ADMINISTRATION, ORGANIZATION AND 
MANAGEMENT 

932. Rozmyslowski U [Offiziersschule des Heeres, 
Hannover, FRG] 

THE ARMY LEADERSHIP SYSTEM 
Brandschutz; 3i(5):125-132, 1977 (German) 

Despite the difference in mission of the military and 
the fire service, and the means used by the two, they 
still have many points in common in fulfilling their mis- 
sion. The Army leadership system in particular exhibits 
numerous correlations: in both cases teamwork is in- 
volved, in both organizations the leaders must clarify the 
situation, must reconnoiter, specify, and determine the 
means and manpower, set up and assign plans by which 
these means can be set in motion and made effective. 
Team work is a necessity, because one man alone cannot 
control, lead, change and improve everything at the same 
time. This cooperation can be achieved only by firm, 
well-thought-out, logical, detailed, and authoritarian 
leadership. All these aspects are illustrated on the basis 
of the service regulation HDv 100/200 and the affinity 
of concepts is emphasized despite deviations. 6 figs, 17 
refs. (Fachdok 13/0874) 

933. Ulrich RL [Montgomery College, Rockville, MD] 
IS A COMBINATION DEPARTMENT THE ANSWER? 

Fire Command; 44(10):26-27, 1977 

In view of the finding that fire departments made up 
of a combination of fully paid and volunteer personnel 
were more cost effective than fully paid or fully volunteer 
departments, the author discusses the best features of 
the paid and volunteer organizations that might be com- 
bined to improve service. 

934. MacGillivray L, Vickery WE, Coulter PB and 
Plotecia SS [Research Triangle Inst, Research Triangle 



Park, NC, Center for Population and Urban-Rural 
Studies] 

EVALUATING THE ORGANIZATION OF FDRE SER- 
VICE DELIVERY 

Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Symp, Second, 

Proc, Vol 5; 1976, Nov 7-9, Washington, DC, pages 61- 

64 

Sponsor: National Science Foundation 

The evaluation of fire service delivery or- 
ganization according to effectiveness and efficiency 
criteria involving the identification and inventory of the 
various arrangements for delivering fire prevention and 
fire suppression services in towns and cities of moderate- 
ly-sized metropolitan areas is considered. The fire service 
performance measures are evaluated in relation to major 
municipal characteristics and reported in such a way that 
local fire and city administrators are able to compare their 
service delivery characteristics to others operating in 
similar city circumstances. (Author) 

b. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

935. Simon R [Hannover Fire Dept, FRG\ and Prendke 

W-D 

AGBF SEMINARS FOR LEADERSHIP PERSONNEL. 

SEMINAR IN FIRE SERVICE LEADERSIflP TRAINING. 

5th SEMINAR IN HANNOVER AND 6th SEMINAR IN 

MUENSTER/WESTPHALIA 

Brandschutz; 31(5):133-141, 1977 (German) 

The program of the fifth seminar of the AGBF (Study 
Group of Professional Fire Service Commanders) was for- 
mulated on the basis of the results of the four preceding 
seminars. Program subjects were: task-oriented theoretical 
preparation for staff work; rescue service leadership exer- 
cises under optimally real conditions; breaking up and 
quartering the staff; proposals for transition from normal 
fireground leadership to rescue-service staff work; rational 
distribution of tasks among the staff personnel; and writ- 
ten transmission of messages and assignments. After hav- 
ing developed the principles of leadership concepts, the 
sixth seminar was devoted to instructional activities. A 
report is made on a staff operational exercise in which 
it was assumed that an earthquake had occurred in Stutt- 
gart. (Fachdok 13/0898) 

936 Hnncock J. 

TRAINING BY OBJECTIVES. PART 4 

Fire Command; 44(10):28-29, 1977 

In the final installment of this four-part series on syste- 
matic preparation of training sessions the author describes 
how training oficers can measure the effectiveness of 
the ''training-by -objective'' instruction method by post- 
testing. The type of test to be designed is a criterion- 
referenced test in which the individual either knows the 
answer or does not. This test should be identical to the 
pre-test so as to obtain an absolute measurement of skills. 
(For the first three installments, consult the Source Index 
under Journals, Fire Command, 44(7):38-39, 44(8):36-37, 
and 44(9):54-55, 1977 in FTA, 2(1/2).) 1 chart. 

937. Wilkinson C 

ONTARIO FIRE COLLEGE IS UNIQUE IN NORTH 

AMERICA 

Fire Fighting Canada; 21(3):8-9, 1977 



168 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

b. Education and Training — Continued 

With a staff of four instructors, including a principal, 
senior instructor, and a research engineer, the Ontario 
Fire College in Gravenhurst, Canada, offers a degree 
course in Fire Prevention Technology. The rigorous course 
contains three units, usually taken by a student over a 
three-year period, and offers both academic and practical 
experience in fire prevention, firefighting operations, and 
management of a fire department. Admissions, curricula, 
teaching aids, techniques and apparatus, exercises, etc, 
are described. 3 photos. 



938. Slater TR [Ansul Co, Marinette, WI\ 
FIRE SIMULATOR PROVIDES NEW 
TRAINING 

Fire J; 71(3): 107-108, 1977 



CONCEPT IN 



This article contains a brief description of and ex- 
perience gained with a new fire simulation system which 
has been embodied in US Patent No. 4,001,949, and is 
reviewed in this issue of FT A (consult the "Source Index" 
under Patents, US). 2 figs, 1 photo. 

939. Blackstop D [Fire Service Tech College, UK\ 
TRAINING PERSONNEL TO DEAL WITH MAJOR IN- 
CIDENTS AT PETROCHEMICAL INSTALLATIONS 

Fire Prot Rev, 40(443): 30-31, 1977 

This article is an extended summary of a paper 
presented at a two-day operational study of fire safety 
in the petrochemical industry held recently at the Fire 
Service Technical College, UK, dealing with the role of 
the Fire Service Technical College in training local 
authorities and industrial fire service personnel to deal 
with major incidents at petrochemical installations. The 
responsibility for carrying out the functions of petroleum 
licensing is in the hands of county and metropolitan coun- 
ty authorities, two-thirds of whom have transferred this 
responsibility to the fire brigades. The fire brigade officers 
are trained in specialized courses for petroleum officers 
at the college. The course topics, tactical exercises, and 
the various specialized courses for fire prevention and 
petroleum officers are outlined. 

940. Pipes TV [Nat Athletic Health Inst, Inglewood, CA] 
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FIRE FIGHTING 
RECRUITS TO HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING 

J Occup Med; 19(2):129-132, 1977 

Data were obtained for 20 fire department recruits be- 
fore and after a ten-week training program. Training con- 
sisted of interval running and circuit weight training. At 
the conclusion of the training program several parameters 
were examined. Total work capacity assessed on a bicycle 
ergometer significantly increased (27.3%) with a concomit- 
tant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (33.2%). Physical 
performance tests given showed marked increases in 12- 
foot rope climb, 600-yard run, pushups, situps, and leg 
lifts. Physical strength also showed significant increases 
for the bench press (18.5%), military press (19.4%), pull- 
down (11.7%), biceps curl (16.2%) and leg press (18.7%). 
Training of this nature also brought about significant 
changes in body composition of the recruits. The sub- 
scapula and abdomen skinfold sites showed significant 
decreases of -9.6% and —11.9%, respectively. Body seg- 
ment circumferences showed significant changes for 
shoulder, thigh, flexed biceps and abdomen. The skinfold 



and circumference measures reflected changes in lean 
body weight (2.6%), absolute body fat (-13.4%), and rela- 
tive body fat (-13.7%). It has been shown that interval 
training and circuit weight training significantly increase 
the physical performance capacities of the recruits. It has 
been suggested, due to the tremendous cost to the county 
and city agencies, as well as to the aspiring recruit, that 
a preliminary physical training program be implemented 
to reduce the dropout rate of recruits during the tower 
training drills. 5 tables, 16 refs. (Author) 

941. Francis DN 

DYNAMIC FHtE SIMULATOR AND TRAINER 

US Patent No. 4,001,949; CI 35/10, (G09B 9/00), Appl 
9 May 1975, Disci. 11 Jan 1977, Assignee: The Ansul 
Co, Marinette, WI 

A method and system are patented for providing realistic 
on-line fire responses in accordance with the accuracy 
of an on-line firefighting sequence employed by a 
firefighter, including the steps of dynamically simulating 
the occurrence of an actual fire, establishing a predeter- 
mined firefighting sequence to be followed by the 
firefighter for properly extinguishing the simulated fire, 
monitoring the actual on-line firefighting sequence em- 
ployed by the firefighter in fighting the simulated fire, 
comparing the actual firefighting sequence employed by 
the firefighter with the predetermined firefighting 
sequence, and providing a reaction in accordance with 
a correspondence between the actual on-line firefighting 
sequence employed by the firefighter and the pre-deter- 
mined firefighting sequence to provide realistic on-line fire 
responses. 12 claims, 22 drawing figs. (Author) 




c. FACILITIES 

942. Korschinsky J [Augsburg Prof Fire Dept, FRG] 
EXPERffiNCE WITH A CONTROL COMPUTER IN THE 
AUGSBURG PROFESSIONAL FDtE DEPARTMENT 

Brandschutz; 31(5):121-124, 1977 (German) 



169 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

c. Facilities — Continued 

The first computer-assisted control center provided with 
the Siemens EZ 2000 F system has been in operation 
in the new central fire station of the city of Augsburg 
(FRG) since the spring of 1975. A brief review of the 
structure and potentials of the first installation serves as 
introduction to a report on the experience gained in 
system operations during the two years of existence of 
the facility. The report also includes the duties and 
responsibilities of the individual personnel at their control 
desks. 10 figs. (Fachdok 13/0921) 

94 3. Vor ob'ev R 

SAFETY OF THE GAS AND SMOKE PROTECTION 

TEAM 

Pozhar Delo; (1):28, 1977 (Russian) 

A noncontact induction system called "Kvadrat'' which 
is designed for monitoring the location and movement 
of gas and smoke protection firefighter training in the 
smoke chamber, is considered. The operating principle 
of the system is based on vectoring in on a miniature 
generator placed in the firefighters' clothing. For this pur- 
pose a system of mutually perpendicular loops consisting 
of coils of wire is arranged on the floor of the smoke 
chamber above the concrete layer. The generator causes 
electromagnetic oscillations with a frequency of 2,000 Hz 
and a power of 0.2 W. The emf produced in the loops 
are measured by an automatic device and, after amplifica- 
tion, are transmitted to a panel with neon lamps for visual 
determination of the location of the firefighters. 4 figs. 
(RZh) 

944. Francis DN 

DYNAMIC FIRE SIMULATION AND FKEFIGHTING 
TRAINING PROCEDURE AND DEVICE 

French Patent No. 2,310,602; CI G09B 9/00, A62C 1/00, 
Appl 7 May 1976, Disci. 7 Jan 1977, Priority: USA, Appl. 
No. 576,218, 9 May 1975, Assignee: The Ansul Co, 
Marinette, WI, USA 

For a description of this invention, see US Patent 
4,001,949 by consulting the "Source Index" in this issue 
of FTA. 14 claims, 22 drawing figs. 

d. FIRE APPARATUS 

945. Levy R 

THE ODDBALL FDIE ENGINE INDUSTRY 
Dun's Rev; 109(l):52-55, 1977 

The economics and business prospects of the US fire- 
equipment makers, particularly with regard to supplying 
the needs of small towns for highly specialized equipment, 
sales abroad, and the impediments to standardization and 
mass-production represented by tailoring to customers' 
specifications, are discussed. 

946. MaedaK 

HYDRAULIC DEVICES OF FTRE APPARATUS 

Yuatsu Gijutsu; 15(14):52-60, 1976 (Japanese) 

The theoretical principles of hydraulics as they apply 
to actuators of various kinds used in the equipment of 
fire apparatus are outlined in brief. The design, diagrams 
and operating principle of hydraulic actuator mechanisms 
used in the most recent mass-produced models of US 
and Japanese fire apparatus are examined. These 



mechanisms are used principally in various shock absor- 
bers and in telescoping systems to raise extensible, multi- 
sectional ladders and articulated platforms to working 
levels. It is emphasized that modern hydraulic devices 
of this kind work under rigid constraints required to main- 
tain fire equipment in a state of operational readiness; 
in particular, a working pressure of 70-100 kgs/cm 2 is 
considered normal for telescopic hydraulic systems. As 
a -result, aerial ladders of these fire vehicles, which are 
designed to extinguish highrise building fires, can be raised 
to working levels in 20-30 sec. The reliability aspects of 
these hydraulic actuators are considered, and an analysis 
is made of the most promising trends in improving their 
design and increasing their specific technical and economic 
characteristics. 15 figs. (RZh) 

947. Nakai T 
HRE APPARATUS 

Japanese Patent No. 51-27960; CI 95 B 1, (A62C 27/00), 
Appl 6 Mar 1970, Disci. 16 Aug 1976, Assignee: Nittan 
Seiki KK, Japan 

The patent relates to a fire apparatus with a collapsible, 
articulated hydraulic elevating boom with fire hose laid 
along the boom section. The bottom end of the hose 
is connected to a hydrant when the fire apparatus reaches 
the fire scene, or to a pumper, while the top end of 
the hose is connected to a nozzle fixed to a rotatable 
turret located at the upper end of the boom. Room for 
a firefighter is also provided for on the turret. This design 
makes it possible for a firefighter to direct the hose at 
any point in space in the immediate vicinity of the seat 
of a fire or of a burning object and to move the turret 
and firefighter as the extinguishing operation progresses. 
Two models are proposed: one provides for ground 
(bottom) arrangement of the proportioner which mixes the 
extinguishant and water to be supplied to the hose, while 
the other model has the proportioner at the top in the 
firefighter's platform, the proportioner being connected 
directly with the playpipe. 2 drawing figs, 3 refs. (RZh) 

948. Adams TC 

INTERLOCK SYSTEM FOR EMERGENCY VEHICLES 

US Patent No. 4,010,814; CI 180/82 R, (B60K 26/02), 
Appl 16 Oct 1976, Disci. 8 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor 

An interlock system for an emergency vehicle includes 
a manual switch to be actuated by a crew member at 
a rear end of the vehicle for enabling the vehicle to be 
started only if he is at his post. The switch controls 
a relay for electrically energizing the wiper of a single- 
pole double-throw ignition switch which has a pair of 
contacts respectively feeding a starter switch and a buzzer 
to enable starting of the vehicle and to signal if the engine 
is shut off with the manual switch still actuated. A pair 
of indicator lamps, respectively located for view by the 
driver and the crew member, are energized in response 
to actuation of the manual switch to indicate that vehicle 
starting is enabled. 4 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

e. INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

949. Kulakovskiy AA 
ADVANCED INFORMATION CENTER 

Pozhar Delo; (1):23, 1977 (Russian) 



170 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

e. Information Systems — Continued 

An advanced information center is in operation in the 
Krasnogorsk region of the Moscow District. It is a district 
center for the exchange of the latest information on 
problems involving the organization of operational and 
administrative training and of fire suppression. Seminars 
are held at the center with personnel of the Fire Protection 
Administration, brigade chiefs, and chiefs of departments 
and units. The studies are conducted by supervisors in 
the Fire Protection Administration, the service and train- 
ing section, and the fire suppression staff. The visual 
aids used at the center include displays on how to organize 
housekeeping and operational training, diagrams on the 
use of the firefighting equipment of auxiliary centers, or- 
ganization of communications, with samples of operational 
plans and with fire-suppression charts for installations 
with particular fire hazards. (RZh) 

f. INSPECTION 

g. INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

950. Hrynchuk R [Royal Canad Mounted Police, Regina, 
Saskatchewan, Canada, Crime Detection Lab], Cameron 
R and Rodgers PG 

VACUUM DISTILLATION FOR THE RECOVERY OF 
FIRE ACCELERANTS FROM CHARRED DEBRIS 
Can Soc Forensic Sci J; 10(2):41-50, 1977 (English; French 
Summary) 

An improved design of a vacuum distillation apparatus 
and the procedure for recovering fire accelerants from 
charred debris are illustrated and described. The recovery 
of gasoline and fuel ofl from sawdust and charcoal is 
demonstrated with the aid of a GLC analysis of the 
vacuum distillates obtained. Vapor pressures at various 
temperatures of petroleum products are illustrated and 
discussed, along with the applicability of this technique. 
(Paper presented at the Canadian Society of Forensic 
Science Conference held in Ottawa in October, 1974.) 
9 refs. (Author) 

951. Blake WF [Royal Berkshire Fire Brigade and Fire 
Service Staff College, UK] 

FIRE INVESTIGATION GROUP FORMATION 

Fire Eng J, 37(107):39-42, 1977 

A number of ways are listed by which the British Fire 
Service could gain from an increase in the standard of 
fire investigation, such as accurate analysis of fire 
statistics, accurate determination of fire causes, enhancing 
the status by an intelligent and professional investigation 
into fire causes, and a well-publicized and strenuously 
applied arson deterring program. To aid the assessment 
of organization changes needed in brigades to deal with 
fire investigation more thoroughly, the methods adopted 
in some areas of the USA are analyzed and compared 
with those existing in the UK. A team formation is sug- 
gested; team personnel qualifications, training, equipment, 
liaison with police, and reports/photos, etc are discussed. 

952. Levinson DW [Univ Illinois, Chicago, IL, Dept 
Materials Eng] 

COPPER METALLURGY AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL 
FOR ANALYSIS OF THE ORIGPN OF BUILDING FIRES 

Fire Technol; 13(3):21 1-222, 1977 



Since copper electrical wiring is present in nearly all 
buildings, characteristic changes in the visual, mechanical, 
and microstructural characteristics of copper fire residues 
may give clues to the origin of, and causes of, building 
fires. Copper conductors and cast and stamped parts have 
distinctive characteristics as the result of the way they 
are made. These characteristics change in a distinctive 
way in the heat cycle to which they are exposed during 
a fire. To determine the heat exposure, it is necessary 
to grind the residue sample flat, polish, and etch chemi- 
cally to prepare the sample for microscopic examination. 
12 figs, 5 refs. (NFPA) 

953. Richards NF [Home Office, London, UK] 

FIRE INVESTIGATION — DESTRUCTION OF CORPSES 

Med Sci Law, 17(2):79-82, 1977 

Following a review of the investigative procedures to 
be applied in establishing the cause of a fire, a detailed 
examination is made of the case of an attempt at criminal 
destruction of a person by fire which was established 
in part by critical analysis of the pattern of destruction 
of the corpse. The time-destruction scale of a human body 
was drawn up from the performance characteristics of 
cremation ovens. The damage to the body was incon- 
sistent with exposure to general radiated heat and more 
consistent with either a very localized severe fire or, alter- 
natively, the fire damage to two areas of the body had 
been"assisted." (This paper was presented at the meeting 
of the British Academy of Forensic Sciences held in Lon- 
don on 21-22 May, 1976.) 

954. Stevens PJ [Queen Victoria Hosp, East Grinstead, 
UK, Dept Pathol] 

IDENTIFICATION OF BODIES FROM FIRES 

Med Sci Law; 17(2):95, 1977 

Fire and associated injuries complicate the task of 
identification of bodies from fires by: 1) making a body 
unrecognizable or difficult to identify visually; 2) destroy- 
ing clothing and documents; 3) distorting or destroying 
external physical features such as hair, skin bearing scars, 
tattoos or other blemishes and skin from fingers (prints); 
and 4) causing extensive loss of tissue such that whole 
members may be missing and internal organs completely 
destroyed. The most helpful means of identification of 
bodies, therefore, tend to be: 1) personal property of 
metal or other fire-resistant material; 2) x-rays; and 3) 
dental evidence. The way in which the relative value of 
various means of identification is influenced by the special 
circumstances of each accident is demonstrated, and the 
problems that arise -'kI the ways in which many are 
solved are exemplified by case histories of a number of 
aircraft accidents and house fire victims, the majority of 
which have been previously established. (Summary of a 
paper presented at the Meeting of the British Academy 
of Forensic Sciences held in London on 21-22 May, 1976.) 
1 ref. 

h. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

955. Mayer S [Stuttgart Prof Fire Service, FRG] 
BREATHING APPARATUS 

Brandschutz; 31(6):162-163, 1977 (German) 



171 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

h. Personal Equipment — Continued 

Breathing apparatus for fire-service use are reviewed. 
Discussed are dependent and independent devices, the 
former operating on ambient air, the latter being self- 
contained. Also described are regenerative devices for 
long-term use and the various masks, hoods, and 
mouthpieces. 

956. Cotabish HN and Davison FL 
SELF-RESCUE BREATHING APPARATUS 

French Patent No. 2,315,288; CI A62B 7/08; E21F 11/00, 
Appl 22 Jun 1976, Disci. 25 Feb 1977, Priority: USA, 
No. 590.382, 25 Jun 1975, Assignee: Mine Safety Ap- 
pliances Co, Pittsburgh, PA 

For a review of this patent, see US Patent No. 
3,980,081, abstract 2241, in FTA 1(6). 

957. Nyman RJ and Van der Walt JG 

BREATHING APPARATUS WITH RECIRCULATION 
PROPORTIONAL TO INHALATION OF A FRACTION 
OF THE EXHALED VOLUME 

French Patent No. 2,313,951; CI A62B 7/00; B63C 11/24, 
Appl 10 Jun 1976, Disci. 11 Feb 1977, Priority: Republic 
of South Africa, No. 75/3.762, 11 Jun 1975, Assignee: 
Inventors 

A patent is disclosed for a breathing apparatus of the 
type which provides for recovery of a chosen fraction 
of each volume of air exhaled to the inlet for a new 
inhalation cycle. The quantity of the recycled fraction 
varies as a function of the amplitude detected in the 
preceding inhalation cycle. The user samples the respira- 
tion mixture in a receptable communicating with a cylinder 
which contains a spring-driven piston. The pressure 
prevailing in the receptable, and therefore in the cylinder, 
at the end of each inhalation cycle determines the position 
of the piston. A chamber receives the exhaled air and 
relates to a degree dependent on this position, then the 
rest of the exhaled air is evacuated. 9 claims, 4 drawing 
figs. 

958. Auergesellschaft GmbH 
SUPPLEMENTARY FILTER 

FRG Patent No. 2^40,314; CI A62B 23/02, Appl 8 Sep 
1975, Disci. 10 Mar 1977, Assignee: Auergesellschaft 
GmbH, Berlin, FRG 

The invention relates to a supplementary filter for filters 
of breathing masks, consisting of a case with a container 
having a cover with a filter unit and filter block, a window 
in or on the container, either fixed or removable, disposed 
near the air exhaust side of the filter unit, with a means 
beneath the window to indicate exhaustion of the filter 
block. The supplementary filter is used to expand the 
capacity of the filters, to improve their effectiveness, and, 
especially, to increase the wearing time and therefore the 
operating time of the filters. 10 claims, 3 drawing figs. 

959. Mascher W 

AHt REGENERATION FILTER 

Swiss Patent No. 585,053; CI A62B 11/00; B01D 46/00; 
F24F 3/16, Appl 15 Nov 1974, Disci. 28 Feb 1977, Priority. 
FRG, No. 2,357,512, 17 Nov 1973, Assignee: Auer- 
gesellschaft GmbH, Berlin, FRG 

The invention relates to an air regeneration filter in 
a container with a chemical which liberates oxygen and 



binds carbon dioxide and a drying agent, with two 
openings on opposite sides, closable by friction-contact 
plugs, distinctive in that the construction of the filter al- 
lows for two flow directions, that markers are applied 
to the outer side of the container to indicate the expedient, 
climate-dependent flow direction, and that the drying 
agent, located ahead of the layer of chemical facing one 
of the openings, amounts to 10 to 50% of the total charge. 
5 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 

960. Frankenberger H 

METHOD FOR CONTINUOUSLY MEASURING THE 
C0 2 CONTENT IN BREATHING GASES 

US Patent No. 4,011,859; CI 128/2 C, (A61B 5/00), Appl 
2 Sep 1975, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Priority: FRG, No. 
2442589, 5 Sep 1974, Assignee: Draegerwerk AG, FRG 

The invention relates to a method of continuously mea- 
suring the CO2 content in breathing gases during inspira- 
tion and exhalation phases of breathing using a luminous 
source to pass infrared light rays through an interference 
filter accorded to CO2 and a conduit of the gas to a 
photodetector. It comprises passing the breathing gas 
developed during the breathing phases through the conduit 
to influence the photodetector to transmit a measured 
value signal in accordance with the CO2 content, directing 
the signal to a breathing air phase recognition unit, storing 
the maxima and the minima of the measured value signals 
in each breathing phase in a maximum storage and a 
minimum storage, dividing the stored values under the 
control of the recognition unit and directing the values 
to a computation unit to indicate the logarithm of the 
values so as to give an indication of the variations of 
the CO2 content. The indicated value is then directed 
to an indicating unit to show the value of the CO2. 3 
claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 

961. CalvanoNJ 

CONSIDERATIONS IN ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE 
CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL FIREFIGHTERS' HEL- 
METS. Nat Bureau Standards, Product Eng Div, Inst Appl 
Technol, Washington, DC; NBSIR 77-1251, 110 pages, 41 
figs, 31 refs. May 1977 
Availability: NTIS 

The report describes the development of performance 
criteria for firefighters' helmets. Biomedical and 
physiological considerations are discussed. Fire helmet 
constructions and test methods for impact attenuation, 
penetration resistance, heat resistance and flammability 
are described. Results of tests on various types of fire 
helmets are presented. A proposed standard for fire hel- 
mets is included. (Author) 

i. PERSONNEL AFFAIRS 

962. Ford RE 

FIREFIGHTER'S ENTRANCE HANDBOOK 

Davis Publ Co, Inc, Santa Cruz, CA; 1st edit, 367 pages, 
1977 

This guide has been designed to assist firefighter appli- 
cants in passing civil service tests and in securing an 
appointment in the fire service. The reasons for civil ser- 
vice examinations, how they are developed, how to study 
for them, tests of skills and abilities, test conditioning, 



172 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
i. Personnel Affairs — Continued 

kinds of questions, how to record answers, effective 
methods of advance studies and descriptions of civil ser- 
vice examinations are given. Sample tests of mathematics 
and mathematical concepts, alphabetical and numerical 
progression, geometrical figure analysis, reading com- 
prehension and judgment, chemistry and 
physics, "intelligence," and mechanical knowledge, and 
five sample fire service examinations form the core of 
the guide. 

963. Ko NWM, Kwan ASH and Chan WT [Univ Hong 
Kong, Hong Kong, Dept Mech Eng] 

FURTHER INVESTIGATION IN THE RESPONSES OF 
FIREMEN TO NOISE 

J Sound Vib; 49(4) : 575-591 , 1976 

A further study consisting of acoustic and subjective 
measurements of 552 Chinese firemen at 12 fire stations 
in Hong Kong has been carried out. Annoyance with air- 
craft and traffic noise conditions, as expressed by the 
firemen, was found to correlate well with the acoustic 
measurements. For aircraft noise the correlation of an- 
noyance with the Number and Noise Index (NNI) was 
slightly better than with the dB(A) peak value. For traffic 
noise the similar correlation with the mean sound pressure 
levels which exceeds 10% of the sampling period (Lio) 
was slightly better than with the Noise Pollution Level 
and Traffic Noise Index. The correlation of the arousal 
due to the aircraft and traffic noise was similarly found 
to depend on the NNI and Lio values. However, traffic 
noise was responsible for more disturbance than aircraft 
noise. The study demonstrated the desirability of adopting 
indoor acoustic measurements instead of outdoor measure- 
ments for any survey of this kind. 12 figs, 9 tables, 24 
refs. (Author) 

964. Kochan TA, Ehrenburg RG, Baderschneider RG, Jick 
T and Mironi M [Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY, NY State 
School of Indus! and Labor Relations] 

AN EVALUATION OF IMPASSE PROCEDURES FOR 

POLICE AND FIREFIGHTERS IN NEW YORK STATE: 

A SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Symp, Second, 

Proc, Vol 5; 1976, Nov 7-9, Washington, DC, pages 84- 

86 

Sponsor: National Science Foundation 

Evaluated in this project is a 3-year experimental ar- 
bitration procedure for police and firefighters in New 
York State. The central questions addressed are: Did the 
change to arbitration affect 1) the ability of the parties 
to reach an agreement without an impasse or in mediation, 
and 2) the level and/or distribution of wages and other 
terms of employment? A before-after quasi-experimental 
design including aggregate (statewide) and micro 
(bargaining relationship) comparisons was employed. The 
project is being conducted in cooperation with the NY 
State Public Employment Relations Board. The prelimina- 
ry findings were that the change in the law did not signifi- 
cantly increase or decrease the effectiveness of the bar- 
gaining prior to an impasse and/or the mediation process, 
nor did it significantly affect the level of wage settlements; 
however, it did result in a catch-up effect in wages for 
those units at the lower end of the wage distribution. 
However, an increasing rate of reliance on the impasse 



procedures has resulted over a number of years. It is 
recommended that the arbitration statute be extended, but 
that it be modified in a number of ways to attack some 
of the underlying problems of the bargaining and impasse 
resolution process. The recommendations will be 
presented at a symposium of legislative officials, practi- 
tioners, and experts in the field and will be included as 
part of the legislative hearings on the future of the law. 
(Author) 

j. PUBLIC RELATIONS 

k. TOOLS, APPLIANCES, AND GENERAL 
EQUIPMENT 

965. Albach AF 

EXTINGUISHING DEVICE WITH A MOVABLE FOAM 
NOZZLE 

FRG Patent No. 2^33,239; CI A62C 31/12, Appl 25 Jul 
1975, Disci, 27 Jan 1977, Assignee: Albach und Co, Frank- 
furt, FRG 

This invention relates to an extinguishing device with 
a foam nozzle movably attached to a playpipe, selectably 
movable to the operating or nonoperating position, novel 
in that the nozzle can be moved axially on the playpipe 
and can be disposed in at least two places by means 
of click-stop arrangements. 7 claims, 1 drawing fig. 

966. Komuro T, Oishi T and Kikuji A 
AUTOMATIC FIRE-HOSE WASHING DEVICE 

Japanese Patent No. 51-37462; CI 92(5) A 52, (B08B 1/02), 
Appl 7 Dec 1973, Disci. 15 Oct 1976, Assignee: Inventors 

This invention relates to the design and operating princi- 
ple of a device for cleaning and drying fire hoses after 
use. The device is driven by an electric motor and consists 
of a set of electromechanical gears which provide for 
stretching of the hose and rotation of brushes of varying 
configuration. The structure also includes showers for ef- 
fective washing of the hose surface with water and deter- 
gents. A distinguishing feature of the device is its high 
reliability, compact design, and high performance. For 
convenience in handling the device, it is mounted on a 
wheeled chassis. 4 drawing figs. (RZh) 

967. McDonald D and Williams MR 

AUTOMATIC COUPLING MECHANISM FOR HOSE 

DPPJS 

US Patent No. 4,012,002; CI 242/54R, (B65H 75/00), Appl 
19 May 1976, Disci. 15 Mar 1977, Assignee: FMC Corp, 
San Jose, CA 

This invention relates to a coupling mechanism for use 
in conjunction with a hose reel to automatically and selec- 
tively engage or disengage the reel and a motorized drive 
train. The coupling utilizes a sliding contact element on 
the drive train which is arranged to automatically engage 
one of a series of cooperating stop lugs on the reel to 
transmit the driving power of the motor to the rotatable 
reel. When the contact element is placed in a first posi- 
tion, it will be disengaged from the stop lug on the reel 
to allow the reel to rotate freely. When the contact ele- 
ment is shifted radially outwardly to a second position, 
it will automatically engage a stop lug, causing the reel 
to rotate under the power of the motor. The radial shifting 

173 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

k. Tools, Appliances, and General Equipment- 



Continued 



of the contact element between the two positions can 
be controlled by stopping the drive train at selected orien- 
tations. Also located within the coupling mechanism is 
a friction element designed to control through a drag force 
the movement of the reel when it is disengaged from 
the drive train. 8 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 




TO 



8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

a. COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALLING 

968. Anon 

BROOKLYN FIREFIGHTING UNITS RESPOND 

COMPUTER-AIDED DISPATCHING SYSTEM 

Computer Des, 16(11):48, 52, 56-58, 62, 64, 68, 1977 

In February, 1977, the borough of Brooklyn placed on- 
line a Management Information and Control System that 
provides computer assistance to the Brooklyn fire depart- 
ment communications facility. This system is capable of 
handling three alarms each minute with 1-sec cathode- 
ray -tube response time. A complete cycle, including 
receipt of alarm, selection of equipment, and relay of 
alarm and assignments to the watch desk, is performed 
in 40 sec or less. The system has two computers, online 
and standby, with dual microprocessor backup in the most 
critical area. The computers constantly maintain a chan- 
nel-to-channel link for interprocessor communications. If 
the online computer fails, the standby unit immediately 
assumes its duties with full access to all system com- 
ponents. The online computer processes alarms received 
from the old mechanical street boxes, from newer elec- 
tronic street boxes that permit voice communication as 
well as transmission of digital signals, and via direct 
telephone contact. The operational modes, comprising 



alarm receipt, decision dispatch, status recording, notifica- 
tion, status monitoring, and management information, are 
described and illustrated, as are the hardware and soft- 
ware. Future expansion of the system to all five New 
York City boroughs is outlined. 6 figs. 

969. Okuma J 

SUPPLEMENTARY SYSTEM FOR RADIO COMMUNI- 
CATIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FD2E SERVICE 
LAW 

Densetsu Kogyo; 23(l):27-42, 1977 (Japanese; 

Some problems connected with the design, development 
and use of emergency fire radio communications systems 
for operational reporting to urban fire units of the out- 
break of fire in premises equipped with such systems 
are analyzed. It is pointed out that when the local 
telephone network is overloaded or when the reliability 
of low-current wire communication networks is not very 
high, as is the case of urban telephone networks, greater 
attention should be paid to wireless communication 
systems, in particular radio systems in the 30-500 MHz 
range. Depending on the load carried by the radio chan- 
nels, as well as on the atmospheric or any other conditions 
of signal propagation over the radio link in such systems, 
the quality of communication may fluctuate appreciably, 
but the reliability of getting into communication, which 
is most essential for emergency radio communications 
systems, remains stable and quite high in such systems. 
Considered here are the particulars of constructing such 
systems for premises located underground or in the un- 
derground floors of buildings. In this case particularly 
rigid demands are imposed on the technical, economic 
and operational parameters of the coaxial radio-frequency 
cables used as wire communications in the tranceiver- 
antenna portion. The characteristics are given and the 
structural features of standard cables, high-frequency 
plugs and other components of Japanese-produced coaxial 
cable communications are described. 24 figs. (RZh) 

970. Anon 

DEVELOPMENTS IN FTRE SERVICE SYSTEMS AND 
EQUIPMENT 

Fire Prot Rev, 40(444): 16-17, 19, 1977 

The new or improved telecommunications systems being 
introduced in the UK to minimize the time taken to alert 
crews, to provide quick turnout information, and to enable 
crews to maintain easy contact with control both enroute 
to and at the fireground are reviewed in a feature article 
derived from the annual reports of the Chief Inspector 
of Fire Services and the Inspector of Fire Services for 
Scotland. 



INFORMATION AND 



971. Itikural 

THE TOKYO FIRE CONTROL 

COMPUTER CENTER 

Kasai; 26(6):2-8, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some organizational and technical aspects of the activity 
of the Tokyo fire control information and computer center 
are described. The main unit is the message commutation 
center, the dispatcher unit which processes internal and 
external messages. The commutation center is equipped 
with two specialized HI (USA) computers. The commuta- 
tion control center, in its hierarchical structure, is con- 



174 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

a. Communications and Signalling — Continued 

nected with the regional commutation centers in Tokyo 
and the rest of the country. Each commutation center 
receives messages from the fire units over the main and 
reserve communications lines, records and sends them to 
the indicated address, transmits orders, control commands 
and alarm signals, continually monitors the status of the 
communications line and ensures the authenticity of the 
information circulating in the system. One of the commu- 
tation center's computers is operational, the other is in 
reserve. A total of 32 duplex communication channels 
operating at a speed of 600-4800 bauds is provided for 
the exchange of information between centers forming the 
hierarchical structure. As a supplement, each center has 
about 60-90 duplex channels for communication with lower 
control units. The equipment being used by the Tokyo 
center is incorporated in the FACTS-119 system, which 
includes, in addition to the computers, facsimile radiotele- 
graph terminals, duty TV-communication receivers, vari- 
ous display units, etc. 7 figs. (RZh) 

972. Takahashi H 

AUTOMATIC COMMAND COMMUNICATIONS 

SYSTEM FOR FIRE CONTROL IN THE CITY OF 
YOKOHAMA 

Kasai; 26(6):9-16, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some organizational and technical aspects of a command 
communications system for control in the city of 
Yokohama, Japan, are examined. The main dispatcher's 
link of the system is the message commutations center 
based on two modern NEAC-M4 (USA) computers. In 
addition to their normal operational functions, the compu- 
ters are mated with telegraph and radiotelephone commu- 
nications channels, carry out remote input and extraction 
of information from terminals located in the fire units 
of the city (each computer can be linked up with up 
to 100 terminals) and handle information exchange 
between machines (all the fire-information computer cen- 
ters of the country are connected into one network). 
Between reduction cycles, the information coming from 
the fire units is accumulated, sorted and processed by 
a modern information engineering technique. Errors de- 
tected during the reduction process can be corrected by 
the computer itself using special programs or by 
requesting the fire units to retransmit the information. 
At a predetermined time, data array formulation and data 
compilation programs are applied to supply responsible 
individuals with the required data. Copies of daily summa- 
ries are stored in external memory files (IBM 2420 mag- 
netic tape memory stores with a tape capacity of 40 mil- 
lion bytes are used) and are used to compile weekly, 
monthly, quarterly and annual summaries and reports. 5 
figs, 4 tables. (RZh) 

973. Salbreux P 

FIRE ALARM AND CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS 

Rev Tech Feu; 17(159):33-59, 1976 (French) 

Communications is progress, that is the principal theme 
of this many-sided review, which deals in detail with the 
following topics: communications as an aid to safety, the 
start of operations, and fire protection. The way in which 
the postal communications service protects itself is out- 
lined. There are "hot" lines (privileged connections) and 
automatic connections, primarily with the police, the fire 
department control centers, and other services. It must 



never be forgotten that all these lines must be protected 
against fire and must not fail during fires. The new mag- 
netic tape and digital processors are discussed, especially 
with respect to the "hot" lines and the Hertz relationship. 
18 figs. (Fachdok 13/0776) 

974. Kuroda S and Kajita H 

REPORT ON FULFILLMENT OF THE 1976 STUDY 
PROGRAM 

Shisetsu; 28(12):64-68, 1976 (Japanese) 

Some of the organizational and technical problems that 
arose during the professional study sessions on fighting 
fires and other natural calamities (typhoons, floods, 
earthquakes, etc) that were held in Japan in 1976 (in con- 
nection with the study program) are considered. One of 
the main topics investigated was the development of a 
comparatively new operational emergency communications 
means - a composite radio-relay system of radio- 
telephone communications with transmission and reception 
frequencies of 11 and 15 GHz, respectively. The system 
includes coaxial wire cable communication sections and 
wireless sections, a large number of relays being required 
for the wireless sections. This combined type of communi- 
cations system makes it practically feasible to establish 
any desired radio connections and to ensure emergency 
communications with even the most inaccessible (in all 
respects) areas and installations. The system can be effec- 
tively used in urban conditions; the transmitter-receiver 
relay apparatus and antennas (parabolic reflectors) can 
be located on the roofs of highrise and multi-story 
buildings. In the course of these studies experience was 
gained in using this communications system in individual 
communications lines converting two or more rheographic 
points, as well as in network operation, in the latter case 
a branched communications system serving the entire 
country was used. 4 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

b. EVACUATION AND RESCUE 

975. Vachovetz E 

THREE EVOLUTIONS FOR HANDLING BASKET-TYPE 
STRETCHER 

Fire Eng; 130(10):56-57, 1977 

Three basic evolutions for handling a basket-type 
stretcher at heights are described. The first is the crane 
method using an aerial ladder. The pike-pole method is 
used when an aerial or ground ladder can be placed 
against the building at the rescue site; the two pike poles 
are slid under the top sail at each end of the basket 
and the basket is lowered with guide rope control. A 
rope slide is used in the third method. 5 photos. 

976. Yoshihara T, Nakao K, Onari M and Oguri M 

A SIMULATION MODEL OF CROWD FLOWS IN 

Hitachi Hyoron; 58(12):977-980, 1976 (Japanese) 

It is pointed out that the problem of computer simulation 
of flows of people during emergency situations is an ur- 
gent one for multi-story and highrise buildings, since the 
fire protection of these occupancies, especially the or- 
ganization of optimal conditions for the evacuation of peo- 
ple, is the most important test of fire protection. Given 
are the results of experimental analytical investigations 



175 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

b. Evacuation and Rescue — Continued 

aimed at deter ming the possibility of developing and using 
a universal mathematic model which will permit simulation 
of emergency flows of people. It was found that such 
a theoretical universal model can be developed, but its 
technical implementation (a model satisfying all types and 
designs of multi-story and highrise buildings) in the form 
of a computer program algorithm is extremely difficult, 
even using the most advanced methods of computational 
mathematics, and it is therefore more feasible to develop 
models for specific buildings and standard projects. In 
this case the simulation of crowd flows will be more 
specific and numerical and will make it possible to 
establish optimal relations governing the interrelationship 
between building design parameters and parameters as- 
sociated with crowd-flow control factors. On the basis 
of the relations it will not be difficult to make specific 
recommendations on the improvement of building design 
from the viewpoint of throughput capacity of the building 
components for the evacuation of people, as well as on 
the organization of the most rational sequence in getting 
people out of various building areas. An example is 
presented of the use of this method of simulating crowd 
flows for buildings with fixed design parameters. From 
the results of computer simulation diagrams are con- 
structed to illustrate, in particular, the density of distribu- 
tion of people by floors, height, and building area in vari- 
ous stages of panic arising from the necessity of evacuat- 
ing a burning building or one being destroyed by an 
earthquake. 6 figs, 12 refs. (RZh) 

977. Contini P [Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy, Facolta 
di Ingengnera, Inst Sci Construz] 

FIRE SAFETY ASPECTS OF BUILDINGS 

Indltal Cem; 47(2): 121 -136, 1977 (Italian; English, French, 

and German Summaries) 

The author examines the problem of calculating evacua- 
tion times relative to the fire safety of buildings. Follow- 
ing experiments in a school building in Turin, Italy, the 
results were examined critically to establish the total 
evacuation time, taking into account warning time and 
the effects of panic. General laws were formulated by 
introducing characteristic parameters. 13 figs, 20 tables. 
(Author) 

978. Tomaszewski J 
EVACUATION PROBLEMS 

Przegl Poz; 64(11):10-11, 1976 (Polish) 

The evacuation of people during fires is organized by 
special plans which take into account the fire category 
of the building, the number of people in the premises, 
th« type and structure of the stairwells, the dimensions 
and traffic capacity of the evacuation routes, the technical 
characteristics of the corridors, passageways, and tunnels, 
the probability of smoke charging, illumination of evacua- 
tion routes, etc. These plans are drawn up in a uniform 
fashion and consist of two parts, graphic and explanatory. 
The graphic part is made up in the form of drawings 
or sketches and contains floor-by-floor plans of the build- 
ing, as well as a plan of the entire adjacent area. The 
explanatory part contains a detailed description of the 
measures to be taken in evacuating peoples from the 
hazard zone and the operations of the evacuation teams. 
Special attention is devoted to manufacturing premises 
with large numbers of employees. It is recommended that 



individual evacuation plans be worked out for such 
premises with allowance for the specific features of the 
manufacturing process and the location of equipment. 
During expositions, fairs, and similar gatherings special 
evacuation teams are organized, each member of which 
must know his duties in case of fire and must be able 
to carry them out accurately. 

c. HYDRAULICS AND WATER FLOWS 

979. Albach AF 
MONITOR 

FRG Patent No. 2^39,825; CI A62C 31/02, Appl 8 Sep 
1975, Disci. 10 Mar 1977, Assignee: Albock und Co, 
Frankfurt, FRG 

A patent is disclosed for a monitor with a nozzle for 
the discharge of foam or water and a nozzle for the 
discharge of powder. According to the invention, the 
powder nozzle is provided with a shutoff device which 
automatically plugs the playpipe when powder discharge 
is stopped. The powder nozzle is arranged concentrically 
in the water or foam nozzle with the nozzle port project- 
ing out beyond that of the water or foam nozzle. The 
shutoff mechanism is so configured as to be also a propor- 
tioner for the powder. 8 claims, 3 drawing figs. 

980. Ellis DA 

MEANS FOR LOCKING REPLACEABLE NOZZLES TO 
FIRE HYDRANTS 

US Patent No. 4,000,753; CI 137/2%, (E03B 9/04), Appl 
29 Jul 1975, Disci. 4 Jan 1977, Assignee: Mueller Co, 
Decatur, IL 

A fire hydrant either of the "wet" barrel type or 
the "dry" barrel type having an improved hydrant nozzle 
construction is disclosed. The barrel of the fire hydrant 
is provided with an internally threaded boss for receiving 
a replaceable, externally threaded nozzle. Means for 
locking the nozzle to the boss of the barrel is provided 
so that the nozzle may not be removed by unauthorized 
personnel. Sealing means are provided between the nozzle 
and the boss of the barrel which cannot lose its effective- 
ness due to cold flow and thus will not reduce the gripping 
effect of the nozzle to the barrel when the nozzle has 
been threaded therein with an initial torque. 10 claims, 
3 drawing figs. (Author) 

d. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS: COMMAND AND 

CONTROL 

981. Walsh CV [New York City Fire Dept, NY] 
MAKING BETTER FIREGROUND DECISIONS 

Fire Command; 44(10):22-24, 1977 

The management-by-objectives (MBU) technique, which 
enables fireground officers to select objectives and assign 
activities, is discussed in terms of critical-factor analysis, 
the key to effectiveness of the technique. Such analysis 
is a tool to focus attention on factors that are limiting 
or strategic to the decision at hand, requiring alternative 
solutions. These alternatives are weighed against the 
universally recognized standards of firefighting: risks to 
firefighter personnel must be accepted if there is a life 
hazard to occupants, but not if there is no life hazard. 
The alternatives that are offered when the major objec- 



176 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIREGROUND OPERATIONS 

d. Operational Problems: Command and Control — Continued 



tives are rescue, extinguish, or confine, control, and extin- 
guish, are discussed and illustrated in tables. 2 photos, 
3 tables. 

e. SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

982. Simons J 
FIREBOATS 

ASELF; (58): 1 1 , 13-14, 1976 (Spanish) 

The extinguishment of fires from fireboats has its own 
specific features: it is necessary to consider water depths, 
wave conditions, visibility problems, making fast alongside 
different types of ships, and fire hazard of combustible 
liquids on the surface of the water. Modern fireboats 
must be highly maneuverable and high-speed with good 
equipment. These requirements are fulfilled by fireboats 
of the British Watercraft Company. These boats are 4.1 
m wide, have a draft of 1 .07 m, a tonnage of 12 t, and 
a speed of 17 knots. The hull and decks of the boat 
are made of fire-resistant plastic reinforced with 
fiberglass. Two diesel engines with a power of 120 and 
145 hp are installed. The bow section has two small pumps 
with an output of 2,636 //min. A CO2 system handles 
fire extinguishment within the boat. The boat is equipped 
with a spray sprinkler system which protects it from the 
heat of a fire. (RZh) 

983. Nash G [Petroleum and Training Board, UK] 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND 
FTRE-FIGHTING TECHNIQUES 

Fire; 70(868):253-256, 1977 

The temperature factors of hydrocarbon fires show that 
unless they are quickly controlled steel structures, vessels, 
vessel supports, pipetrack supports, and pipelines will 
begin to fail. It is not economically feasible to install 
a mass of fixed gas and fire detection equipment linked 
to automatic fire extinguishing systems. Moreover, such 
equipment is vulnerable to damage by explosion, mechani- 
cal damage and breakdown. An effective control operation 
can best be achieved by a combination of fixed monitors 
or drenchers and the use of large-capacity, one-man, 
trailer-mounted monitors which, after emplacement and 
adjustment, can be left unattended. The areas of fire pro- 
tection required for dealing with hydrocarbon fire in- 
cidents are examined, including water, gas protection and 
monitoring, detection, fixed and mobile equipment, tank 
fires, fire fighting foams, vaporizing liquids, and automated 
loading systems. 

984. DektarC 

MOBILE ITRE LAB FOR LA CITY FD 

Fire Eng; 130(9):47-*8, 1977 

A mobile fire laboratory stocked with a large selection 
of instruments and equipment to enable specialists to 
monitor hazards at fire scenes and to assist field comman- 
ders in evaluating the dangers to personnel and property 
is described. Van equipment includes various manuals, 
an infrared heat detector, four entry suits, breathing 
equipment, flammable vapor detectors, a gas analyzer for 
on-site analysis of most chemicals, a carbon monoxide 
monitor, a pH meter, a mass spectrometer, and a gas 
chromatograph . 



985. Stal J 

NEW FTREBOATS 

Przegl Poz, 64(12):12-14, 1976 (PoUsh) 

A new fireboat, the Stazak-4, has been introduced in 
the Gdansk (Danzig) and Szczecin (Stettin) harbors in Po- 
land. The hull is welded-steel construction in an icebreaker 
configuration. The ship is powered by two screw propel- 
lers (brass or, in winter, high-strength steel). The ship's 
dimensions are: overall length 32.8 m, width 7.1 m, draft 
1.8 m and depth 2.6 m. The operational data are: speed 
of 12 knots, self-contained operation time of 24 hrs, and 
wind-speed seaworthiness of 5. Propulsion and power 
plants: two 500 hp, 1800 rpm internal combustion engines 
and two 50-kW 50-Hz a-c diesel generators. Firefighting 
systems and agents: two fire pumps with an output of 
600 m 3 /hr, water playpipe with an output of 5 m 3 /min 
or 50 m 3 /min, or 50 m 3 /min of 10-X foam, a 4,000-/' 
tank with Deteor 1000 foam concentrate to produce a 
foam screen around the boat (12 tanks), a CO2 extinguish- 
ing system (6 cylinders, 40 € each), an AP750 powder 
device with two pistol-type playpipes and 20 m of hose, 
an elevating tower (PPII) with a lift of 10.5 m from the 
deck, a horizontal reach of 5.75 m, and a carrying capacity 
of 200 kg. In addition, the boat is provided with a total 
length of 810 m of pressure hose. The crew comprises 
14 men. 4 figs. (RZh) 

986. Grobe W 

USE OF GAS-FTLLED ROCKETS FOR DISASTER PRO- 
TECTION 

FRG Patent No. 2,537,740; CI A62B 37/00; A62C 3/00, 
Appl 25 Aug 1975, Disci. 3 Mar 1977, Assignee: Inventor, 
Frankfurt-am-Main, FRG 

The invention relates to the use of gas-filled rockets 
for disaster protection, consisting of one or many series- 
connected gas-filled rockets used to convey loads such 
as extinguishants, water, food, medicines, and all kinds 
of other materials. According to the invention, the gas- 
filled rockets and payloads can be used immediately and 
very effectively to control disasters such as ship and air- 
craft emergencies, earthquakes and floods, as well as area 
and highrise building fires. 1 claim, no drawing figs. 

987. Takada S 

AUTOMATIC REMOTE-CONTROLLED SELF- 

PROPELLED FTRE APPARATUS 

Japanese Patent No. 46-48856; CI 95 B 9, (A62C 27/16), 
Appl 5 Jul 1971, Disci. 8 Oct 1976, Assignee: Inventor 

This patent relates to the design and operating principle 
of a self-propelled, remote-controlled fire apparatus. The 
apparatus is a wheeled chassis (in this version 2-wheeled) 
driven by an electric motor and a set of electromechanical 
gears. The stability of the ^-wheeled version is assured 
by a steel lever rigidly connected to the wheel axle; the 
end of the lever touches the ground while the apparatus 
is in motion and thus serves as a third support point. 
The kinematic loop of the apparatus is fully self-con- 
tained; in conjunction with the embodiment of the remote 
control system, therefore, this arrangement permits access 
to be gained to portions of a burning object inaccessible 
to firefighters. A playpipe, TV-camera transmitter, and 
a number of auxiliary electromechanical devices are fixed 
to the chassis. Water or a fire-extinguishing concentrate 



177 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



9. PLANNING 

e. Special Equipment — Continued 

are supplied to the playpipe through a hose; signals are 
transmitted via a special, thermally insulated coaxial cable. 
The monitor with which the remote control panel is 
equipped (not forming part of the patented system) is 
connected to the TV-camera transmitter by the above- 
mentioned cable, permitting operational evaluation of the 
fire situation and, therefore, operator control of the loca- 
tion of the apparatus, three-dimensional orientation of the 
playpipe, extinguishant supply mode, etc. 2 drawing figs. 
(RZh) 

f. TACTICS 

988. Kimstach IF 

ORGANIZATION OF FIRE SUPPRESSION IN CITIES 
AND POPULATION CENTERS [Organizatsiya Tusheniya 
Pozharov v Gorodakh i Naselennykh Punktakh] 
Stroyizdat; 143 pages, 1977 (Russian) 

The main trends in improvement of fire suppression 
organization in cities and rural areas are considered. The 
principles of rational allocation and equipment of fire 
units, of establishment of fire departments, and of interac- 
tion between the fire service and other public services 
in extinguishing fires are discussed. The book is intended 
for the command staff of the fire service. (RZh) 

989. Dyer JH, Marjoram MJ [Graviner Ltd, UK] and 
Simmons RF 

THE EXTINCTION OF FIRES IN AIRCRAFT JET EN- 
GINES. PART 4. EXTINCTION OF FIRES BY SPRAYS 
OF BROMOCHLORODIFLUOROMETHANE 
Fire Technol; 13(3):223-230, 1977 

At low airflows, there was good agreement between 
the concentration of BCF (bromochlorodifluoromethane) 
sprays required to extinguish the flame in pool fires and 
that required for BCF vapor. At low airflows, the BCF 
vaporized and mixed with the air before reaching the 
flame. However, for air velocities above 20 fps, the spray 
was significantly less effective than the vapor. Probably 
the larger drops passed through the fire zone before they 
were vaporized and, thus, were not effective as an extin- 
guishant. The quantity of extinguishant required in aircraft 
jet engine fires varied with the manner of application. 
(For a review of Part I of this article, sceFTA, 1(6), 
abstract 2028; reviews of Parts 2 and 3 can be found 
by consulting the "Source Index" of FTA, 2(1/2), under 
Fire Technol, 13(l):59-68, 1977, and 13(2):126-138, 1977.) 
3 figs, 1 table, 3 refs. 

990. Jerome EA 

RUNWAY FOAM: SAFETY FACTOR OR PHONY 
SPUME 

Flight Oper; 65(11):15-17, 1976 

A US Navy study concluded that intentional wheels- 
up landings can be made on unfoamed runways as safely 
as those made on foamed runways and that there is no 
evidence to support a variation in damage between foamed 
and unfoamed runway landings with wheels retracted. 
Therefore, the US Navy has recently curtailed the emer- 
gency foaming action following depletion of their currently 
assigned equipment and protein stocks. Significant 
findings and factors bearing on the decision to request 
foam in an emergency are reported in this article. 4 
photos. 

178 



991 . Genthe M and Schoenfeld H 

FIGHTING AN OPEN MINE F»E BY NITROGEN BM- 

ERTDSG OF THE FIRE SITE 

Glueckauf; 113(8):407-411, 1977 (German) 

An open mine fire ignited by an electric spark from 
the short-circuited low-voltage side of a transformer, the 
causes of local methane enrichment, the control measures 
using water, methane exhaust, preparation of a barrier, 
and evacuation of the working are described. It was de- 
cided to attempt to control the fire by nitrogen inerting. 
The principles of gas inerting measures taken to apply 
the method and equipment are reviewed. The economical 
and logistical problems involved in extending the method 

for eventual rapid attack of such fires in mines are 
discussed. 6 figs, 9 refs. 

992. Anon 

PROBLEMS OF FIGHTING FIRES IN SUBWAYS AND 

THE UNDERGROUND SECTIONS OF RABLWAYS BS 
JAPAN 

Kasai; 26(6):3845, 1976 (Japanese) 

Statistical data are presented characterizing the number, 
nature, causes and effects of fires that have occurred 
in Japan in the last 20 years in the underground sections 
of railways and in the subways of large cities. It is pointed 
out that since the subway is becoming the main means 
of transportation in the peak hours in many large cities 
in Japan, the problem of increasing its fire safety is taking 
on not only a technical, but also a social significance 
on a countrywide scale. The most characteristic conclu- 
sions and recommendations derived by commissions 
named to investigate the causes of all fires in underground 
transportation are reviewed and analyzed. A brief survey 
is made of the research to be carried out with the aim 
of increasing the fire safety of transportation means and 
facilities of underground communications. Predictions are 
made regarding further improvement in organizing un- 
derground transportation operations in the fire safety area. 
Information is presented on new fire-resistant and refrac- 
tory materials which have been developed especially for 
underground transportation and which are in various 
stages of testing or introduction in Japan and other coun- 
tries. Examined independently are some problems con- 
nected with the construction and operation of railroad 
tunnels, which, in a fire sense, are important facilities 

equivalent with respect to fire safety to urban un- 
derground transportation installations. 9 tables. (RZH) 






FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



9. PLANNING 



9. PLANNING 

a. BUDGETING 

b. LOGISTICS 

c. OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

993. Schaenman PS [National Fire Prevention and Control 

Administration, Washington, DC], Hall J, Schainblatt A, 

Swartz J and Karter M 

PRODUCTIVITY MEASURES FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

SERVICES 

Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Symp, Second, 

Proc, Vol 5; 1976, Nov 7-9, Washington, DC, pages 87- 

90 

Sponsor: National Science Foundation 

Undertaken in this study, with the aid of nine participat- 
ing fire departments, are the development and testing of 
improved procedures for use by local governments to mea- 
sure fire service outcomes and effectiveness on a regular 
basis or in special studies. Outlined in a previous study 
was a comprehensive set of measurements, whereas in 
this study attention was focused on a few selected mea- 
surement procedures that held promise of filling some 
of the information gaps that seemed to exist, such as 
fire size at arrival, fire spread after arrival, and time 
to control. Effectiveness of inspection programs can be 
measured by considering the number of fires preventable 
by inspections per 1,000 occupancies. Overall fire preven- 
tion effectiveness can be measured by better interpreta- 
tions of fire rates, particularly by reporting separately 
those fires considered "other than minor." "Sav - " data 
at fire scenes may help provide better credit to the fire 
department. Improved fire loss estimates are also impor- 
tant in indicating the success of fire prevention. 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND 

MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

[For more complete coverage of the behavioral and 
medical literature see: Psychology Abstracts and Index 
Metttcus] 

a. ARSON 

994. Synk JA [AOT, New York, NY] 

PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS ON COMBATING 

ARSON IN THE PLANT 

Plant Eng; 30(25): 163-165, 1976 

Potential arsonists are most often somehow connected 
with the plant, either as rejected applicants, ex-employees, 
or disgruntled employees. Storage areas are identified as 
particularly vulnerable and desirable targets; according to 
one study, over three-quarters of fires in a 5-year period 
started there. A prime deterrent in combating arson is 
limitation of access and protection against intrusion by 
perimeter and space alarm systems, check-in points, 
closed-television systems, and the like. Another deterrent 
is an automatic fire-alarm and sprinkler system provided 
with a supervisory alarm. Plant personnel should be alert 
to the presence of intruders and should be familiar with 



proper security procedures in reporting them. Personnel 
departments should check the background of all new em- 
ployees. Publicity should be given to the problem of arson 
and conviction of intruders. 3 figs. 

b. COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

995. Barrow CS, Alarie Y, Warrick JC and Stock MF 
[Univ Pittsburgh, PA, Grad School Public Health] 
COMPARISON OF THE SENSORY DUUTATION 
RESPONSE IN MICE TO CHLORINE AND HYDROGEN 
CHLORIDE 

Arch Environ Health; 32(2):68-76, 1977 

Groups of male Swiss- Webster mice were exposed to 
concentrations of chlorine varying from 0.7 to 38.4 ppm 
and to concentrations of hydrogen chloride varying from 
40 to 943 ppm. The total exposure time to both gases 
was 10 min. Dose-response curves were plotted for both 
chlorine and hydrogen chloride, using the percentage 
decrease in respiratory rate during each exposure as the 
response reflecting sensory irritation of the upper respira- 
tory tract. The results showed chlorine to be 33.0 times 
more irritating than hydrogen chloride, with 95% con- 
fidence limits of 18.6 and 57.1. Guidelines for obtaining 
a range of acceptable threshold limit values (TLV) based 
on sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract are 
discussed. It was concluded that the current TLV of 1 
ppm for chlorine is the upper acceptable limit, and that 
the established TLV of 5 ppm for hydrogen chloride lies 
at the lower limit of the predicted range. The mechanism 
of chlorine's and hydrogen chloride's sensory irritation 
may be explained by their reaction with various functional 
groups in the membranes of the trigeminal nerve endings 
lining the nasal mucosa. 6 figs, 2 tables, 56 refs. (Author) 

996. Petajan JH [Univ Utah, Res Park, Salt Lake City, 
UT, Dept Neurol and Flammability Res Center] 

AN APPROACH TO THE TOXICOLOGY OF COM- 
BUSTION PRODUCTS OF MATERIALS 

Environ Health Perspect; 17:65-73, 1976 

Physiological and behavioral (conditioned avoidance) 
responses of male Long-Evans rats were determined dur- 
ing exposure to combustion products produced on thermal 
degradation of three different polymeric materials. Arterial 
blood samples were obtained for determination of carbox- 
yhemoglobin (COHb) and acid/base status. Material A 
produced a syndrome of carbon monoxide (COHnduced 
anoxia, the severity of which was a function of the mass 
of material degraded. Material B produced grand mat 
seizures despite COHb levels of less than 10%. Material 
C produced metabolic acidosis and a mild degree of 
CO-induced anoxia. Loss of avoidance responses occurred 
at significantly lower COHb levels for materials B and 
C in comparison to CO alone. Using responses to COHb 
as a reference, it was possible to detect the presence 
of other toxicants present in combustion products. Com- 
pounds found in smoke in very low concentrations may 
have a high degree of biological activity and be responsi- 
ble for impairment of survival responses. We have labeled 
those compounds "limiting" toxicants. They constitute a 
significant hazard, which is added to that of CO and 
anoxia. 4 figs, 1 table, 5 refs. (Author) 



179 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 

997. Wright PL [Monsanto Co, St Louis, MO ] and 

Adams CH 

TOXICITY OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS FROM 
BURNING POLYMERS: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUA- 
TION OF METHODS 
Environ Health Perspect; 17:75-83, 1976 



Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted 
with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, 
wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and 
off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual- 
compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicom- 
ponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 
m 3 facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experi- 
ments, mortality depended on the amount of material 
burned, ie, fuel comsumption (FC). Conventional dose 
(FQ/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of 
fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FCso) was calcu- 
lated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only 
material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; 
FCso values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending 
on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When 
supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, 
the following FCso values were obtained: nylon, 7 g; acryl- 
ic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. 
Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon 
the specific conditions employed for its thermal decom- 
position. Toxicity of off-gases from pyrolysis of 
phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane 
foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame 
ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine 
the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale 
smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were con- 
ducted to assess the relative contributions of single materi- 
als to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent 
self -perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this 
approach permits a realistic evaluation of a contribution 
of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from re- 
sidential fires. 3 figs, 10 tables, 5 refs. (Author) 

998. Warren PJ [The London Hospital Med College, 

London, UK, College Safety Office] 

FIRE AND TOXIC HAZARDS IN SPECIALIZED 

ESTABLISHMENTS 

MedSci Law; 17(2):91-94, 1977 

Presented in this paper are some of the problems as- 
sociated with fire involving toxic substances in laborato- 
ries. The way in which toxic hazards can arise as a result 
of pyrolysis or chemical breakdown of materials during 
a fire is illustrated. The need for a coordinated safety 
policy to deal with these problems is identified. A pilot 
scheme developed at The London Hospital Medical Col- 
lege (UK) in which the university staff is trained to assist 
the fire service and to deal with minor spillages of toxic 
chemicals is presented as an illustration of a coordinated 
safety policy. (This paper was presented at the meeting 
of the British Academy of Forensic Sciences held in Lon- 
don on 21-22 May, 1976.) 



999. Smith PW, Crane CR, Sanders DC, Endecott BR 
and Abbott JK [Federal Aviation Admin, Oklahoma City, 
OK, Civil Aeromed Inst] 

ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICrTY OF COMBUSTION 
PRODUCTS BY DDtECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE 
Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 
1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Certain principles which should be incorporated into 
animal exposure tests for the toxicity of combustion 
products are outlined and discussed. Realism in the selec- 
tion and manipulation of three variables involved in ther- 
mal destruction of flammable materials, namely, the igni- 
tion method, the burning mode, and the burning tempera- 
ture, should be achieved. The combustion products should 
be uniformly distributed in using large enclosures in which 
materials are burned and animals exposed. The animal 
subjects must be protected from heat. 9 pages, 7 refs. 

1000. Altekruse EB 

AN OVERVIEW OF THE CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF 
THE COMBUSTION OF POLYMERS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

Some special causes of death and incapacitation as- 
sociated with fire, broadly categorized as thermal, chemi- 
cal, and extrinsic, are reviewed. Thermal effects include 
physical burns and hyperthermia and are more prevalent 
in well- ventilated fires. A major category of chemical ef- 
fects identifies those conditions resulting in hypoxia. 
Other classes of chemical effects are initating gases and 
vapors, smoke particulates, and miscellaneous gases and 
vapors, all of which are discussed. The extrinsic factors 
are not aspects of fire toxicity, but may contribute to 
severe injury or death, either directly or by aggravation 
of other injuries; such factors are panic, fear, and emo- 
tional stress, trauma, pre-existing disease or impairment, 
and alcohol consumption. 10 pages, 7 refs. 

1001 . Montgomery RR, Reinhardt CF and TerrOl JB 
EVOLUTION OF FDtE TOXICITY TESTS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The history of the development of fire toxicity tests, 
from inception during World War II in connection with 
the effects of the use of flamethrowers, through definition 
of fire death and incapacitation causes, development of 
screening test protocols, criteria of physiologic response, 
identification of combustion products, to exploration of 
test variables in small-scale toxicity screening tests of 
combustion products, is reviewed. A further need to 
develop toxicity tests based on full-scale fires is identified. 
14 pages, 2 tables, 36 refs. 

c. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AND 
FACILITIES 

1002. Phillips C [Univ California, Davis, CA, School of 
Medicine] 

BASIC LD7E SUPPORT SIOLLS MANUAL 

Robert J Brady Co, Bowie, MD; 1st edit, 167 pages, 
1977 



180 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

c. Emergency Medical Services and Facilities — Continued 



This manual has been designed to help students with 
basic life support skills and to standardize the per- 
formance of both first-in medical responders and Emer- 
gency Medical Technicians nationally. The method used 
to achieve this goal has been the development of specific 
skill procedures coupled with corresponding proficiency 
testing criteria. The eighty or so skills chosen were meant 
to represent the core of the national Emergency Medical 
Technician curriculum with other skills to be determined 
by regional needs. The inclusion of detailed artwork was 
designed to help guide the student during "hands on" 
laboratory sessions, as well as to satisfy self-study needs. 
The manual was not designed to replace or rival any 
of the three nationally accepted textbooks, but rather it 
was written as a skills companion. 

1003. Pandolf KB and Goldman RF [US Army Res Inst 
Environ Med, Natick, MA] 

DIAGNOSIS OF HEAT DISORDERS AND PREVENTION 
OF HEAT CASUALTIES IN FIRE FIGHTING 

Emergency Service Personnel Health and Fitness Symp, An- 
nual, 6th, Proc; 1976, Apr 24, San Diego, CA, pages 84-89 

Guidelines for emergency service personnel are 
presented for the differential diagnosis of heat disorders 
and prevention of heat casualties while firefighting. The 
heat disorders discussed are prickly heat, heat cramps, 
heat syncope, water depletion heat exhaustion, salt deple- 
tion heat exhaustion, and heat stroke and heat hyperpyrex- 
ia. Increased acclimatization and physical fitness, 
avoidance of dehydration and proper understanding of the 
limitations of the firefighters uniform are described as 
preventive measures in avoiding the possible heat disor- 
ders of firefighting. These preventive measures, particu- 
larly increased acclimatization and physical fitness, may 
help reduce the elevated and sustained heart rate respon- 
ses (greater than 170 beats/min) reported for firefighters, 
and possibly help reduce the documented high incidence 
of coronary heart disease for this group. 11 refs. (Author) 

d. INJURIES AND FATALITIES 

1004. Genovesi MG, Tushkin DP, Chopra S, Morgan M 
and McElroy C [Univ California, Los Angeles, CA, Div 
Pulmonary Disease and Emergency Service] 
TRANSD2NT HYPOXEMIA IN FIREMEN FOLLOWING 
INHALATION OF SMOKE 

Chest; 71(4):441^44, 1977 

Mild to moderately severe hypoxemia was documented 
in 19 of 21 mostly asymptomatic firemen who were ex- 
posed to dense smoke containing polyvinylchloride and 
other pulmonary irritants. The hypoxemia was transient, 
with nearly complete reversibility within 24 hours. Sub- 
sequent tests for pulmonary function one month later 
demonstrated that this transient hypoxemia was not re- 
lated to previous underlying pulmonary disease. The 
potential for serious complications of inhalation of smoke, 
particularly smoke from burning plastics, is heightened 
by the frequent lack of symptoms associated with this 
type of exposure, despite the development of moderately 
severe hypoxemia in addition to carboxyhemoglobinemia. 
Precautionary measures should include uninterrupted use 
of an effective breathing apparatus by firemen exposed 
to smoke and to noxious fumes and temporary oxygen 
supplementation, even in asymptomatic firemen, following 
exposure to dense smoke. 12 refs. (Author) 



1005. Tashkin DP, Genovesi MG, Chopra S, Coulson A 
and Simmons M [Univ Calif (Los Angeles), Divs 
Pulmonary Disease and Epidomology] 
RESPIRATORY STATUS OF LOS ANGELES FIREMEN: 
ONE-MONTH FOLLOW-UP AFTER INHALATION OF 
DENSE SMOKE 

Chest; 71(4):445-449, 1977 

A standardized respiratory questionnaire and detailed 
pulmonary function tests were administered to 21 Los 
Angeles firemen one month following exposure to the 
combustion products of polyvinylchloride, which had 
produced transient hypoxemia in 19 of the firemen. The 
results of these studies were compared with those ob- 
tained in a sample of nonfiremen residing in the Los 
Angeles area who were matched by computer with the 
firemen for anthropomorphic characteristics and smoking 
status. The frequency of respiratory symptoms, the results 
of spirometric and plethysmographic studies, and the sin- 
gle-breath nitrogen washout were similar in the firemen, 
compared with the matched sample, whereas closing 
volume was higher in the matched controls. These findings 
suggest that although fighting fires may result in acute 
pulmonary injury secondary to discrete episodes of inhala- 
tion of smoke, it does not appear to predispose to the 
development of chronic respiratory symptoms or chronic 
functional respiratory impairment. 2 tables, 21 refs. 
(Author) 

1006. Beroes CS [Univ Pittsburgh, PA] 

EXPERT TESTIMONY IN FLAMMABLE FABRIC 
LITIGATION 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 3-13 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

Following a brief description of the process of fabric 
combustion and the mechanism of skin destruction from 
burning fabrics, the two types of tests for determining 
the flammability of fabrics are discussed, the 45° angle 
test to measure fabric burning rate and the vertical test 
to measure the resistance to burning of fabrics. The 45° 
angle is considered to be an unrealistic angle for simulat- 
ing accidental burn rate, but is useful in producing a 
number which shows relative flammability. The 
mechanism of flame retardation is reviewed, and responsi- 
ble action on the part of fabric and garment manufacturers 
and vendors to inform the public of the hazards of 
flammable fabrics is recommended. (A discussion of the 
paper is given on pages 21-23.) 

1007. LeBlanc RB [LeBlanc Res Corp, East Greenwich, 

W 

THE DEFENSE EXPERT IN FABRIC FLAMMABHJTY 

LITIGATION 

Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 1977, Proc; 1977, Apr 
20-21, New Orleans, LA, pages 14-20 
Sponsor: LeBlanc Res Corp 

The qualifications of a defense expert in fabric flamma- 
bility litigation are identified as holding a scientific degree 
in chemistry, textile chemistry, or a related science, ex- 
perience in related industry, and close monitoring of ad- 
vances in the professional field. The tasks of the defense 
expert consist in educating the lawyer on standards, textile 
properties and applications, fabrication, flame retardation, 



181 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

d. Injuries and Fatalities — Continued 



and related aspects, in advising the lawyer as to the credi- 
bility of evidence, in reviewing the history of flammability 
legislation relative to the product involved, and, if neces- 
sary, in testing the product. (A discussion of the paper 
is given on pages 21-23.) 

e. PHYSIOLOGY 

1008. Musk AW, Peters JM and Wegman DH [Harvard 
Univ, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, Occupat 
Health Program] 

LUNG FUNCTION IN FIREFIGHTERS, 2. A FIVE-YEAR 

FOLLOW-UP OF RETIREES 

Am J Public Health; 67(7):630-633, 1977 

In a study of the chronic effects of firefighting on lung 
function, 1768 employees from the Boston Fire Depart- 
ment were examined in 1970. From this cohort, 109 
firefighters who retired in the period 1970 to 1975 have 
been restudied with questionnaire and ventilatory function 
tests. The observed values for pulmonary function when 
expressed as a percent of predicted are consistently 
slightly below 100 percent. The expected effect of 
cigarette smoking on lung function was demonstrated. The 
results suggest that selection factors within the Fire De- 
partment (company transfers, promotions, and retirement) 
are important in reducing the effect of firefighting on 
subjects who may be adversely affected by the inhalation 
of combustion products. (For part 1 of this article consult 
the "Source Index" in FTA, 2(1-2) under Am J Public 
Health, 67(7): 626-629, 1977.) 5 tables, 15 refs. (Author) 

I. PSYCHOLOGY 

1009. Bryan JL [Univ Maryland, College ofEng, College 
Park, MD] 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND THE CHOICE OF FIRE DE- 
TECTION 

Fire; 70(868):235-237, 1977 

This article is a reprint of a paper presented at the Fire 
Detection for Life Safety Symposium held in Washington, 
DC, on March 31-April 1, 1975, and reviewed inFTA 1(4), 
abstract 1489. 15 refs. 

1010. Anon 

HOW PEOPLE BEHAVE IN FIRES 

Fire Internal; 5(55):70-71, 1977 (English, French, German) 

A brief description is given of a Fire Scenario Display 
Board developed at the University of Surrey (UK) to 
study human response during a fire on the fifth floor 
of a hotel. The fire scenario display demonstrates the 
way in which various aspects of a fire's development 
and the way people cope with them interact. 1 photo. 

1011. Bryan JL [Univ Maryland, College Park, MD, 
College ofEng, Fire Prot Curriculum] 

THE DETE RMINATION OF BEHAVIOR RESPONSES 
EXHIBITED IN FTRE SITUATIONS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(3):31 9-336, 1976 

The data presented is limited to a specific geographical 
area, involves predominately fire incidents in residential 
occupancies, and incidents collected over a relatively 
limited time span from January 15 to June 30, 1975. The 



analysis of the behavioral actions of the participants will 
be extended as the study progresses to provide a more 
complete examination of the interrelationship of the varia- 
bles of the building, the fire incident, including the extent 
of fire and smoke development, with the sociological and 
psychological environment of the individual at the time 
of the fire incident. At this time it would appear to be 
too early in the study to formulate general conclusions 
relative to the behavior of the participants in these fire 
incidents. 13 tables, 4 refs. (Author) 

1012. Bryan JL 

SMOKE AS A DETERMINANT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 
IN FTRE SITUATIONS (PROJECT PEOPLE). Univ Mary- 
land, College of Eng, Fire Prot Curriculum, College Park, 
MD; NBS GCR-77-94, 296 pages, 3 figs, 58 tables, 14 
refs, Jun 1977 
Availability: NTTS 

The aim of this study was to determine the influence 
of smoke on the awareness of an individual to the occur- 
rence of a fire and the selection and initiation of an 
evacuation behavior. The study involved interviewing 584 
participants by fire department officials at the scene of 
335 fire incidents in Maryland and Virginia in 1975 and 
1976. Critical variables determined were building occupan- 
cy, number of previous alarms in the building, amount 
of smoke spread, area of fire origin, extent of fire and 
smoke spread, time of incident, and the height of the 
buildings. The demographic and empirical variables of the 
participants were sex, age, occupation, fire training, previ- 
ous exposure, location during incident, alarm means, com- 
panions, time of presence, and belief in the building's 
safety. Initial and subsequent actions relative to the vari- 
ous variables were analyzed and compared. Aspects of 
movement through the smoke were analyzed and com- 
pared. The critical aspects of this study were compared 
with aspects of a 1972 study on a British population of 
2193 participants in 952 incidents. Conclusions • are 
developed from the study results. 

1013. Letup L, Cronrath D and Liu LKC 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN INSTITUTIONAL FIRES AND 
ITS DESIGN IMPLICATIONS. Univ California (Berkeley), 

Architecture life Safety Group, Berkeley, CA; NBS GCR- 
77-93, 185 pages, 63 figs, 4 tables, 14 refs, Feb 1977 
Availability: NTIS 

The objective of this project is to derive design implica- 
tions from the in-depth analysis of behavior in institutional 
settings under fire. The context and data for this pursuit 
are drawn from ten case studies of significant nursing 
home fires which occurred in the United States between 
1970 and 1974. The methodology used is based on a 
graphical (pictorial) and narrative mapping of fire and peo- 
ple behavior, and it is an extension of the mapping system 
report in Report NBS-GCR 76-73, "Mapping of Recurrent 
Behavior Patterns in Institutional Buildings Under Fire: 
Ten Case Studies of Nursing Facilities." (Author) 



182 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE 
HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF 
HAZARDS 

a. CODES 

1014. Steinhoff D [Senate Council for Building and 
Housing Affairs, Berlin, FRG] and Schubert K-H 
CAMPING AND WEEKEND (FIRE SAFETY CODES) 

Brandschutz; 31(7): 195-197, 1977 (German) 

Safety, hygiene, and fire protection measures being em- 
bodied in codes for camping sites (trailers and tents), 
and sites for weekend houses and recreation vehicles in 
the Federal Republic of Germany are described. 

1015. Paterson T [Tayside Fire Brigade, UK] 
FIRE SAFETY DESIGN IN SCOTLAND 

Fire Eng J; 37(107):17-23, 1977 

Following a brief discourse on the history of building 
codes, especially building fire protection codes, and espe- 
cially as relating to Scotland and England, the fire protec- 
tion building regulations of Scotland, collected under the 
main headings Classification and Construction, Means of 
Escape, and Rescue and Fire Fighting, are outlined. 

1016. Teague PE 

MINI-MAX BUILDING CODES AND THEIR EFFECT ON 
THE FIRE SERVICE 

Fire J; 71(3):69-74, 1977 

The so-called minimum-maximum state building codes, 
which specify minimum and maximum building require- 
ments that can be enforced and which preempt local build- 
ing codes, often originally more stringent with regard to 
fire safety, are discussed in terms of the decreasing fire 
safety which they provide and the part played, or not 
played, by fire authorities in their enactment. The legisla- 
tive history and present development of these mini-max 
building codes, and legislative clout of the various bodies 
interested in their enactment, and the basis for their 
development are outlined. 

b. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

1017. Jarausch D and Janus D [Stuttgart Prof Fire Dept, 
FRG] 

HAZARDOUS GOODS: LABELLING AND IDENTIFICA- 
TION IN TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 

Brandschutz; 31(6):148-153, 1977 (German) 

In continuation of preceding articles published on this 
subject in previous issues of Brandschutz, the present 
status of identification and labelling of hazardous goods 
is reviewed. The legal regulations for highway and rafl 
transportation are summarized, and the approaches open 
to the fire service to prepare for the problem of identifica- 
tion and the resultant measures to be taken are pointed 
out. The two- level number combination system for distant 
recognition is described, consisting of a Kemler number, 
a 2- or 3-digit number identifying the hazard, and a UN 
number, a 4-digit number identifying the material. Placards 
are illustrated. Reference manuals and sheets are 
described, and the on-the-spot measures to be taken by 



the responding team in accordance with reference materi- 
als are outlined. 5 tables. 

1018. Pearce B and Stockwell AA [London Fire Brigade, 
London, UK, Chemical Section] 

THE HAZCHEM CODE 
MedSciLaw; 17(2): 102-107, 1977 

The Hazchem scheme of the information service on 
hazardous substances being used in the UK to tell 
unqualified personnel (firemen, policemen, and other 
emergency personnel) exactly what to do in a chemical 
emergency is described in detail. The basic principle of 
Hazchem is to provide information on the action to be 
taken during the initial stages of a chemical incident 
without reference to textbooks and without detailed 
knowledge of chemistry required on the part of users. 
The information needed on arrival is: 1) the firefighting 
medium to use; 2) whether to contain spillage for recovery 
or neutralizing or to dilute it with water; 3) whether the 
substance is likely to react violently; 4) the personal pro- 
tection required; and 5) whether the public should be 
evacuated from the vicinity. This information is given 
by a two- or three-digit code, the makeup of which is 
described in detail. The advantages of the Hazchem Code 
compared to a Franco-American code being considered 
in the United Nations are emphasized. (This paper was 
presented at the meeting of the British Academy of Foren- 
sic Sciences held in London on 21-22 May 1976.) 1 fig. 

c. SAFE HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS 

1019. Prax H [Bavarian State Offices for Fire and 
Disaster Protection, FRG] 

DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS 
GOODS 

Brandschutz, 31(6):154-157, 1977 (German) 

In this article the design of a computerized information 
system for hazardous goods as a quick-information system 
for initial action on the part of the fire service is outlined. 
The presently available literature from which important 
data for storage and call-up from a computer system for 
fire-service responses is reviewed to determine whether 
it can be used without excessive editorial revision. Search 
criteria and possibilities of data reduction are discussed. 
The way in which computer data can be made available 
for initial action round-the-clock is demonstrated using 
an example. 

1020. Stone JP, Williams FW and Hazlett RN 

SOME FIRE CONSn>ERATIONS FOR TRANSPORTA- 
TION OF SELF-HEATING CHEMICALS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(3):303-318, 1976 

Tanks carrying unstable exothermic chemicals need to 
lose heat at ambient conditions, yet, if exposed to fire, 
such tanks heat rapidly. In this paper, thermal insulation 
of such a tank is explored for a specific case, a 4000- 
gallon aluminum tank with 70 wt pet hydrogen peroxide 
(H2O2) as cargo. Analysis of heat transfer from and to 
the tank and cargo for these environments indicates that 
thermal insulation of the tank is feasible. 3 figs, 23 refs. 
(Author) 

183 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 
c. Safe Handling of Hazardous Materials — Continued 



1021. Hartlich E 

FIRE PROTECTION AND RESCUE INSTALLATIONS 
FOR THE CARGO HANDLING FACILITIES OF THE 
MOBIL OIL REFINERY AT WILHELMS HAVEN 

VFDB Z, 26(2):56-67, 1977 (German; English and French 
Summaries) 

The tanker terminal of the Mobil Oil Co has been in 
operation in the Jade channel at Wilhelmshaven since the 
fall of 1975. For a better understanding of the fire protec- 
tion installations, the individual structural facilities are 
first described. The design of the safety measures and 
fire protection installations is based on an analysis made 
by experts in the field (Federal Physical-Technical In- 
stitute in Braunschweig, the Federal Materials Testing In- 
stitute in Berlin, D Karlsch and HD Spohn). The installa- 
tions include water and foam supply, distribution of extin- 
guishants, extinguishing devices, detection equipment, and 
emergency power supply. The rescue installations consist 
of lay-out of escape routes, locating and equipping rescue 
boats, shelters, and rescue equipment. 10 figs. (Fachdok 
13/0761) 

d. STANDARDS 

1022. Conkling JA [Am Pyrotechnics Assoc] 

NEW FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR CLASS C FIRE- 
WORKS 

Fire J; 71(3):27-29, 117, 1977 

In one of its first completed regulatory actions, the 
United States Consumer Product Safety Commission 
(CPSC) has completed performance and construction 
requirements for Class C (public use) fireworks devices. 
The new rules went into effect on December 6, 1976. 
The new regulations cover firecrackers and fireworks sold 
for consumer use and do not apply to fireworks used 
in organized public displays. Persons distributing fireworks 
in violation of the regulations are subject to criminal 
penalties as specified in the Federal Hazardous Substances 
Act. Following a review of the history of the legislation, 
some of the major sections of the new regulations are 
summarized, as follows: labeling, firecrackers, prohibited 
chemicals, fuses, base dimensions, burnout and blowout, 
toy smoke devices, and rockets with sticks. 3 refs. 

1023. Anon 

SAFETY IMPLICATIONS OF AUTOMATIC VENT DAM- 

DTDC 

Fire J, 71(4):63-64, 69, 73, 1977 

The immediate, serious hazards of fire, asphyxiation, 
and poisoning that may arise from an improperly operating 
venting system, ie, the failure of an automatic vent 
damper to open when an energy-producing appliance is 
firing, are emphasized and controls resulting from the 
development of concensus standards by standards-making 
groups are discussed. The provisions of the proposed 
ANSI Z-21 series standard (American National Standards 
Institute) in establishing basic design and performance of 
automatic vent dampers are outlined. 2 figs. 

1024. Anon 

STANDARDS REVISED AND SUPPLEMENTED 

Pozhar Delo, (2):17, 1977 (Russian) 



In view of the expanded gas supply market and the 
many resultant explosions and fires, it was necessary to 
Tevise and improve standards in the USSR. The most 
important innovations in standards for the design, ventila- 
tion, heating and gas supply of residential buildings, movie 
halls, hospitals, kindergartens and schools are presented. 
The numbers of the new Soviet standards (COST) are 
listed. (Fachdok 13/0962) 

1025. Lyons JW [Nat Bureau Standards, Washington, DC, 

Center for Fire Res] 

SOME GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN FTRE TESTING AND 

STANDARDS 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The work done by the National Bureau of Standards, 
which results in new test methods, proposed standards 
and code changes, new concepts and recommended prac- 
tices, is guided by the concept of intervention in unwanted 
fires in a sequence of four strategies: reduction of igni- 
tions, control of fire spread and growth, improved detec- 
tion and automatic suppression, and improved design for 
protection of exposed people and property. Those strate- 
gies relating to materials and the programs underway to 
deal with problems of fire safety of materials are 
discussed. 2 pages 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS 
AND PREVENTION 

a. INSURANCE 

1026. Howe HI 
COUNTING THE COST 

MedSciLaw; 17(2):96-101, 1977 

Hazards familiar to insurance adjusters when dealing 
with losses from fires are reviewed; four factors often 
encountered are related to electrical installations, heating, 
a wide range of industrial processes, and, perhaps the 
most significant, the human element (error and malicious 
intent). The various forms of insurance coverage are 
discussed: the buildings and equipment, business disrup- 
tion and consequential loss in the form of indemnity and 
reinstatement (restoration). Several fires in storage and 
production areas of plants, with and without sprinkler 
protection and fire partitioning, and the resultant losses 
are cited to illustrate the cost of fires to insurers. (This 
paper was presented at the meeting of the British Acade- 
my of Forensic Sciences held in London on 21-22 May, 
1976.) 

b. LOSSES 

1027. Flynn JF [Roan Consolidated Mines Ltd, Zambia] 
PLASTICS: HOW THEY INCREASE FTRE LOSSES 

Fire Eng J; 37(107):7-11, 1977 

Plastics carry an additional fire danger in commerce 
and industry, and yet their malleability and their suitability 
as replacements for world shortages of other resources 
are good reasons for their use, despite their fire hazards 



184 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 

b. Losses — Continued 



in fires burning with emission of heat and toxic fumes, 
as evidenced by the dramatic increase in fire losses and 
its effect on fire insurance. Fire retarding assists in 
providing safer conditions for a period, but indiscriminate 
use of plastics is dangerous to property and life; control 
is needed. The characteristics of fire research, firefighting, 
chemistry of construction, temperatures, ignition tempera- 
tures and fire loading, and burning rates of plastics are 
reviewed, as are various aspects of self -extinguishing 
plastics, breakdown fire products, fire effects, flame-retar- 
dants in plastics, expanding plastics and fire retarding, 
practical uses, associated risks, and plastics in mining. 
5 tables. 

1028. Anon 

FIRE LOSSES IN AUSTRIA IN 1975 

Oesterr Feuenvehr; 31(1):9-11, 1977 (German) 

Statistical data on the number of fires and fire losses 
in 1975 for Austria as a whole, as well as for individual 
areas, are given. Losses in various branches of industry, 
causes of the various fires, and the increase in losses 
in the different areas are indicated. It is pointed out that 
there were 9,360 fires in 1975, with total losses of 
733,956,000 schillings. The increase in losses over 1974 
was 44,149 schillings; the number of large fires and ac- 
cidents also increased. 6 tables. (RZh) 

1029. Rogers FE 

FIRE LOSSES AND THE EFFECT OF SPRINKLER PRO- 
TECTION OF BUILDINGS IN A VARIETY OF ESDUS- 
TRD2S AND TRADES. Fire Res Sta (UK), Borehamwood, 
UK; BRE CP-9/77, 46 pages, 7 figs, 45 tables, 14 refs, 
Feb 1977 

This report gives an account of techniques, based on 
extreme value theory, which have been developed for 
estimating overall fire losses from data which cover only 
large fire losses. It shows how these techniques may be 
applied to assess the value of sprinkler protection in vari- 
ous industries and types of building Since it aims to 
be a definitive paper on the subject it is, of necessity, 
somewhat complex in format. A final section is, however, 
devoted to some comment on practical applications and 
a simplified guide to the use of the techniques in a variety 
of situations is in course of preparation. (Author) 

c. RESTORATION 

d. RISK MANAGEMENT 

1030. Thompson RJ [Nat Fire Prot Assoc, Fire Prot Syst 
Concepts, Boston, MA] 

ANALYZING FIRESAFETY SYSTEMS 

Fire J; 71(3):60-62, 116, 1977 

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is stu- 
dying the utilization of the NFPA Decision Tree as a 
means of evaluating new or equivalent firesafety systems. 
A necessary step in approaching the subject is the 
development of a mathematical (probabilistic) model that 
ultimately will be applied as the tool for the quantified 
analysis of firesafety systems. The entire work to date 
is presented in a two-part interim technical report on the 
initial feasibility study. Part I is a user-oriented discussion 
of the progress, and part II is more researcher-oriented 



for those inclined toward in-depth study and comment 
on the work. Introduced in this article are the fundamen- 
tals of the model as demonstrated by the simple example 
of the effect on the probability of kitchen fires transition- 
ing from ignition of the first material. 2 figs, 2 tables. 

1031. Roebenack K-D and Tennhardt R [VEB BMK 
Chemie Betrieb Montagebau, Halle, GDR] 

KEY POINTS IN HEALTH, OCCUPATIONAL AND FIRE 
PROTECTION 

Metallverarbeitung; 30(6): 162- 163, 1976 

The sources of life safety hazards, their features, deter- 
mination and assessment of accidents, damages and 
hazards, and integration of hazards in protection planning 
are discussed. 2 figs. 

1032. Clark JE [Nat Fire Prot and Control Admin, 
Washington, DC] 

A DECADE OF FTRE: 1967-1977 

Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials Symp, Nat, Proc; 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC 

Sponsor: Am Chem Soc, Div Ind and Eng Chem 

The major milestones of the past decade with respect 
to knowledge and actions concerning fire protection, 
legislation, regulation, education and training, and research 
and development, are reviewed in brief. 3 pages. 

e. SALVAGE 



13. STATISTICS 

1033. Johnson RF [Univ Minnesota, Textile and Clothing 
Consumer Studies] 

CAMPING TENT FLAMMABHJTY — WHAT THE 
RECORD SHOWS 

Fire J; 71(4):50-55, 1977 

Incomplete statistics of recreational tent fires with and 
without bodily injury, more complete for the period 1970- 
1974 and for the state of Minnesota in particular, are 
compiled in tables giving state, year, and month of occur- 
rence, percent of body surface area burned by injury 
extent, and various injury severity tables. The history 
of tent flame-retardant treatment, flammability standards 
and testing of camping tents is reviewed. Flammability 
standards NFPA 701 and CPAI-84 (Canvas Products As- 
sociation International), equipment and test methods are 
discussed, and the downward revision of pass/fail scales 
is questioned. 12 tables, 10 refs. 

1034. Anon 

FPA CASEBOOK OF SOME RECENT MAJOR FTRES 

Fire Prev; (120):32^4, 1977 

The FPA casebook contains a statistical compilation of 
major fire damage in the UK for March-April, 1977, and 
a brief description of some notable non-UK fires for the 
same period. Seven major fires are discussed in terms 
of main features, including estimated damages, description 
of premises, cause of fire, and narrative of the fire. Other 
notable marine fires, static-electricity fires in vehicle 
plants, spinning plants, aluminum smelters, et al, are 
described in brief. Illustrations, diagrams, and photographs 
accompany the various incidents. 5 figs, 12 photos. 



185 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
13. STATISTICS 



1035. Anon 

PROBLEMS OF FIGHTING FIRES IN THE SUBWAY 

Kasai; 26(5):45-50, 1976 (Japanese) 

The tendency of cities worldwide to increase in size 
is being accompanied by a corresponding increase in sub- 
way building activity, placing increased burdens on the 
safety, especially the fire safety, of this type of transpor- 
tation. Statistical data are presented to illustrate the 
dynamics of development of underground urban transpor- 
tation in Japan, as well as in the industrially developed 
countries of the world. Given for a number of countries 
are data characterizing the average annual number of fires 
in subways per size of population, unit length of subway 
lines, and other specific technical and economic indica- 
tors. The causes of these fires are classified. Briefly enu- 
merated and analyzed are the principal organizational and 
engineering problems involved in increasing the fire safety 
in underground transportation and the most effective ap- 
proaches toward solution of these problems. 1 fig, 10 
tables. (RZh) 

1036. Anon 

NATIONAL FOREST FIRE STATISTKS — 1975 

Medd fran Statens Brandnamnd; (7): 1-1 4, 1976 (Swedish; 
English Summary) 

Statistical data and comments on forest fires in Sweden 
in 1975 are presented, such as the number of fires in 
different seasons, the size, causes, number of people and 
amount of equipment involved in fighting these fires, air- 
craft flights, etc. 10 tables. (RZh) 



186 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Abbott JK... 999 

AbelsonPH...723 

Abramov A... 827 

Adams CH... 997 

Adams TC... 948 

Ahlers fnu...628 

AkasawaK...800 

Alarie Y...995 

Albach AF...965, 979 

AlbanC.838 

Alpert RL...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 

658, 668, 751 
Altekruse EB...1000 
Alvares NL...732 
Anderson JR... 852 
Anderson RA...747 
Annemaler D. . .899 
Anselmo G...861 
Auergesellschaft GmbH... 958 



B 



..964 



710 



Baderschneider RG. . 

Bamert AE...872 

BankstonCP...667, 

Banner PM... 814 

BarbierD...767 

Barron S... 671 

Barrow CS... 995 

BeddowsNA...904 

Bendersky C...739 

BendlerH...884 

Benisek L...665, 672, 711 

Benjamin IA...706, 707 

Bercaw JR... 623 

BeroesCS...1006 

Beyersdorf H...774 

BeylerGL...822 

Bhagat PM...693 

Biro etFils... 831 

Blackstop D...939 

BlackwellLL...795 

Blake WF...951 

BlayezP...878 

BorgerM...810 

Borthayre JL...802, 803, 804, 805 

Boyd MC... 890 

Bretfeld A...884 

Bridgman AL...740 

Brown AS... 925 

Bryan JL... 1009, 1011, 1012 

BuchJer A...712 

Budrys I... 792 

Burgess D...645 



Busche R...615 
Butcher EG... 735 



CagliostroDE...752 

CalvanoNJ...961 

Cameron R...950 

CardilloP...661 

CarhartHW...644 

Cassanova RA...667, 710 

Chaiken RF...645 

Chang H... 692 

Chan WT... 963 

ChiesaPJ, Jr... 853 

ChopraS.. .1004, 1005 

Cianciolo AD... 742 

Clark JE... 1032 

Colome J...840 

Comerzan OGS...832 

ConditDA...742 

Conkling JA...1022 

Contini P...977 

Cooper LR... 916 

Corfield MC...690 

Costa HS... 778 

CotabishHN...956 

CoulbertCD...649 

Coulson A...1005 

Coulter PB... 934 

Crane CR... 999 

Craven AD... 629 

CronrathD...1013 

Crudup L...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

CukorP...719 

Cumming HJ...673, 688 



Dalhoff W...799, 801 
Davison FL... 956 
Davis RH...900 
Day M...741 
DektarC.984 
DiCarlo JP...748 
Dickinson KR...905 
DieckRL...713, 714 
Dinevich V...825 
Dinner C... 896 
Dobrzanski J... 785 
Doherty WF...772, 776 
Domingo DJ...699 
DraxH...1019 
DuchCD...864 
Duchene A... 840 



Dunbar RA... 775 
Dunphy MJ...790 
DurbetakiP...691,692 
Dyer JH... 989 
Dynamit Nobel AG... 833 



Early CL... 725 
Eastham G...735 
EhrenburgRG...964 
EickerH...922 
Einsele U...716 
Ellis DA... 980 
Endecott BR... 999 
Erickson L...891 



Fabrik Albert Boecker...811 

Fang JB... 650 

Farren E...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

Feklov AI...859 

Fitzgerald WE... 670 

Fiumara A... 660, 661 

Florence DM... 743 

Flynn JF...1027 

Ford CL...820 

Ford RE... 962 

Formica PM...917 

Francis DN... 941, 944 

Frankenberger H...960 

Franks JL... 791 

FrischKC.724 

Fujiwara A... 892 

Fusilier R...616 

Futurumverken AB...887 



Galil F...696 
Gardner EB... 785 
GaydukovNS...923 
Gebrueder Trox GmbH 
Geddes AB...834 
Genovesi MG...1004, 1005 
GentheM...991 
GerdesDF...835 
Giacomo E...862 
Gilwee WJ, Jr... 675 
GluckDG...694 
Goldman RF...1003 
Golubev RG...909 
GoodenWE...928 



1-1 



AUTHOR INDEX 



GottschallH...841 
Gow QW...854 
Grobe W...986 
Grossi B...792 
Grzelecki L...617 
Gubri M...879 



H 



HabichtS...737 

HadvigS...666 

HaesslerWM...798 

Hagan JR... 694 

Hall J... 993 

Hamada M...641 

Hancock L...936 

Harrison GA... 860 

Hart EV...785 

HartlichE...1021 

Hartmann W...836, 845 

Hashizume H...755 

Hathaway CE...725 

Hazlett RN...1020 

HerrickLK, Jr... 903 

HertzbergM...756 

Hilado CJ...625, 673, 675, 688, 712 

Hinkey P...701 

Hinsley RS...921 

HipchenDE...694 

Hirasawa M...760 

HoelterH...842, 843 

Hoeppe W...818 

Hoganas AB...889 

Hognat J... 674, 695 

Honda H... 786 

Honda M... 850 

Hop T... 678 

Hori T...757 

Hottelet M...806 

Howe HI... 1026 

HrynchukR...950 

Hsu MS... 675 

Hughes RI...705 

Hugon M...768 

Hummel F, Jr... 855 



I 



Igelbuescher H...842, 843 

Institut National des Radio-Elements, 

Belgium... 769 
Isavnin N...826 
Ishikawa M...763 
IsobeM...880 
Itikura I... 971 
Iwata S...760 



Jackson J... 856 
Janus D...1017 
Jarausch D...1017 
Jason NH...626 
Jenkel K...885 
Jerome EA...990 



JickT...964 
Jihaime F de...764 
Johnson GA... 91 8 
Johnson PC... 81 5 
Johnson RF... 1033 
Johnson RP... 677 
Johnson RS... 736 
Jonas RG... 729 
Jordi A...838 



Kajita H...974 

Kanury AM... 680 

Karim GA...646 

KarterM...993 

Katsube A... 807 

Kawasaki A... 633 

Kessinger WB...893 

Kief erW... 738 

Kikuji A...966 

Kiley FB...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

KimstachIF...988 

Kimura M. . .873 

King EB... 855 

King R... 906 

Knippertz HJ...799, 801 

KobayashiH...759 

KochanTA...964 

Kochnev A...827 

Kolyshchenko MV...848 

Komuro T...966 

Ko NWM...963 

Korschinsky J... 942 

KosolaKL...625 

Kourtides DA... 675 

Kozlyuk AI...848 

Krahne B...717 

Krankkunen KV...808 

Krylov VF...915 

KubotaT...662, 663 

KukhnoVI...848 

Kulakovskiy AA...949 

Kurbatskiy 0...826 

Kuroda S...974 

Kuroki K...874 

Kwan ASH...963 



La Basse PJ...770 

LaBossiere LA... 675 

Landre J-C...767 

Land RI...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 

659, 734 
Lantheaume M...802, 803, 804, 805 
Lanwick B...767 
Larsson C...869 
Lawson JR... 679 
Lay D... 849 

LeBlanc RB...624, 748, 1007 
Lee TG... 745 
Le Guyader A... 771 
Lemke H...844 
LernerNR...675 
Lerup L...1013 
Levine RS...621, 753 



Le Vinson DW... 952 
Levy R... 945 
LewinM...726 
Liebman R...863 
Liepins R...718 
LindenauNI...915 
Linden G... 849 
Iitant I...929 
Litton CD... 756 
IiuLKC.1013 
LoetterC.685 
Loos H...836, 845 
Lyons JW... 1025 



M 



Maccalous JW...730 

MacGillivray L...934 

Mackowski R...678 

MaedaK...946 

Maevskaya VM...915 

Makurenko VL. . . 848 

MalhotraHL...687 

Malinowski WJ...772, 776 

Mann DS...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

Marjoram MJ...989 

Mark HF... 727 

Markstein GH...653, 654, 655, 656, 

657, 658 
MascherW...959 
MassoudiMS...750 
Mathews MK...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 

658,668 
Matsubara H...786 
Matsumoto K...812, 816 
Matsumoto Y...761 
MattsonRE...627 
Mayer S... 955 
McCafferey BJ...664 
McCarterRJ...731 
McDonald D...967 
McElroy C...1004 
McGehanFP...865 
MealaresC.882 
MedilekP...676 
Medvedov 0...827 
Menna A... 614 

Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm. . .809 
Miles L...684 
Minimax GmbH... 846 
MinK...669 
MironiM...964 
Miyabe A... 777 
Miyamoto T...787 
Modak AT... 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 

658 
MolinosOF...902 
MonmaK...881, 886 
Montgomery RR. . . 1 001 
Morewitz HA... 677 
Morgan M... 1004 
Morgan TDB... 705 
Morita M...760 
Morley LA...698 
MoserOW...781 
MotoeT...823 
Moussa NA...746 
MuenchK...847 



1-2 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Murayama K. . .873 
Musk AW... 1008 



N 



Nagayama K. . .823 

NakaiT...947 

Nakakuki A...823 

NakamuraK...850 

Nakao K...976 

Napier DH... 715 

Nash G... 983 

Nat Materials Advisory Board... 697 

NdubizuCC.692 

Nelson CT... 677 

Nelson GL... 681, 740 

NewingtonTJ...788 

NFPA Fire Analysis Dept...630 

NFPA Fire Record Dept...631 

Niels fnu... 628 

Nishizuma M...640 

Nishnevskiy LD...848 

NymanRJ...957 



O'ConneU WJJ...740 

OguriM...755,800,976 

OishiT...966 

OkadaS...813 

OkajimaT...824 

Okuma J...969 

Oile-Domingo P...924 

OimedoC.720 

OnariM...976 

OnishiM...760 

Orloff L...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

Ota M... 784 

Owaku T...874 



Paige RC...793 

Pandolf KB... 1003 

Parker JA... 675, 752 

Parmentier J, Jr... 636 

ParnellAC...735 

PatersonT...1015 

Paulsen OR... 666 

Pearce B...1018 

Pearce EM.. .718 

Pembroke fnu... 776 

Pestmal N...642 

Pesyukov VN...909 

PetajanJH...996 

Peters JM... 1008 

Peterson JM... 747 

Phillips C... 1002 

Phillips WA...665, 672, 711 

Pipes TV... 940 

PloteciaSS...934 

Podany V0...778 

PolikarpovS...876 

Polo JC...653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

Popov V...876 



Poujois R...767 
Powell EA... 667, 710 
Prendke WD... 935 
Pryor AJ...632 



Q 

QuinnEJ...713, 714 



Rasbash DJ...682 

Ray B...758 

RedfernDL...779 

Regnier J...840 

ReinhardtCF...1001 

Rhone-Poulenc Ind...837 

Richards NF...953 

Richardson EG... 789 

Richmond JK. . .863 

Richwien A. . .927 

Riou JG...620 

Ris, de, J... 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658 

RobersonEC.686 

Rockett JA...664 

Rodgers PG...950 

Roebenack K-D...1031 

Roebuck B... 921 

Rogers FE...1029 

Rogge V...676 

Rooker K...921 

Roquemore WD... 856 

Rosendahl W...733 

RouxHJ...708 

Rozmyslowski U...932 

RTI...638 

Rubner M...719 

Russell G...819 



Saito H...761 
Salbreux P...973 
Sanders DC... 999 
Sato K... 749 
Schaenman PS... 993 
Schainblatt A...993 
Schnakenberg GH, Jr... 639 
Schoenfeld H...991 
Schreiber B...685 
Schubert K-H...1014 
Schwarz M...737 
Schwetzoff V...920 
SeidelH...738 
Sekiguchi Y...873 
Seki K...850 
Sekine T...652 
Shabanin V...876 
Sheehan DF...930 
Sheratte MB... 721, 722 
Shimada I... 633 
ShtrikhN...876 
Siemens AG... 773 
Silcock A...877 
Simmons M...1005 



Simmons RF...989 
Simonov E...876 
Simon R... 935 
Simons J... 982 
Slater TR... 938 
Smith NS, Jr... 91 7 
Smith PW... 999 
SobolevGG...848 
Solomon EE...780, 794 
Staby PA... 795 
StalJ...985 
Steinhoff D...1014 
Stevens PJ...954 
Sthamer JE...830 
Stock MF... 995 
Stockwell AA...1018 
Stokes WR...851 
Stone JP...1020 
Strulik WP...882 
Suprunchuk T...741 
Sutton AR... 700 
Svenska Flaktfabriken...883 
Swangepoel LP... 788 
Swartz J...993 
Synk JA...994 



TakadaS...987 
Takahashi H...972 
Takahashi S...709 
Takei H...755 
Tarakcioglu I. ..716 
TashkinDP...1005 
TatoH...762 
Taylor AM... 931 
Teague ML... 692 
TeaguePE...1016 
Telyavskiy ID... 909 
Tennhardt R...1031 
Terrill JB...1001 
Teslenko G...619 
Tewarson A... 683 
Theobald CR...647, 648 
Thery TP...838 
TluloP...781,782 
Thompson RJ...1030 
Thompson WS...894 
Tiedtke K...849 
Timmerberg CH...799, 801 
Tincher WC...692 
Tomaszewski J... 978 
ToyodaT...761 
Toyoshima S...850 
Trabold EL... 728 
Troy JJ...926 
Trutt FC...698 
Tsang P...646 
TushkinDP...1004 



u 



UlrichRL...933 
UnetaT...800 



1-3 



AUTHOR INDEX 



VachovetzE...975 
Vander Walt JG... 957 
Vasilenko W...848 
Vaysengol'ts VA...909 
VeldmanCC.662 
Vickery WE...934 
Voellinger H...871 
Vorob'evR...943 



w 

WadhwaKB...925 

Wagiaki P...676 

Wagner JP... 919 

Wakabayashi K...704, 910, 911 

Wald L...839 

Wallace RA... 783 

Walsh CV... 981 

Walter O... 782 

Warren PJ... 998 

Warrick JC... 995 

Wasowski J...870 

Waters D...907 

Weaver JW... 744 

WeaverS.. .795 

Webb W, Jr... 796 

WegmanDH...1008 

WeibyP...905 

Weise G...857 

White TM...700 

Wiackowski J . . .643 

Wiles DM... 741 

Wilkinson C... 937 

Williams FW... 1020 

Williams JB... 740 

Williams MR... 967 

Wilson RW... 705 

Wise JW... 797 

Wolfe VL, Jr... 692 

Wright JB... 793 

Wright LD...898 

Wright PL... 997 



Yamamoto J. . .800 

YamashikaS...821 

Yamoakal...908 

YoshiharaT...976 

YumotoT...651 



Zehr WJ...858 
Zephinie G...817 
ZinnBT...667, 710 
Zukoski EE...662, 663 
Zusmanovskaya E...876 



1-4 



SUBJECT INDEX 



ABLATIVE COATINGS 

sprayable insulation 
fire walls... 730 

ACCIDENTS 

(also see: aircraft accidents; 

explosions; ship accidents; traffic 
accidents) 

ACTINIC STABILITY 

plastics 
fire retardants...719 

ADDinVES SEE: SLIPPERY 
WATER; SURFACTANTS; 
WETTING AGENTS 

AERIAL PLATFORMS SEE: 
ELEVATING PLATFORMS 

AEROSPACE VEHICLES 

compartment fires 
gas toxicity... 752 
thermal toxicity... 752 

AFFF 

surfactants 
fluorocarbon radicals... 853 
sea water... 853 

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 
retracted wheels 
runway foam... 990 

AIRCRAFT CRASHES SEE: 
AIRCRAFT ACCroENTS 

ADtCRAFT CRASH FIRES 

(also see: aircraft fires; aircraft 
ground fires) 

AIRCRAFT FIRES 

(also see: aircraft crash fires; aircraft 
ground fires) 

AIRCRAFT FUEL FIRES 

(also see: fuel fires) 

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS 

materials 

fire safety... 747 

fire testing... 747 
polymeric materials 

flammability . . .675 
prepregs 

low-flame... 729 

low-smoke ... 729 



seat cushions 

fire-resistant . . .728 
wool carpets 

burning behavior... 672 

smoke emission... 672 

Am CYLINDERS SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

Am DUCTS 

(also see: ventilation shafts) 
fire dampers 
patents... 887 

AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS 

fire dampers 

patents.. .883, 888 

test results... 874 

ventilation ducts . . . 870 
Halon 1301 distribution 

fire protection... 820 

ALARM ACTUATORS 

smoke detectors 
patents... 791 

ALARM CENTERS 

detector monitors 
patents... 787 

ALARMS 

(also see: fire alarms) 
fire extinguisher removal 
patents... 857 

ALARM SYSTEMS 

combined detection 

patents... 797 
control centers 

patents... 770 
ionization detectors 

patents... 785 

ALUMINUM ALLOYS 

structural materials 
fire resistance... 674 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS 

chlorine exposure 

sensory irritation... 995 
exposure testing 
combustion products... 997 

intoxication syndromes... 996 
hydrogen chloride exposure 

sensory irritation... 995 
toxicity exposure 

combustion products... 999 



APPAREL SEE: CLOTHING 

APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 
FIRE APPARATUS 

APPLICANT TESTING 

fire service 
test guidance . . . 962 

ARBITRATION PROCEDURES 

firefighters 
NY State... 964 

ARSON 

(also see: firesetting; incendiarism; 
pyromania) 
combat methods 
industrial occupancies... 994 

ASTM E 162-67 
flame spread testing 
reproducibility . . .745 

AUSTRIA 

fire losses 
1975.. .1028 



B 

BASKET STRETCHERS 

handling evaluations 
lowering techniques.. .975 

BEDDING 

(also see: blankets; mattresses) 
test burns 
laboratory ... 734 

BEHAVIOR SEE: HUMAN 

BEHAVIOR; FIRE BEHAVIOR 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

smoke evolution 
published information... 625 

BITARTRATES 

dry-powder extinguishants 
patents. ..841 

BLANKETS 

(also see: asbestos blankets; bedding) 
fire-extinguishing 
patents... 851 

BOATS 

explosion hazards 

analysis... 629 
fire hazards 

analysis... 629 



1-5 



SUBJECT INDEX 



BOILERS 

gas-fired 
explosivity...704 

BOOKS 

polymeric materials 
fire safety... 697 

BREATHING APPARATUS 

(also see: respirators) 
fire service 

re views... 955 
recirculation proportioner 

patents... 957 
regeneration filters 

patents... 959 
self -rescue 

patents... 956 
supplementary filters 

patents... 958 

BREEDER REACTORS 

liquid metal 
sodium fires... 677 

BROMOCHLORODD7LUOROME 
THANE 

fire extinguishment 
jet engines... 989 

BROWNS FERRY 

fire incidents 
analysis... 63 2 

BUILDING CODES 

fire protection 

Scotland.. .1015 
mini-max 

fire safety... 1016 

BUILDING COMPONENTS 

polymeric materials 
fire hazards... 707 
fire safety... 708 

BUILDING FIRES SEE: 
STRUCTURAL FIRES 

BUILDING MATERIALS 

gypsum board 

fire properties... 679 
polymeric 

fire safety... 706 

BUILDINGS 

evacuation routes 

guidance systems... 801 
fire losses 

sprinkler protection. . . 1 029 
fire safety systems 

recent trends... 755 
medium-sized 

fire safety systems... 873 

BUILDING STRUCTURES 

concrete components 

fire endurance... 720 
fire-exposed concrete 

deterioration . . .861 

ultrasonic investigation... 861 

BUOYANCY PRESSURE 

fire plumes 



compartment fires... 664 

BUOYANT PLUMES 

heat transfer 
ceilings... 662, 663 

BURNING BEHAVIOR 

textile blends 
polyester-cotton. . .676 

BURNING RATES 

fabrics 
flammability tests... 744 

BUS ACCIDENTS SEE: TRAFFIC 
ACCIDENTS 

BUSES 

interiors 
fire simulation... 740 



CABARETS SEE: NIGHTCLUBS 

CABLE DUCTS 

(also see: electrical ducts; utility 
ducts; utility shafts) 

CABLE FIRES 

detection systems 
smoke control... 700 

CABLE INSULATION 

flammability tests 
mass transportation... 931 

CABLES SEE: ELECTRICAL 
CABLES 

CABLE TRAYS 

fire incidents 
analyses... 627 

CAMPING SITES 

fire protection 
codes (FRG)...1014 

CARBON DIOXIDE 

breathing gases 

gas meter... 960 
liquefied 

phase change... 821 

CARBON-EPOXY RESINS 

structural materials 
fire resistance... 674 
fire response... 674 

CARPETS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 

CEHJNGS 

buoyant plumes 
compartment fires... 662, 663 

CELLULAR PLASTICS 

compartment fires 

fire development... 653, 654, 655, 657 
enclosure fires 

fire development... 658 

CHARCOAL 

combustion 
water effects... 693 



CHEMICAL ACCIDENTS 

hazards identification 
Hazchem code... 1018 

CHEMICAL PLANTS 

flammable gases 

monitoring instruments... 903 
hazards potential 

explosions... 906 

fires... 906 
toxic gases 

monitoring instruments... 903 

CHEMICALS 

self -heating 
fire exposure... 1020 
transportation. . . 1020 

CHLORINE 

animal exposure 
sensory irritation... 995 

CITIES 

fire spread 
simulation. . .652 

CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 

combustion products 
polymers... 1000 

CLOTHING 

(also see: protective clothing; 
sleepwear) 
burning behavior 

heat transfer rates... 684 
extinguishability 

test methods... 748 
fabrics 

flammability tests... 744 
flammability standards 

meeting report... 623 
flammability testing 

relevance... 696 

COALMINES 

endogenous fires 

extinguishment. . .91 5 

origin... 91 5 

prevention. ..915 
explosions 

control... 863 

propagation . . . 863 
methane monitors 

transducers. . .916 

CODES 

(also see: building codes; fire codes) 
door retainers 

fire doors... 871 
fire protection 

camping sites (FRG)...1014 

recreation sites (FRG)...1014 

Scotland.. .1015 

COMBINATION STARTERS 

explosion-proof enclosures 
electrical equipment... 898 

COMBUSTIBLE GASES 

mines 

detectors... 639 
Taguchi gas sensors 

sensitivity... 917 



1-6 



SUBJECT INDEX 



COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 

fire behavior 
fire point theory... 682 

COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS 

polymeric materials 
mathematical models... 750 

COMBUSTION GASES 

composition 
textile fibers ...716 

COMBUSTION INHIBITOR 

piled materials 
patents... 869 

COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

gas analyzer 

portable... 759 
polymeric materials 

toxicity... 997 
polymers 

clinical toxicology... 1000 
toxic gases 

life safety. ..715 
toxicity testing 

animal exposure... 999 

COMBUSTION TESTING 

compartment fires 
research programs... 659 

COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

(also see: toxicity) 
polymeric materials 
intoxication syndromes... 9% 

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS 

fire safety 
consumer protection... 725 
legislation... 7 25 
product development... 725 

COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

fire control 

computerized . . .972 

France... 973 
fire service 

UK... 970 
radio frequency 

fire alarms. ..969 

COMPARTMENT FIRES 

buoyant plumes 

heat transfer... 662, 663 
cellular plastics 

fire development... 653, 654, 655, 657 
combustion testing 

full-scale... 659 
energy release criteria 

hazard analysis... 649 
fire-induced flows 

buoyancy pressure... 664 
foam extinguishants 

high-expansion. . .827 
polymethylme thacrylate 

fire development... 656 
testing faculties 

full-scale... 739 
upholstered furniture 

measurements . . .650 
window venting 



fire development... 657 
wood cribs 
measurements . . . 650 

COMPUTERIZATION 

dispatching systems 
fire departments... 968 

COMPUTERIZED MODELING 

fire spread 
cities... 652 

COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION 

sprinkler systems 
hydraulic calculations... 824 

COMPUTERS 

fire protection 
system selection. . .900 

COMPUTING CENTERS 

fire control 

Tokyo... 971 
fire protection 

reviews... 868 

CONCRETE 

fire-exposed 
deterioration. . .861 
ultrasonic investigation... 861 

CONCRETE COMPONENTS 

building structures 
fire endurance... 720 

CONFERENCES 

American Industrial Hygiene Assn 

1976... 995 
Canadian Society of Forensic Science 

1974... 950 
Coal Mine Technol, WVU 

3rd, 1976.. .639, 698, 756, 916, 917, 
918, 919 
Fire Prevention in Computing Centers 

Belgium, 1976... 868 
Petroleum and Chem Ind, Annual 

23rd, 1976... 898, 925 
Problems of Fire and Explosion Safety 
of Industrial Equipment 

USSR, 1976.. .619 
Pulp and Paper Ind, Annual 

1976... 627 
Tifcon 76, Textile Floor Coverings 
Group (UK) 

1976... 690 

CONGRESSES 

French National Firefighters 
Association 
96th, 1976... 620 

CONSEDL INTERNATIONAL DU 
BATTMENT SEE: CIB 

CONSUMER PROTECTION 

fire safety 

product development... 725 
life safety 

industrial responsibilities... 723 

CONTROL CENTERS 

computer-assisted 
Augsburg (FRG)...942 



CONTROL SYSTEMS 

fire alarms 
patents... 792 

CONTROL VALVES 

sprinkler systems 
patents... 847 

COPOLYMER COMPOSITIONS 

polyphosphazenes 
flame properties. ..714 
smoke properties ... 7 1 4 

COPPER 

soldered 
fire endurance... 732 
sprinkler systems... 732 

COPPER WDUNG 

fire residues 
cause determination... 952 

CORNER TESTS 

polyurethane insulation 
residential occupancies... 742 

CORRIDORS 

design requirements 
evacuation routes... 798 

COTTON 

combustion products 

lethality... 997 
flame-retarded 

burning behavior... 684 
smoldering combustion 

inhibition... 731 

CRIB FIRES 

water extinguishment 
steam generation... 709 

CROWD FLOWS 

structural fires 
evacuation model... 976 

CURTAINS SEE: SMOKE CURTAINS; 
WATER CURTAINS 

CYLINDERS SEE: GAS CYLINDERS 



DAMPERS 

ventilation ducts 
patents... 882 

DANCE HALLS 

(also see: nightclubs) 

DATA ACQUISITION 

enclosure fires 
full-scale tests... 668 

DATA PROCESSING 

identification system 
hazardous materials... 1019 

DATA TRANSMISSION 

fire alarm systems 
patents... 782 



1-7 



SUBJECT INDEX 



DEGRADATION RATES 

industrial polymers 
high-temperature effects.. 



671 



DESCENT CONTROL MECHANISMS 

escape chutes 

patents. ..817 
escape devices 

patents... 806, 816 
winch systems 

escape devices... 805 

DETECTION SYSTEMS 

control centers 

patents... 770 
electronic 

characteristic s . . . 765 
multi-rack warehouses 

patents... 784 
supervisory circuits 

patents... 775 

DETECTOR MONITORS 

alarm centers 
patents... 787 

DETECTORS 

(also see: fire detectors; flame 
detectors; infrared detectors; 
ionization detectors; smoke 
detectors; ultraviolet detectors) 
fire extinguisher removal 
patents... 857 

DETECTOR SYSTEMS 

control commands 
patents... 781 

DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 

fire protection 
Germany (GDR)...927 

DIRECTORIES 

fire research specialists 
US/Canada... 626 

DISCHARGE VALVES 

sprinkler systems 
patents... 834 

DISCOTHEQUES SEE: DANCE 
HALLS 

DISPATCHING SYSTEMS 

computer-aided 
fire departments... 968 

DOOR RETAINERS 

fire closures 
codes... 871 

DRAPES SEE: WINDOW 
COVERINGS 

DROP NIPPLES 

sprinkler heads 
patents... 852 

DRY-POWDER EXTTNGUISHANTS 

bitartrates 

patents... 841 
nitrogen-phosphorous base 

patents... 837 
rating 



European standards. ..819 

DRY-POWDER NOZZLES 

monitors 
patents... 979 

DUCTS SEE: AIR DUCTS; 

ELECTRICAL DUCTS; UnLTTY 
DUCTS; VENTILATION 
SYSTEMS 

DUST-AHt MIXTURES 

ignition energies 
minimum. . .660 

DUSTS 

explosion prevention 

oxygen-poor atmospheres... 661 
ignition energy 

determination . . . 660 



EDUCATION 

(also see: correspondence courses; 
fire safety education; fire safety 
training; fire science education; 
fire service instructors; National 
Fire Academy; public education; 
training) 

EFFICIENCY RATINGS 

fire service 
fire prevention... 934 
fire protection... 934 
measurement criteria... 993 

ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS 

fire-protection systems 
patents... 884 

ELECTRICAL CABLES 

(also see: electrical circuits; electrical 
wiring) 
fire protection 

PVC compounds... 700 
flame-resistant 

silicone insulation. . .901 
industrial occupancies 

fire protection... 899 
radiation-resistant 

silicone insulation... 901 

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 

(also see: electrical cables; electrical 
wiring) 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

explosion-proof enclosures 
combination starters... 898 

ELECTRICAL SAFETY 

hazardous cargos 
ships.. .925 

ELECTRICAL WDMNG 

(also see: electrical cables; electrical 

circuits) 
copper 
fire investigations... 952 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 

explosion-proof 
USSR... 909 

ELECTRIC POWER 

explosive atmospheres 
mining industry... 897 
petroleum industry... 897 

ELECTROSPARK MACHINING 

fire hazards 
precautions . . . 866 

ELEVATING NOZZLES 

monitors 
patents... 947 

EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS 

relay systems 
radiotelephones . . . 974 

EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICE 

basket stretchers 
lowering techniques... 975 

EMERGENCY MEDICAL 
TECHNICIANS 

life support skills 
manuals... 1002 

EMERGENCY VEHICLES 

interlock systems 
patents... 948 

ENCLOSURE FIRES 

cellular plastics 

fire development... 658 
full-scale tests 

data acquisition programs... 668 

ENCLOSURE FIRES SEE: 
COMPARTMENT FD*ES 

ENDOGENOUS FIRES 

coal mines 

extinguishment. ..915 

origin... 915 

prevention... 91 5 
mine shafts 

prevention... 91 3 

ENERGY RELEASE 

compartment fires 
hazard analysis... 649 

ESCAPE CHUTES 

descent control mechanisms 

patents... 81 7 
flexible tubes 

patents... 807 

ESCAPE DEVICES 

descent control mechanisms 
patents... 806, 808, 812, 816 

suspension davits 
patents... 802, 803, 804 

winch systems 
patents... 805 

ESCAPE LADDERS 

roof-mounted 

motor-driven. ..813 

patents... 81 3 
wall-mounted 



1-8 



SUBJECT INDEX 



patents... 814 

ESCAPE MEANS 
(also see: evacuation devices) 

ESCAPE ROPES 

descent control mechanisms 
patents...816 

ESCAPE ROUTES 

(also see: evacuation methods) 
fire situations 
guidance systems... 799 

ESCAPE SLIDES 

spiral 
patents...810 

EVACUATION 

structural fires 
computerized simulation... 976 

EVACUATION PLANNING 

procedures 
fire incidents . . .978 

EVACUATION ROUTES 

design requirements 

time constraints... 798 
guidance systems 

highrise buildings... 800 

EVACUATION TIMES 

structural fires 
calculations. . .977 

EXHmrnoNs 

firefighting equipment 
France... 620 

EXITS 

design requirements 
evacuation routes... 798 

EXPLOSIMETERS 

pocket 
technical description... 766 

EXPLOSION BARRIERS 

water curtains 
patents... 921 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

boats f-j 

analysis... 629 * 

explosion-proof enclosures 

materials... 698 
feed concentrate plants 

preventive measures... 699 
grain silos 

preventive measures... 699 
industrial occupancies 

monitoring procedures... 905 
industrial systems 

mathematical modeling...910 

EXPLOSION PREVENTION 

boilers 

gas-fired... 704 
dusts 

oxygen-poor atmospheres... 661 

EXPLOSION-PROOF ENCLOSURES 

electrical equipment 



combination starters... 898 
materials 
explosion hazards... 698 

EXPLOSIONS 

coal mines 
control... 863 
propagation. . .863 

EXPLOSION SAFETY 

industrial equipment 
conferences (USSR)... 619 

industrial systems 
all-purpose . . . 703 

EXPLOSIVE MEDIA 

flame propagation 

methane fuels... 646 
flammability characteristics 

methane fuels... 646 

EXPLOSIVES 

containers 
accident causes... 635 

EXPLOSrVTTY 

gas-fired boilers 
nitrogen dioxide... 704 

EXTINGUISHANTS 

(also see: dry chemical 

extinguishants; dry-powder 
extinguishants; foam 
extinguishants; halons) 
AFFF 

patents... 853 
halons 

safety review... 81 8 
liquefied 
phase change... 821 

EXTINGUISHER ACTUATORS 

fire detectors 

patents... 773 
temperature sensors 

patents... 845 

EXTINGUISHERS 

adapter fittings 

patents... 846 
discharge control 

temperature sensors... 836 
dry powder 

European standards...819 

residential... 826 
dual-expansion foams 

patents... 831 
liquid nitrogen 

patents... 832 
pressure regulators 

patents... 839 
rupturing heads 

patents... 858 
self-contained 

patents... 854 
series actuation 

patents... 850 
solid nitrogen 

patents... 832 

EXTINGUISHING METHODS 

highrise buildings 



patents... 886 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

area coverage 

patents... 838 
electrical actuation 

patents... 83 3 
foam shutoff mechanism 

patents... 842 
intermittent 

patents... 849 
multi-rack warehouses 

patents... 784 
pressurized containers 

patents... 843 
sodium fires 

patents... 840 
tall buildings 

development. . .761 
thermal actuation 

patents... 833 



FABRICS 

burning rates 

flammability tests... 744 
flammability litigation 

defense experts... 1007 

expertise... 1006 

FATALnTES SEE: FATAL FIRES; 
FIRE FATALITIES 

FEED CONCENTRATE PLANTS 

explosion hazards 
preventive measures... 699 

FD3ER FLAMMABHJTY 

fire retardancy 
re views... 726 

FTRE ACCELERANTS 

recovery 
charred debris... 950 
vacuum distillation... 950 

FIRE ALARMS 

battery operated 

patents... 771 
communications systems 

radio frequency... 969 
control systems 

patents... 792 
ionization chambers 

patents... 788 
ionization detectors 

patents... 795 
radio systems 

underground structures... 760 

FTRE ALARM SYSTEMS 

data transmission 

patents... 782 
rate-of-rise detectors 

patents... 774 
threshold sensors 

patents... 777 

FIRE APPARATUS 

hydraulic mechanisms 



1-9 



SUBJECT INDEX 



elevating devices... 946 

shock absorbers . . .946 
interlock systems 

patents... 948 
manufacturers 

business prospects... 945 

economics ... 945 
remote-controlled 

patents... 987 
self-propelled 

patents... 987 

FIRE BARRIERS 

phenolic laminates 
fire endurance. ..859 

FIRE BEHAVIOR 

combustible materials 

fire point theory... 682 
foamed plastics 

test methods... 694 
mathematical models 

evolution... 753 
polymeric materials 

retardant treatment... 727 
textiles 

test standards (Italy)... 689 

FIRE BLANKET 

spreading frame 
patents... 851 

FTREBOATS 

specifications 

equipment . . . 982 
technical data 

Poland... 985 

UK... 982 

FIRE CAUSES 

Japan 

1975-1976.. .634 
kerosine stoves 

outbreak mechanisms... 633 

FIRE CODES 

(also see: building codes) 

FIRE COLLEGES 

fire prevention technology 
degree courses (Canada)... 937 

FIRE CONTROL 

communications systems 

computerized . . .972 

France... 973 
computing centers 

Tokyo... 971 
information centers 

Tokyo... 971 
information systems 

computerized . . .972 

FERE DAMPERS 

air ducts 

patents... 883 
air-handling systems 

patents... 888 

test results... 874 

ventilation ducts... 870 
fire partitions 

penetrations . . . 870 



gas ducts 

patents... 887 
registers 

patents... 878 

FERE DEATHS SEE: FERE 
FATALITIES 

FERE DEBRIS 

accelerants 
vacuum distillation recovery. . .950 

FERE DEPARTMENTS 

dispatching systems 

computer-aided. . .968 
part-paid 

part- volunteer. . .933 
professional 

voluntary... 93 3 

FERE DETECTION 

alarm systems 

patents... 797 
human responses 

critical variables ... 1 009 

FIRE-DETECTION SYSTEMS 

tall buildings 
development ... 76 1 

FERE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
battery-operated 

patents... 796 
delay circuits 

patents... 767 
extinguisher actuators 

patents... 773 
ionization chambers 

patents... 786 
mines 

incipient fires... 919 
optical sensors 

patents... 790 
rate-of-rise 

patents... 768 
thermal sensors 

design characteristics... 762 
thermistors 

insulated... 757 

open... 757 

FERE DEVELOPMENT 

compartment doorway 

cellular plastics... 654 
compartment geometry 

cellular plastics... 653 
compartments 

cellular plastics... 655, 656, 657 

multiple vents... 655 

polymethylmethacrylate ... 656 

ventilation control... 654 

window venting... 657 
compartment scale 

cellular plastics. . .653 
enclosures 

cellular plastics... 658 

door venting... 658 
industrial occupancies 

numerical data... 647 



FERE DOORS 

fire-resistant glass 

testing. . .737 
hospital latches 

patents... 891 
retainers 

codes... 871 

FERE EMERGENCIES 

power supplies 
self-contained. . .892 

FERE ENDURANCE 

(also see: fire resistance) 
concrete components 

building structures... 720 

standards (Spain)... 720 
fire barriers 

phenolic laminates... 859 
glass 

fire-resistant. . .738 
sprinklers 

soldered copper... 732 

FERE ENVIRONMENTS 

smoke 
evacuation. . . 1 01 2 
human behavior. ..1012 

FERE EXPOSURE 

chemicals 

self -heating... 1020 
firefighters 

pulmonary function... 1008 

FERE EXTESGUISHANTS SEE: 
EXTESGUISHANTS 

FERE EXTENGUISHERS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHERS 

FERE FATALITIES 

human bodies 
fire investigations... 954 
forensic analysis... 953 

FIREFIGHTER EDUCATION 

colleges 
degree courses (Canada)... 937 

FIREFIGHTER HELMETS 

performance criteria 
biomedical. . .961 
physiological. . .961 

FIREFIGHTERS 

heat casualties 

diagnosis... 1003 
heat disorders 

diagnosis... 1003 
labor relations 

NY State... 964 
noise response 

aircraft... 963 

traffic... 963 
pulmonary function 

fire exposure... 1008 
smoke inhalation 

respiratory status... 1005 

transient hypoxemia... 1004 

FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

(also see: physical training) 



1-10 



SUBJECT INDEX 



fire simulators 

mobile... 938 

patents... 941 
recruits 

physical exercises . . .940 

physiological responses... 940 
smoke chambers 

vectoring device... 943 
techniques 

systematic approach. . .936 
volunteer 

Germany (FRG)... 61 5 

FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

exhibition 
France... 620 

FIREFIGHTING TACTICS 

railroad cars 
liquefied gases... 640 

FIREFIGHnNG TRAINER 

van-mounted 
patents... 944 

FIREFIGHTING VEHICLES SEE: 
FIRE APPARATUS 

FIRE FLOWS 

(also see: water supplies) 

FIRE GASES 

toxicity testing 
history... 1001 

FOREGROUND OPERATIONS 

decision making 

techniques... 981 
hazards monitoring 

mobile laboratories... 984 

FIRE HAZARDS 

assessment 

mathematical methods... 864 
boats 

analysis... 629 
building components 

polymeric materials... 707 
electrospark machining 

precautions . . .866 
heaters 

river boats... 628 
hospitals 

safety policies... 998 
industrial occupancies 

insurance adjustment... 1026 
industrial systems 

mathematical modeling...910 
insulating materials 

lightweight... 701 

protective measures... 702 
insulation 

pipes... 743 
mass transportation 

materials selection... 929 
mobile homes 

research projects... 865 

FIRE INCIDENTS 

analyses 

UK (Mar- Apr 1977)... 1034 
bimonthly record 



1976-1977 (US).. .630, 631 
Browns Ferry 

analysis. ..632 
cable trays 

analyses... 627 
evacuation 

planning. . .978 
Japan 

1975- 1976... 634 
kerosine stoves 

causes... 633 
residential occupancies 

human behavior... 1011 
structural 

evacuation times... 977 
subways 

fire safety... 1035 

statistics... 1035 

FTRE INSURANCE 

industrial occupancies 
loss assessments... 1026 

FTRE INVESTIGATION 

team formation 
UK... 951 

FIRE INVESTIGATIONS 

accelerants 

vacuum distillation recovery... 950 
cause determination 

copper wiring... 952 
human bodies 

forensic analysis... 953 

forensic methods... 954 

FTRE KINETICS 

pre-flashover fires 
test procedures... 670 

FIRE LOSSES 

(also see: large loss fires; property 

losses) 
Austria 

1975.. .1028 
buildings 

sprinkler protection... 1029 
plastics 

reviews... 1027 

FIREMEN SEE: FIREFIGHTERS 

FDtE MODELING 

mathematical 

evolution... 753 
mathematical methods 

meeting reports... 621 

FTRE PLUMES 

buoyancy pressure 
compartment fires... 664 

FDtE POINT THEORY 

combustible materials 
fire behavior... 682 

FIRE PREVENTION 

research programs 
Poland (1976-1977). ..643 

FIRE PROTECTION 

hotels 
highrise...896 



industrial plants 

planning... 912 
life safety hazards 

safety programs... 1031 
mine shafts 

prototype systems... 91 8 
state-of-the-art 

re views... 1032 

FntE-PROTECnON SYSTEMS 

computers 

selection... 900 
detection 

patents... 789 
electrical actuators 

patents... 884 
extinguishment 

patents... 789 
heat actuators 

patents... 884 
highrise buildings 

patents. ..881 

FTRE RESEARCH 

mines 

problems... 645 
specialists 

directories. . .626 
utilization 

fire service. . .638 

FTRE RESEARCH LABORATORIES 

Railway Engineering Research Institute 
Japan... 640 



FIRERESD3UES 

copper wiring 
cause determination. 



.952 



FTRE RESISTANCE 

(also see: fire endurance) 
support legs 
offshore platforms... 860 

FIRE RETARDANCY 

fiber flammability 
re views... 726 

FTRE RETARDANTS 

foams 

flammability . . .724 
ignition sources 

materials... 691, 692 
plastics 

actinic stability...719 

flammability ... 68 1 
polymeric materials 

fire behavior... 727 

FTRE RISKS 

(also see: risk management) 
evaluation 
mathematical methods... 864 

FTRE SAFETY 

building codes 

mini-max...l016 
industrial equipment 

conferences (USSR)... 619 
navy 

current research... 644 
polymeric materials 



1-11 



SUBJECT INDEX 



symposium papers... 622 
public buildings 

design manual... 923 
residential buildings 

design manual... 923 

FIRE SAFETY SYSTEMS 

buildings 

medium-sized. . .873 

recent trends... 755 
evaluation 

mathematical models... 1030 

FIRE SERVICE 

applicant testing 

test guidance... 962 
cities 

organization (USSR)... 988 
communications systems 

UK... 970 
efficiency ratings 

measurement criteria. . .993 
fire prevention 

efficiency rating... 934 
fire protection 

efficiency rating... 934 
information centers 

fire suppression (USSR)... 949 
leadership system 

military... 932 
leadership training 

seminars (FRG)...935 
local government 

protection assessment... 993 
organization 

France... 616 

Germany (FRG)...614 
railroads 

history (Poland)... 61 7 

organization (Poland)... 617 
research 

utilization... 638 
rural areas 

organization (USSR)... 988 

FIRE SERVICE EDUCATION 

personnel training 
petrochemical industry (UK)... 939 

FIRE SERVICE TRAINING SEE: 
FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 

FIRESETTING 

(also see: arson; incendiarism; 
pyromania) 

FIRE SHUTTERS 

corridors 
patents... 880 

FIRE SIMULATION 

buses 

interiors... 740 
hotels 

display board. ..1010 

human behavior. . . 1 01 
railroad cars 

interiors... 740 

FIRE SIMULATORS 

firefighter training 
patents. ..941 



mobile 

firefighter training. . .938 
van-mounted 

patents... 944 

FIRE SPREAD 

cities 

simulation... 652 
oil tanks 

inter-tank... 651 

FIRE STATIONS SEE: FTREHOUSES 

FIRESTOPS 

penetrations 
dampers... 870 

FIRE STUDIES 

burning rates 

industrial occupancies... 648 
fire duration 

industrial occupancies... 648 

FIRE SUPPRESSION 

highrise buildings 

air-handling systems . . .820 
information centers 

USSR... 949 

FIRE TESTING 

bedding 

analysis... 734 
clothing 

e xtingui s habilit y . . . 748 
compartment fires 

facilities... 739 
furnaces 

heat transfer... 666 
materials 

aircraft interiors... 747 
mattresses 

analysis. ..734 
polymeric materials 

concepts... 746 
standards 

guiding principles ... 1 025 

FIRE TESTS 

(also see: testing; testing facilities ) 
enclosures 

data acquisition programs... 668 
high-rack warehouses 

sprinkler systems... 733 
insulation 

pipes... 743 
philosophy 

principles... 687 
railroad trains 

test facilities... 641 

FIRE VALVES 

pressure reducing 
patents... 894 
standpipes . . . 894 

FIRE VENTILATION 

dampers 
air-handling systems... 870 
fire partitions... 870 

FIREWALLS 

ablative coatings 
sprayable insulation... 730 



FIREWORKS 

public use 
standards (US)... 1022 

FLAME ARRESTORS 

tank protection 
patents... 885 

FLAME DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

FLAME RET ARDANTS 

floor coverings 

textile... 685 
plastics 

chemistry... 71 8 

toxicity...718 
wool 

smoke emission. ..711 

FLAME SENSORS 

radiation detectors 
ultra violet... 758 

FLAME SPREAD 

textiles 
test standards (Italy). . .689 

FLAMING MATERIALS 

smoke particulates 
physical characteristics...710 

FLAMMABIHTY 

fabrics 

litigation... 1006 
foams 

retardants ... 724 
metallic materials 

fire resistance... 695 
nonmetallic materials 

fire resistance... 695 
tents 

camping... 1033 
textiles 

symposia. . .624 

FLAMMABILnY LIMITS 

combustible gases 
estimation methods... 688 

FLAMMABBLITY LITIGATION 

fabrics 
defense experts... 1007 

FLAMMABILITY STANDARDS 

clothing 
meeting report... 623 

FLAMMABILrrY TESTING 

floor coverings 

test cabinet... 741 

textile... 685 
foamed plastics 

methods... 694 
polymeric materials 

temperature index... 686 
small-scale 

clothing... 696 

relevance... 6% 

FLAMMABILrrY TESTS 

burning rates 
fabrics... 744 



1-12 



SUBJECT INDEX 



cable insulation 

mass transportation. . .93 1 
floor coverings 

ISO... 690 

UK... 690 
wire insulation 

flamraability tests... 931 

FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACCIDENT 
CASE AND TESTING SYSTEM 
SEE: FFACTS 

FLAMMABLE GASES 

monitoring instruments 
chemical plants... 903 

FLAMMABLE MATERIALS 

photographic film 
hazard control... 867 

FLASH FIRES 

polymeric materials 
screening tests... 673 

FLOOR COVERINGS 

fire incidents 

statistics... 690 
flammability 

influence factors... 741 
flammability testing 

test cabinet... 741 
flammability tests 

UK... 690 
textile 

flame retarding... 685 

flammability testing... 685 
wool carpets 

fire behavior. ..672 

FOAMED MATERIALS 

(also see: polyurethane foams) 

FOAMED PLASTICS 

fire behavior 
test methods... 694 

flammability 
retardants...724 

FOAM EXTTNGUISHANTS 

high-expansion 

compartment fires... 827 
petroleum product fires 

storage tanks. ..829 
state-of-the-art 

applications . . .830 

FOAM GENERATORS 

high-expansion 
compartment fires... 827 

FOAM NOZZLES 

playpipe attachments 
patents... 965 

FRANCE 

firefighting equipment 

exhibition... 620 
fire service 

organization ...616 

FUEL FIRES 

(also see: aircraft fuel fires) 



FUELS 

(also see: aviation fuels) 

FUEL SPILLS 

(also see: spills) 

FUEL STORAGE TANKS 

(also see: tank fires; fuel tanks) 

FUEL TANKS 

(also see: fuel storage tanks; tank 
fires) 

FUEL TANK SEALS 

kerosine stoves 
fire prevention... 633 

FURNACES 

fire testing 
heat transfer... 666 



GARAGES 

highrise buildings 
fire standards (Italy)... 862 

GARMENTS SEE: CLOTHING 

GAS ANALYZERS 

portable 
combustion products... 759 

GAS BOTTLES SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

GAS DETECTORS 

heat-responsive 

patents... 783 
metal oxide sensors 

patents... 793 
mines 

research programs... 639 

GASES 

combustible mixtures 
flammability... 688 

GAS METERS 

breathing gases 

carbon dioxide . . .960 
component discrimination 

patents... 922 

GAS SENSORS 

Taguchi 
sensitivity... 91 7 

GAS TOXICITY 

compartment fires 
aerospace vehicles... 752 

GERMANY (FRG) 

fire codes 

recreation sites. ..1014 
firefighter training 

volunteer... 61 5 
fire service 

organization ...614 
volunteer fire departments 

rural. ..615 



GLASS 

fire-resistant 
fire behavior... 738 
fire doors... 737 
standards... 738 
testing... 738 

GRAIN SILOS 

explosion hazards 
preventive measures... 699 

GUIDANCE SYSTEMS 

escape routes 

fire situations... 799 
evacuation routes 

buildings... 801 

highrise buildings... 800 
optical-acoustic 

evacuation routes... 801 

GYPSUM BOARD 

building materials 
fire properties... 679 



H 

HALON 1211 

fire extinguishment 
jet engines... 989 

HALON 1301 

liquefied 
phase change. ..821 

HALONS 

(also see: extinguishants) 
extinguishants 
safety review... 818 

HARDBOARD 

flame spread testing 
Radiant Panel Test... 745 

HAZARD ANALYSIS 

compartment fires 
energy release criteria... 649 

HAZARD CONTROL 

flammable materials 
photographic film... 867 

HAZARD INDEXES 

explosion potential 

chemical plants... 906 
fire potential 

chemical plants... 906 

HAZARDOUS CARGOS 

ships 
electrical safety... 925 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

identification 

data processing system... 101 9 

regulations (UK) . . .637 
traffic accidents 

control measures... 101 7 
transportation 

identification. .. 1 017 

labelling... 1017 



I-13i 



SUBJECT INDEX 



HAZARDOUS PROCESSES 

identification 
regulations ( UK) . . .637 

HAZARD REDUCTION 

fire protection 
computing centers... 868 

HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

chemical accidents 

Hazchem code... 1018 
data processing 

fire service... 1019 
transportation 

placards... 1017 

HAZARDS MONITORING 

fireground 
mobile laboratories... 984 

HAZCHEM CODE 

hazards identification 
chemical accidents. ..1018 

HEAT ACTUATORS 

fire-protection systems 
patents... 884 

HEAT CASUALTIES 

firefighters 
diagnosis... 1003 

HEAT CONTROL 

venting systems 
industrial occupancies... 875 

HEAT DETECTORS 

fire detectors 

design characteristics... 762 
transistor signal generators 

patents... 779 

HEAT DISORDERS 

firefighters 
diagnosis... 1003 

HEATING APPLIANCES 

river boats 
fire hazards... 628 

HEAT TRANSFER 

buoyant plumes 

compartment fires... 662, 663 
furnaces 

fire testing... 666 

HEAT TRANSFER RATES 

clothing 
flame-retarded. . .684 

HIGH-PRESSURE CONTAINERS 

cylinders 
accident causes. ..635 

HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 

evacuation routes 

guidance systems... 800 
extinguishing methods 

patents... 886 
fire protection 

air-handling systems... 820 
fire-protection systems 

patents... 881 
interior garages 



fire standards (Italy)... 862 
life safety 
fire communications... 895 
fire detection... 895 

HOSE CABINETS 

fire hoses 
patents... 893 

HOSE REELS 

coupling mechanisms 
patents... 967 

HOSES 

hose cabinets 
patents... 893 

HOSE SCRUBBERS 

mobile 
patents... 966 

HOSPITAL 

fire doors 
latches... 891 

HOSPITALS 

(also see: operating rooms) 
fire hazards 

safety policies... 998 
toxic hazards 

safety policies... 998 

HOTELS 

highrise 
fire protection... 896 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

fire detection 

critical variables ... 1 009 
fire incidents 

residential occupancies. . . 101 1 

simulation. . . 1010 
institutional fires 

design implications... 101 3 
smoke environments 

evacuations ... 1 01 2 

HUMAN BODIES 

fire fatalities 

forensic investigations... 954 
fire investigations 

forensic analysis... 953 

HYDRANTS 

nozzle caps 
patents... 980 

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS 

fire-resistant 
patents... 721, 722 
phosphorous compounds... 721 

HYDRAULIC MECHANISMS 

fire apparatus 
elevating devices... 946 
shock absorbers... 946 

HYDRAULICS 

sprinkler systems 
computerized simulation... 824 

HYDROCARBONS 

fire incidents 
fire fighting equipment... 983 



firefighting techniques... 983 
petrochemical plants 
fire protection... 907 

HYDROGEN CHLORIDE 

animal exposure 
sensory irritation... 995 

HYPOXEMIA 

firefighters 
smoke inhalation... 1004, 1005 



IGNITION ENERGY 

minimum 
dust-air mixtures... 660 

IGNITION SOURCES 

fire retardants 
materials... 691, 692 

INCENDIARISM 

(also see: arson; pyromania) 

INCIPIENT FIRES 

mines 
detection methods ... 9 1 9 

INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT 

explosion safety 

conferences (USSR) ...619 
fire safety 

conferences (USSR).. .619 

INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

arson reduction 

recommendations. . .994 
electrical cables 

fire protection... 899 
explosion hazards 

monitoring procedures... 905 
explosion safety 

all-purpose systems... 703 
fire development 

numerical data... 647 
fire hazards 

insurance adjustment... 1026 
fire protection 

design planning... 902 
fire studies 

burning rates... 648 

fire durations... 648 
health criteria 

standards... 904 
heat control 

venting systems... 875 
safety criteria 

standards... 904 
smoke control 

venting systems... 875 
toxic hazards 

monitoring procedures... 905 

INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 

fire protection 
planning...912 

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS 

explosion hazards 
mathematical modeling...910 



1-14 



SUBJECT INDEX 



explosion safety 

all-purpose... 703 

mathematical modeling. ..911 
fire hazards 

mathematical modeling... 910 
fire safety 

mathematical modeling. ..911 

INERT GAS GENERATORS 

jet-engine exhaust 
patents... 848 

INFORMATION CENTERS 

fire control 

Tokyo... 971 
fire suppression 

fire service (USSR)... 949 

INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

fire control 
computerized . . .972 

INFRARED DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

INJURIES 

emergency medical aid 
manuals... 1002 

INSTITUTIONAL FIRES 

human behavior 
design implications... 101 3 

INSULATING MATERIALS 

fire hazards 

protective measures... 702 
lightweight 

fire hazards... 701 
porous 

flammability . . .678 

INSULATION 

pipes 
fire hazards . . .743 
fire tests... 743 

INTOXICATION SYNDROMES 

combustion products 
polymeric materials... 996 

INVESTIGATION SEE: ARSON 
INVESTIGATION; FIRE 
INVESTIGATION 

IONIZATION DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
aerosols 

patents. ..780 
alpha source 

patents... 769 
beta source 

patents... 794 
combustion products 

patents... 780 
fire alarms 

patents.. .788, 795 
fire detectors 

patents... 786 
smoke particulates 

mines... 756 



ISFSI SEE: INTERNATIONAL 
SOCBETY OF FERE SCIENCE 
INSTRUCTORS 



JAPAN 

fire incidents 

1975-1976... 634 
Fire Research Laboratory 

Railway Engineering Research 
Institute... 640 
sprinkler systems 

history... 823 

JET ENGINES 

fire extinguishment 

bromochlorodifluoromethane . . .969 

Halon 1211... 989 
inert-gas generators 

patents... 848 

JET FUELS SEE: AVIATION FUELS 



KEROSENE STOVES 

fire incidents 

causes... 633 
fire prevention 

tank seals. ..633 



LABORATORIES 

mobile 
hazards monitoring... 984 

LABOR RELATIONS 

firefighters 
NY State... 964 

LAMINATED PANELS 

aircraft interiors 
flammability . . .675 

LARGE-LOSS FERES 

statistics 
UK (Mar- Apr 1977)... 1034 

LASERS 

optical measurement 
smoke diagnostics . . .667 

LATCHES 

emergency release 
patents... 81 5 

LEADERSHIP SYSTEMS 

military 
fire service... 932 

LEADERSHIP TRAINING 

fire service 
seminars (FRG)...935 

LEGISLATION 

building codes 
mini-max...l016 



fire safety 

product development... 725 
hazardous installations 

identification (UK)... 637 
international 

textiles... 636 
textiles 

fire behavior... 636 

LEISURE BUDLDENGS SEE: 
RECREATION BUILDINGS 

LIFE SAFETY 

consumer protection 

industrial responsibilities... 723 
highrise buildings 

fire communications... 895 

fire detection... 895 
industrial occupancies 

standards... 904 
safety programs 

fire protection... 1031 
toxic gases 

combustion products...715 

LIQUEFIED GASES 

extinguishants 

phase change... 821 
railroad cars 

firefighting tactics... 640 

LIQUID FIRES 

extinguishment 
dual-expansion foams. ..831 

LIQUID FUELS 

pool fires 
reduced gravity . . .680 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

fire services 
protection assessment... 993 

LOSS ECONOMICS 

0(also see: fire losses) 

LOSSES SEE: FERE LOSSES 



M 

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES 

fireground operations 
decision making... 981 

MASS TRANSPORTATION 

cable insulation 

flammability tests... 931 
fire hazards 

materials selection... 929 
fire safety 

systems development... 928 
wire insulation 

flammabuity tests... 931 

MATERIALS IGNITION 

fire retardants 
ignition sources... 691, 692 

MATERIALS SELECTION 

mass transportation 
fire hazards. ..929 



1-15 



SUBJECT INDEX 



MATERIALS TESTING 

fire behavior 
philosophy... 687 

MATHEMATICAL METHODS 

fire hazards 
assessment. . .864 

MATHEMATICAL MODELING 

explosion hazards 

industrial systems... 910 
fire hazards 

industrial systems... 910 
industrial systems 

explosion safety... 911 

fire safety... 911 

MATHEMATICAL MODELS 

combustion characteristics 

polymeric materials... 750 
fire behavior 

evolution... 753 
fire safety systems 

evaluation. . . 1030 

MATTRESSES 

(also see: bedding) 
test burns 
laboratory ... 734 

MEETINGS 

AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 

14th, 1976... 667 
British Academy of Forensic Sciences 

1976.. .715, 953, 954, 998, 1018, 1026 
Mathematical Fire Modeling 

1977.. .621 
National Fire Protection Association, 
Annual 

79th, 1975... 732 

80th, 1976.. .736, 743 

METALLIC MATERIALS 

flammabuity 
fire resistance... 695 

METHANE FUELS 

explosive media 
flame propagation... 646 
flammabuity characteristics... 646 

METHANE MONITORS 

coal mines 
transducers. . .916 

METHYL BROMIDE 

(also see: halons) 

MINE FIRES 

nitrogen inerting 
principles... 991 

MINES 

endogenous fires 

prevention... 91 3 
explosion hazards 

materials... 698 
fire protection 

prototype systems. ..918 
fire research 

problems... 645 
gas detectors 

research programs... 639 



incipient fires 

detection methods... 91 9 
smoke particulates 

ionization detectors... 756 
smoke protection 

prototype systems ...918^ 
ventilation 

fire prevention... 91 3 

fire safety... 91 4 

MINING INDUSTRY 

explosive atmospheres 
electric power... 897 

MOBILE HOMES 

fire hazards 
research projects . . .865 

MONITORS 

dry-powder nozzles 

patents... 979 
elevating nozzles 

patents... 947 



N 

NAVY 

fire safety 
research programs. 



.644 



NBS SEE: NATIONAL BUREAU OF 
STANDARDS 

NEOPRENE 

flame spread testing 
Radiant Panel Test... 745 

NFPA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 

PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 

NFPCA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
ADMINISTRATION 

NITROGEN DIOXIDE 

explosivity 
gas-fired boilers... 704 

NITROGEN INERTING 

mine fires 
principles... 991 

NOISE RESPONSE 

firefighters 
aircraft... 963 
traffic... 963 

NONMETALLIC MATERIALS 

flammability 
fire resistance... 695 

NOZZLE CAPS 

fire hydrants 
patents... 980 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 

fire incidents 
analysis... 632 

NUCLEAR REACTORS 

sodium fires 
aerosols... 677 
extinguishing systems... 840 



NURSING HOMES 

fire incidents 
human behavior. ..1013 



OFFICE BUILDINGS 

fire protection 

detection systems... 763 

water-filled steel structures... 754 
smoke control 

pressurization systems. ..735, 754 

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 

support legs 
fire resistance... 860 

OIL REFINERIES 

tanker ship terminals 
fire protection... 1021 
rescue facilities... 1021 

OH. TANKS 

fire spread 

inter-tank... 651 
ullage 

pyrophoric materials... 705 

OLD AGE HOMES 

(also see: nursing homes) 

OPERATING ROOMS 

(also see: hospitals) 

OPTICAL SENSORS 

fire detectors 
patents... 790 

OXYGEN INDEX 

polyphosphazenes 
flame properties. ..713 
smoke properties...713 



PAINTING BOOTHS 

fire-fighting systems 
patents... 835 

PANELS SEE: CEBLING PANELS; 
WALL PANELS 

PANIC SEE: HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

PARTICULATES 

smoke detectors 
ionization... 756 

PASSENGER SEATS 

(also see: seat cushions) 

PATENTS 

alarm centers 
detector monitors . . .787 

alarms 
fire extinguisher removal.. .857 

alarm systems 
control centers... 770 
fire/intrusion detection... 797 
ionization detectors... 785 

blankets 



1-16 



SUBJECT INDEX 



fire extinguishing. ..851 
breathing apparatus 

recirculation proportioner. . .957 

self -rescue... 956 

supplementary filters... 958 
combustion inhibitors 

piled materials... 869 
dampers 

ventilation ducts... 882 
detection systems 

control centers... 770 

supervisory circuits... 775 
detectors 

fire extinguisher removal. . .857 
detector systems 

control commands... 781 
discharge valves 

sprinkler systems... 834 
dry-powder extinguishants 

bitartrates...841 

nitrogen-phosphorous base... 837 
electrical actuators 

fire-protection systems... 884 
elevating nozzles 

monitors... 947 
emergency vehicles 

interlock systems... 948 
escape chutes 

descent control mechanisms. ..817 

flexible tubes... 807 
escape devices 

descent control mechanisms... 806, 
808, 812, 816 

suspension davits... 802, 803, 804 

winch systems... 805 
escape ladders 

roof -mounted. ..813 

wall-mounted . . .814 
escape slides 

spiral. ..810 
explosion barriers 

water curtains... 921 
extinguisher actuators 

fire detectors... 773 
extinguishers 

adapter fittings... 846 

discharge control... 836 

dual-expansion foams... 831 

liquid nitrogen... 832 

pressure regulators... 839 

self-contained. . .854 

series actuation... 850 

solid nitrogen... 832 
extinguishing methods 

highrise buildings... 886 
extinguishing systems 

electrical actuation... 833 

foam shutoff mechanism... 842 

intermittent. . .849 

pressurized containers... 843 

thermal actuation... 833 
fire alarms 

battery operated... 771 

control systems... 792 

ionization chambers... 788 

ionization detectors... 795 
fire alarm systems 

data transmission... 782 



rate-of-rise detectors... 774 

threshold sensors... 777 
fire apparatus 

interlock systems... 948 

remote-controlled. . .987 

self-propelled. . .987 
fire dampers 

air ducts... 883 

air-handling systems... 888 

gas ducts... 887 
fire detectors 

battery-operated. . .7% 

delay circuits... 767 

extinguisher actuators... 773 

ionization chambers... 786 

optical sensors... 790 

rate-of-rise . . .768 
firefighting systems 

painting booths... 835 
firefighting trainer 

van-mounted. . .944 
fire hydrants 

nozzle caps... 980 
fire-protection systems 

detection... 789 

extinguishment. . .789 

highrise buildings... 881 

multi-rack warehouses... 784 
fire shutters 

corridors... 880 
fire simulators 

firefighter training. . .941 

van-mounted . . .944 
fire suppression 

sodium fires... 840 
fire valves 

pressure-reducing. . .894 
flame arrestors 

tank protection... 885 
foam nozzles 

playpipe attachments... 965 
gas detectors 

heat-responsive. . .783 

metal oxide sensors... 793 
gas generators 

jet-engine exhaust... 848 
gas meters 

breathing gases... 960 

carbon dioxide . . .960 

component discrimination... 922 
heat actuators 

fire-protection systems... 884 
heat detectors 

transistor signal generators... 779 
hose cabinets 

reel type... 893 
hose reels 

coupling mechanisms... 967 
hose scrubbers 

mobile... 966 
hydraulic fluids 

fire-resistant... 721, 722 
ionization detectors 

aerosols... 780 

alpha source... 769 

beta source... 794 

combustion products... 780 
latches 

emergency release. ..815 



fire doors... 891 
monitors 

dry-powder nozzles... 979 
pipe grids 

area coverage... 838 
power supplies 

fire emergencies... 892 
regeneration filters 

breathing apparatus... 959 
registers 

fire dampers... 878 
remote controls 

sprinkler systems . . . 855 
rescue devices 

gravity-lowered cages. ..811 
rescue harness 

shock arrester... 809 
rocket conveyors 

disaster control... 986 
rupturing heads 

extinguishers ... 858 
sampling instruments 

explosive atmospheres... 920 

fire atmospheres... 920 

remote control... 920 
smoke detectors 

alarm actuators... 791 

ionization... 785 

photoelectric. . .778 

threshold sensors... 772, 776 
smoke exhausts 

cover ventilators... 889 
smoke vents 

ventilation shafts... 879 
sprinkler heads 

drop nipples... 852 
sprinkler pipes 

adjustable stems. ..856 
sprinkler systems 

control valves... 847 
tank tops 

fire-responsive. . .890 
temperature sensors 

extinguisher actuators... 845 
waste bins 

self -extinguishing. . .844 

PENDANT SPRINKLERS 

drop nipples 
patent... 852 

PERLTTE 

fire protection 
lightweight sidings... 876 

PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

(also see: protective clothing) 

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 

fire protection 

personnel training (UK)... 939 
fire safety 

symposium papers... 61 8 

PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS 

hydrocarbons 
fire protection... 907 

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 

explosive atmospheres 
electric power... 897 



1-17 



SUBJECT INDEX 



PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

storage tanks 
fire extinguishment... 829 
foam extinguishants...829 
metal... 908 
plastic... 908 

PHENOLIC LAMINATES 

fire barriers 
fire endurance... 859 

PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUNDS 

hydraulic fluids 
fire-resistant. . .721 

PHOTOGRAPHIC FTLM 

flammable materials 
hazard control... 867 

PILED MATERIALS 

combustion inhibitor 
patents... 869 

PIPES 

insulation 
fire hazards... 743 
fire tests. ..743 

PLASTICS 

(also see: polymeric materials; 
thermoplastics) 
fire losses 

re views... 1027 
fire retardants 

actinic stability...719 
flame retardants 

chemistry. ..718 

toxicity. ..718 
flammability 

fire retardants... 681 

PLASTICS FIRES 

warehouses 
control tests... 736 

PLATFORMS 

(also see: elevating platforms; 
offshore platforms) 

POLAND 

fireboats 

technical data... 985 
fire prevention 

research programs (1976-1977).. .643 
railroads 

fire protection... 61 7 

POLYMERIC MATERIALS 

aircraft interiors 

flammability . . .675 
building components 

fire hazards... 707 

fire safety... 706, 708 
combustion characteristics 

mathematical models... 750 
combustion products 

toxicity... 997 

toxicology ... 996 
decomposition 

toxic atmospheres... 71 2 
fire behavior 

retardant treatment... 727 
fire safety 



books... 697 

shipping. . .930 

symposium papers... 622 

test methods... 706 
fire testing 

concepts... 746 
flammability parameters 

thermal radiation... 683 
flammability testing 

temperature index... 686 
flash fires 

screening tests... 673 

POLYMERS 

(also see: plastics; rubber; 
thermoplastics) 
combustion products 

clinical toxicology... 1000 
industrial 

degradation rates... 671 

high-temperature effects... 671 
natural 

state-of-the-art. . .697 
synthetic 

state-of-the-art. . .697 

POLYMETHYLENE 

decomposition 
carbon monoxide... 712 

POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE 

compartment fires 

fire development... 656 
decomposition 

carbon monoxide...712 
pool fires 

radiation controlled... 751 

POLYPHOSPHAZENES 

copolymer compositions 

flame properties...714 

smoke properties. ..714 
flame properties 

oxygen index... 71 3 

smoke density tests... 71 3 
smoke properties 

oxygen index... 71 3 

smoke density tests... 71 3 

POLYURETHANE FOAMS 

flame spread testing 
Radiant Panel Test... 745 

POLYURETHANE INSULATION 

corner tests 
residential occupancies... 742 

POLYVTNYLCHLORIDE 

combustion products 

firefighter inhalation... 1004, 1005 
decomposition 

hydrogen chloride... 71 2 
electrical cables 

fire protection... 700 

POOL FIRES 

fire extinguishment 

bromoc hlorodifluoromethane . . .989 

Halon 1211.. .989 
liquid fuels 

reduced gravity . . .680 
radiation controlled 



pressure modeling... 751 

POWER SUPPLIES 

fire emergencies 

patents... 892 
safety systems 

operational functions... 764 
self-contained 

fire emergencies... 892 

PRE-FLASHOVER FOtES 

kinetics 
test procedures... 670 

PREPREGS 

low-flame 

aircraft interiors... 729 
low-smoke 

aircraft interiors... 729 

PRESSURE MODELING 

pool fires 
radiation controlled... 751 

PRESSURE REGULATORS 

extinguishers 
patents... 839 

PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 

smoke control 
office buildings... 735, 754 

PROBABILISTIC MODELS 

fire safety systems 
evaluation. . . 1 030 

PROPANE GAS 

residential fires 
Japan 1975- 1976... 634 

PROPERTY LOSSES 

(also see: fire losses) 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 

(also see: clothing) 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

fire protection 

detection systems... 763 
fire safety 

design manual... 923 

PUBLIC EDUCATION 

(also see: education) 

PULMONARY FUNCTION 

firefighters 
fire exposure... 1008 

PUMPER-LADDERS 

(also see: apparatus) 

PYROMANIA 

(also see: arson; incendiarism) 

PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 

crude oil tanks 
tanker ships . . .705 



1-18 



SUBJECT INDEX 



RADIANT PANEL TEST 

flame spread testing 
reproducibility . . .745 

RADIATION DETECTORS 

ultraviolet 
flame sensors... 758 

RADIATION SOURCES 

beta particles 
ionization de tectors . . . 794 

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER 

pool fires 
pressure modeling... 751 

RADIO SYSTEMS 

fire alarms 
underground structures... 760 

RADIOTELEPHONES 

relay systems 
emergency communications... 974 

RAILROAD CARS 

fire extinguishment 

tactics... 640 
interiors 

fire simulation... 740 

RAILROADS 

fire service 

history (Poland).. .617 

organization ( Poland )...61 7 
locomotives 

fire protection... 927 

RAILROAD TRAINS 

fire tests 
test facilities... 641 

RAPID TRANSIT 

(also see: elevated railways; subways) 

RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS 

fire protection 
code development... 926 
requirements . . .928 

RATE-OF-RISE DETECTORS 

fire alarm systems 
patents... 774 

RAYON 

smoldering combustion 
inhibition... 731 

RECREATION SITES 

fire protection 
codes (FRG)... 1014 

REGENERATION FILTERS 

breathing apparatus 
patents... 959 

REGISTERS 

fire dampers 
patents... 878 



RELAY SYSTEMS 

radiotelephones 
emergency communications... 974 

REMOTE CONTROLS 

sprinkler systems 
patents... 855 

RESCUE DEVICES 

gravity-lowered cages 
patents... 811 

RESCUE HARNESSES 

shock arrester 
patents... 809 

RESEARCH PROGRAMS 

compartment fires 

full-scale testing... 659 
fire fighting 

subways... 992 

underground railroads... 992 
fire hazards 

mobile homes... 865 
fire prevention 

Poland (1976-1977)... 643 
fire protection 

automatic systems... 642 

USSR... 642 
fire safety 

navy... 644 
railroad fires 

test facilities... 641 

RESIDENTIAL FIRES 

propane gas 
Japan 1975-1 976... 634 

RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

(also see: highrise buildings; hotels; 
mobile homes; motels) 
fire incidents 

human behavior. . . 101 1 
fire protection 

standards (Spain)... 924 
fire safety 

design manual... 923 
polyurethane insulation 

corner tests... 742 

RESPIRATORS 

(also see: breathing apparatus) 

RESPIRATORY STATUS 

firefighters 
transient hypoxemia... 1005 

RESPONSE CONTROL 

computer-assisted 
Augsburg (FRG)... 942 

RETIREMENT HOMES SEE: 

NURSING HOMES; OLD AGE 
HOMES 

RISK MANAGEMENT 

fire protection 
state-of-the-art. . .1032 

RIVER BOATS 

heaters 

fire hazards... 628 
heating stove fires 



statistics (FRG)... 628 

ROCKET CONVEYORS 

disaster control 
patents... 986 

RUGS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 

RUNWAY FOAM 

aircraft accidents 
retracted wheels... 990 

RUPTURING HEADS 

extinguishers 
patents... 858 

RURAL AREAS 

fire service 
organization (USSR)... 988 



SAFETY SYSTEMS 

operational functions 
power supplies... 764 

SAMPLING INSTRUMENTS 

explosive atmospheres 

patents... 920 
fire atmospheres 

patents... 920 

SANCTUARIES SEE: REFUGE 
AREAS 



SCOTLAND 

building codes 
fire protection. 



.1015 



SCREENING TESTS 

polymeric materials 
flash fires... 673 

SEAT CUSHIONS 

(also see: passenger seats) 
fire-resistant 
aircraft interiors... 728 

SEMINARS 

Fire Service Leadership Training 
5th (FRG)... 935 
6th (FRG)... 935 

SENSORS 

catalytic 
smoke combustion heat... 669 

SENSORY IRRITATION 

chlorine exposure 

animal experiments... 995 
hydrogen chloride exposure 

animal experiments.. Q 



.995 



SHIP ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

SHIPPING 

polymeric materials 
fire safety... 930 

SHIPS 

fire safety 
research. . .644 



1-19 



SUBJECT INDEX 



hazardous cargos 
electrical safety... 925 

SHOPPING MALLS SEE: SHOPPING 
CENTERS 

SIDING 

lightweight 
perlite fire protection... 876 

SILICONE RESIN 

cable insulation 
flame-resistant. . .901 
radiation-resistant. . .901 

SIMULATION 

crowd flows 
structural fires... 976 

SMOKE 

fire environments 

evacuation. . . 101 2 

human behavior. ..1012 
heat of combustion 

catalytic sensors... 669 

SMOKE CHAMBERS 

firefighter training 

vectoring device... 943 
NBS 

smoldering tests... 665 

test variables... 665 

SMOKE CONTROL 

office buildings 

pressurization systems... 735 
pressurization systems 

office buildings... 754 
underground premises 

detection systems... 872 
venting systems 

industrial occupancies... 875 

re views... 877 

SMOKE DETECTION 

underground premises 
venting systems... 872 

SMOKE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
alarm actuators 

patents... 791 
alarm systems 

patents... 785 
ionization 

particulates . . .756 
photoelectric 

patents... 778 
threshold sensors 

patents... 772, 776 

SMOKE DIAGNOSTICS 

optical measurement 
lasers... 667 

SMOKE EVOLUTION 

combustion gases 

textiles...717 
published information 

bibliographies. . .625 

SMOKE EXHAUSTS 

cover ventilators 



patents... 889 

SMOKE EXPLOSIONS 

(also see: backdraft) 

SMOKE INHALATION 

firefighters 
respiratory status... 1005 
transient hypoxemia... 1004 

SMOKE PARTICULATES 

flaming materials 
physical characteristics...710 

SMOKE PROTECTION 

mine shafts 
prototype systems. ..918 

SMOKE VENTS 

ventilation shafts 
patents... 879 

SMOLDERING COMBUSTION 

cotton 

inhibition... 731 
rayon 

inhibition... 731 
smoke chambers 

test variables... 665 

SODIUM AEROSOLS 

sodium fires 
reactor safety... 677 

SODIUM 

CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE 

viscous water 
extinguishing properties... 825 

SODIUM FIRES 

aerosols 

nuclear reactor safety... 677 
nuclear reactors 

fire suppression... 840 

SOUNDING SEE: ACOUSTIC 
SOUNDING 

SPILLS 

(also see: fuel spills) 

SPRINKLER HEADS 

drop nipples 
patents... 852 

SPRINKLER PIPES 

adjustable stems 
patents... 856 

SPRINKLERS 

building protection 

fire losses... 1029 
discharge calculations 

total pressure method... 822 

velocity pressure method... 822 
soldered copper 

fire endurance... 732 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

central valves 

patents... 847 
development chronology 

Japan... 823 
discharge valves 



patents... 834 
extinguishing efficiency 

statistics... 828 
fire tests 

high-rack warehouses... 733 
hydraulic calculation 

computerized simulation... 824 
remote controls 

patents... 855 
self-contained 

design... 823 
water 

extinguishing efficiency... 828 

STANDARDS 

fire endurance 

concrete components (Spain)... 720 
fire protection 

residential buildings (Spain)... 924 
fire safety 

highrise building garages (Italy)... 862 
fire testing 

guiding principles ... 1 025 
fireworks 

public use. ..1022 
gas supply 

USSR... 1024 
heating 

USSR... 1024 
vent dampers 

automatic... 1023 
ventilation 

USSR... 1024 

STANDPIPES 

fire valves 
pressure-reducing. . .894 

STATISTICS 

extinguishing efficiency 

water sprinklers . . . 828 
fire incidents 

subways... 1035 
fire losses 

Austria (1975).. .1028 
large-loss fires 

UK (Mar- Apr 1977)... 1034 
tents 

fire incidents... 1033 
wildfires 

Sweden (1975)... 1036 

STEAM GENERATION 

crib fires 
water sprays... 709 

STEEL STRUCTURES 

water-filled 
office buildings... 754 

STEMS 

adjustable 
sprinkler pipes... 856 

STORAGE TANKS 

fire-responsive tops 

patents... 890 
metal 

petroleum products... 908 
petroleum products 

fire extinguishment... 829 
plastic 



1-20 



SUBJECT INDEX 



petroleum products . . . 908 

STRUCTURAL FIRES 

evacuation times 

calculations. . .977 
occupant evacuation 

computerized simulation... 976 

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS 

aluminum alloys 

fire resistance... 674 
carbon-epoxy resin 

fire resistance... 674 
firewalls 

ablative coatings... 730 

SUBWAYS 

fire fighting 

research programs . . .992 
fire incidents 

fire safety... 1035 

statistics... 1035 

SUPERVISORY CIRCUITS 

detection systems 
patents... 775 

SUPPRESSION SEE: FIRE 
SUPPRESSION 

SURFACTANTS 

(also see: wetting agents) 

SUSPENSION DAVITS 

escape devices 
patents... 802, 803, 804 

SWEDEN 

wildfires 
1975 statistics... 1036 

SYMPOSIA 

Emergency Service Personnel Health 
and Fitness Symp, Annual 
6th, 1976... 1003 
Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric 
Materials 
1977.. .622, 644, 645, 659, 664, 670, 
681, 683, 694, 695, 706, 707, 708, 
723, 724, 725, 726, 727, 728, 739, 
746, 747, 752, 753, 928, 929, 930, 
931, 999, 1000, 1001, 1025, 1032 
Fire Safety of Combustible Materials 

1975... 682 
Operational Study on Fire Safety in 
the Petrochem Ind 
1977... 61 8, 939 
Research Applied to National Needs 

2nd, 1976... 934, 964, 993 
Science of Advanced Materials and 
Process Eng, Nat 
21st, 1976.. .729, 730 
Textile Flammabuity 
5th, 1977... 623, 624, 684, 696, 731, 
748, 1006, 1007 

SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT 

fire safety 
mass transportation. . .928 

SYSTEMS PLANNING 

building fire safety 
polymeric materials... 708 



TAGUCHI GAS SENSORS 

sensitivity 
combustible gases. ..917 

TALL BUILDINGS 

fire protection 
control systems... 761 

TANKER SHIPS 

crude oil 
pyrophoric materials... 705 

TANKER SHIP TERMINALS 

oil refineries 
fire protection... 1021 
rescue facilities... 1021 

TANKFUtES 

(also see: fuel tanks; fuel storage 
tanks) 

TEMPERATURE INDEX 

flammabuity testing 
polymeric materials... 686 

TEMPERATURE SENSORS 

discharge control 

extinguishers. . .836 
extinguisher actuators 

patents... 845 

TENTS 

camping 
fire statistics... 1033 
flammabuity ... 1 033 



TESTING 

(also see: fire tests; 
tests) 

TEST METHODS 

burning behavior 
textile blends... 676 



TEXTBLE BLENDS 

burning behavior 
test methods... 676 

polyester-cotton 
burning behavior... 676 

TEXTILE FIBERS 

combustion gases 
composition ... 7 1 6 

TEXTDLES 

(also see: fabrics) 
combustion gases 

smoke evolution... 717 
fire behavior 

legislation... 636 
fire behavior tests 

standards (Italy)... 689 
flame retarded 

combustion gases. ..717 

smoke evolution... 71 7 
flame-spread tests 

standards (Italy)... 689 
flammability 

symposia. . .624 
smoke evolution 

combustion gases ... 7 1 7 



flammabuity 



THERMAL RADIATION 

polymeric materials 
flammabuity parameters... 683 

THERMAL TOXICITY 

compartment fires 
aerospace vehicles... 752 

THERMISTORS 

insulated 

fire detectors... 757 
open 

fire detectors... 757 

THERMOPLASTICS 

(also see: plastics) 

THRESHOLD SENSORS 

fire alarm systems 
patents... 777 

TOWNS 

underground 
radio fire alarms... 760 

TOXIC ATMOSPHERES 

decomposing polymers 
carbon monoxide... 71 2 

TOXIC GASES 

combustion products 

life safety... 71 5 
mines 

detectors... 639 
monitoring instruments 

chemical plants... 903 

TOXIC HAZARDS 

hospitals 

safety policies... 998 
industrial occupancies 

monitoring procedures... 905 

TOXICITY 

(also see: combustion toxicology) 

TOXICITY SCREENING 

combustion products 

polymeric materials... 997 
flame retardants 

plastics...718 

TOXICITY TESTING 

combustion products 

animal exposure... 999 
fire gases 

history... 1001 

TRAFFIC ACCBDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

TRADING 

(also see: education; firefighter 

training) 
fire protection 
petrochemical industry (UK)... 939 

TRAINING CENTERS 

fire suppression 
fire service (USSR)... 949 

TRAINING TECHNIQUES 

firefighters 
systematic approach... 936 



1-21 



SUBJECT INDEX 



TRANSIT VEHICLES 

(also see: buses; subway cars) 

TRANSPORTATION SAFETY 

chemicals 
self -heating... 1020 



u 

ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 
flame sensing 
flame sensors... 758 

UNDERGROUND RAILROADS 

fire fighting 
research programs... 992 

UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES 

fire alarms 

radio systems... 760 
smoke detection 

venting systems... 872 

UNDERLAYMENTS SEE: FLOOR 
COVERINGS 

UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE 

compartment fires 
measurements. . .650 

UPHOLSTERY FABRICS 

wool 
flame-retarded. . .711 
smoke emission... 711 

URBAN AREAS 

fire service 
organization (USSR)... 988 



VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

VENT DAMPERS 

automatic 
safety... 1023 
standards ... 1 023 

VENTILATION 

mines 
fire prevention... 91 3 
fire safety... 91 4 

VENITLATION DUCTS 

dampers 
patents... 882 

VENTILATION SHAFTS 

smoke vents 
patents... 879 

VENTING SYSTEMS 

extinguishing methods 
highrise buildings... 886 

industrial occupancies 
smoke/heat control... 875 

smoke control 
re views... 877 



VISCOUS WATER 

sodium carboxymethylcellulose 
extinguishing properties . . . 825 

VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENTS 

rural 
equipment (FRG)...615 



w 

WALLBOARD SEE: CfflPBOARD; 
FD3ERBOARD; GYPSUM BOARD 

WALL JETS 

radial 
horizontal concentration... 749 

WAREHOUSES 

high-rack 

fire tests... 733 

sprinkler fire protection... 733 
multi-rack 

fire-protection systems... 784 
plastics fires 

control tests... 736 

WASTE BINS 

self -extinguishing 
patents... 844 

WATER CURTAINS 

explosion barriers 
patents... 921 

WATER SPRAYS 

crib fires 
steam generation. . .709 

WATER SUPPLDES 

0(also see: fire flows) 

WEARING APPAREL SEE: 
CLOTHING 

WETTING AGENTS 

(also see: surfactants) 
state-of-the-art 
applications . . .830 

WILDFIRES 

statistics 
Sweden (1975).. .1036 

WIND TUNNELS 

fire tests 
railroad cars. ..641 

WDtE INSULATION 

flammability tests 
mass transportation... 931 

WOOD CRIBS 

compartment fires 
measurements. . .650 



aircraft interiors... 672 
latex composition 

smoke emission... 672 
smoke emission 

aircraft interiors... 672 



WOOL 

flame-retarded 
smoke emission. 



.711 



WOOL CARPETS 

backing fiber 

smoke emission... 672 
burning characteristics 



1-22 



SOURCE INDEX 



BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS, 
DISSERTATIONS 

BASIC UFE SUPPORT SKILLS 

MANUAL. ..1002 
FIREFIGHTER'S ENTRANCE 

HANDBOOK.. .962 
FIRE SAFETY ASPECTS OF 

POLYMERIC MATERIALS. VOL 

I. MATERIALS: STATE OF THE 

ART 
NMAB 318-1. ..697 
FIRE SAFETY OF RESIDENTIAL 

AND PUBUC BUILDINGS... 923 
MINE SHAFT VENTILATION AND 

PREVENTION OF 

ENDOGENOUS FIRES... 91 3 
MINE VENTILATION AND SAFETY 

ENGINEERING. ..914 
ORGANIZATION OF FIRE 

SUPPRESSION IN CITIES AND 

POPULATION CENTERS. ..988 
ORIGIN, PREVENTION, AND 

EXTINGUISHMENT OF 

ENDOGENOUS FIRES IN COAL 

MINES... 915 
SAFE USE OF ELECTRIC POWER 

IN PLANTS WITH AN 

EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE. ..897 

CONFERENCES 

Coal Mine Technol Conf, WVU, Third, 
Proc 
1976, Aug 4-6, Morgantown, WV 
Paper 
12... 698 
20... 91 8 
25... 639 
26... 756 
27.. .917 
28.. .916 
30... 919 
Petroleum and Chemical Ind Conf, 
Annual, 23rd, Conf Record 
1976, Aug 30-31, Sep 1, Philadelphia, 
PA 
Paper 
76-25:234-237... 898 
76-46:288-294... 925 
Pulp and Paper Ind Conf, Annual, 
1976, Technical Record 
1976, May 5-7, Boston, MA 
Pages 
61-65... 627 

JOURNALS 

Aircraft Eng 
49<4):4-6, 8-9, 1977... 740 



Am J Public Health 

67(7):630-633, 1977.. .1008 
Antincend Protez Civ 

28(6):419-424, 1976... 614 

28(7):507-509, 1976... 862 

28(7):514-517, 1976... 61 4 
Arch Environ Health 

32(2):68-76, 1977... 995 
Arch Termodyn Spal 

8(1):27-41, 1977.. .863 

8(l):49-58, 1977.. .646 
AS ELF 

(58):11, 13-14, 1976.. .982 

(58):24-25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 36-37, 39, 
41, 1976.. .864 

(58):43, 47, 1976.. .699 

(58):49, 51, 53, 55, 61, 1976... 902 

(58):73, 79-80, 1976... 924 
Bezop Tr Prom-sti 

(3):31-35, 1977... 859 
Bezpieczen Pr 

(l):l-3, 1977.. .870 
Binnenschijfahrts-Nachr 

32(2):22, 24, 1977... 628 
Brandschutz 

31(5):121-124, 1977.. .942 

31(5):125-132, 1977.. .932 

31(5):133-141, 1977.. .935 

31(6):148-153, 1977.. .1017 

31(6):154-157, 1977.. .1019 

31(6):162-163, 1977.. .955 

31(7): 195-197, 1977.. .1014 

31(8):218-222, 1977.. .818 

31(8):223-226, 1977.. .871 
Can Soc Forensic Sci J 

10(2):41-50, 1977... 950 
Can Text J 

94(9):23-24, 26, 28-30, 1977... 741 
Chem EnglDeskbook Issue 

83(22): 133-1 36, 1976.. .904 

83(22):139-145, 1976.. .905 

83(22): 147-1 52, 1976.. .903 
ChemiefasernlText Ind 

27/79(7):E115-E116, 1977.. .685 
Chem Tech (Heidelberg) 

6(5):201-205, 1977.. .899 
Chest 

71(4):441-444, 1977.. .1004 

71(4):445-449, 1977.. .1005 
Computer Des 

16(11):48, 52, 56-58, 62, 64, 68, 
1977.. .968 
Data Manage 

14(11):11-14, 1976.. .900 
Densetsu Kogyo 

22(13):5-13, 1976... 757 

23(l):27-42, 1977.. .969 
Diteru 



(287):15-17, 1976.. .640 
Drahtwelt 

62(12):499, 1976... 901 
Dun's Rev 

109(0:52-55, 1977.. .945 
Electr Constr Maint 

76(2):53-57, 1977... 895 
Engineering (London) 

216(4):277-279, 1976... 906 
Environ Health Perspect 

17:55-66, 1976.. .718 

17:65-73, 1976.. .996 

17:75-83, 1976.. .997 
Faserforsch Textiltech 

27(12):664-665, 1976.. .686 
Feuerwehr 

27(1):9-11, 1977.. .615 
Fire 

70(867): 185-186, 189, 1977.. .907 

70(868):235-237, 1977.. .1009 

70(868):248-250, 1977.. .819 

70(868):253-256, 1977.. .983 
Fire Command 

44(10):22-24, 1977.. .981 

44(10):26-27, 1977.. .933 

44(10):28-29, 1977.. .936 
Fire Eng 

130(9):36-39, 1977.. .798 

130(9):47-48, 1977... 984 

130(10):56-57, 1977.. .975 
Fire Eng J 

37(107):7-11, 1977.. .1027 

37(107):12-14, 1977.. .629 

37(107):17-23, 1977.. .1015 

37(107):39^2, 1977... 951 
Fire Fighting Canada 

21(3):8-9, 1977.. .937 

21(4):16, 19-20, 22, 1977. ..820 
Fire Inter nat 

5(55):18-31, 1977.. .735 

5(55):35-41, 1977.. .872 

5(55):45-48, 1977... 865 

5(55):57-65, 1977.. .799 

5(55):70-71, 1977.. .1010 

5(55):81-87, 1977.. .926 

5(55):99-109, 111-112, 1977.. .636 
Fire J 

71(3):27-29, 117, 1977... 1022 

71(3):32-38, 102, 1977.. .742 

71(3):43-45, 125-126, 128, 1977. ..736 

71(3):51-54, 1977.. .631 

71(3):60-62, 116, 1977.. .1030 

71(3):69-74, 1977.. .1016 

71(3):85-86, 88-89, 120-121, 1977.. .632 

71(3):99-101, 1977.. .860 

71(3):107-108, 1977.. .938 

71(4):25-28, 1977.. .630 

71(4):50-55, 1977.. .1033 



1-23 



SOURCE INDEX 



71(4):63-64, 69, 73, 1977... 1023 

Fire Prev 
(120):12-16, 1977.. .754 
(120):19-22, 1977.. .867 
(120):23-24, 1977.. .866 
(120):25-28, 1977.. .700 
(120):32-44, 1977... 1034 

Fire Prev Sci Technol 
(17):4-14, 1977.. .647 
(17):15-16, 1977.. .648 
(17):17-23, 1977.. .758 
(17):24-31, 1977.. .687 

Fire Prot Rev 
40(443):30-31, 1977... 939 
40(443):35, 1977.. .637 
40(444):16-17, 19, 1977.. .970 
40(444):21, 23, 25, 1977.. .618 

Fire /tes Inst Japan. Rep 
(43):l-6, 1977. ..821 
(43):7-12, 1977.. .709 
(43): 13-19, 1977... 749 

Fire Technol 
13(3):173-184, 1977.. .649 
13(3):185-194, 1977.. .822 
13(3): 195-198, 1977.. .688 
13(3):199-210, 1977.. .743 
13(3):21 1-222, 1977.. .952 
13(3):223-230, 1977... 989 
13(3):231-237, 1977.. .732 

Flight Oper 
65(11):15-17, 1976.. .990 

Glueckauf 
113(8):407-411, 1977.. .991 

Haikan Gijutsu 
18(10): 166-168, 1976.. .759 

Haikan to Sochi 
16(10:20-27, 1976.. .908 

Hitachi Hyoron 
58(12):955-958, 1976... 755 
58(12):959-964, 1976... 761 
58(12):965-970, 1976... 873 
58(12):971-976, 1976.. .800 
58(12):977-980, 1976.. .976 
58(12):981-994, 1976.. .760 

Ind Ital Cem 
47(2): 121 -136, 1977.. .977 

Inf Constr 
29(286):61-73, 1976.. .861 

Insulation (London) 
20(6):13-14, 1976.. .702 
20(6):15, 17, 1976.. .701 

7 Fire Flammability 
7(3):303-318, 1976... 1020 
7(3):319-336, 1976.. .1011 
7(3): 337-346, 1976... 665 
7(3):347-357, 1976... 750 
7(3):358-367, 1976... 71 3 
7(3):368-386, 1976... 650 
7(3):387-400, 1976... 671 
7(3):401426, 1976... 675 
8(4):395-411, 1977... 710 
8(4):412-422, 1977.. .714 
8(4):423442, 1977... 666 
8(4):443457, 1977... 673 
8(4):458-477, 1977... 711 
8(4):478-493, 1977.. .712 
8(4):494-505, 1977... 651 
8(4):506-515, 1977.. .674 
8(4):516-530, 1977.. .672 



8(4):532-540, 1977... 625 
7 Fire Retard Chem 

4(3):183-191, 1977. .719 
7 Occup Med 

19(2):129-132, 1977.. .940 
7 Sound Vib 

49(4):575-591, 1976.. .963 

26(3):148-155, 1976.. .874 

26(4):31-34, 1976.. .641 

26(4):3540, 1976.. .652 

26(5):45-50, 1976... 1035 

26(5):51-54, 1976.. .823 

26(6):2-8, 1976... 971 

26(6):9-16, 1976.. .972 

26(6):21-29, 1976... 633 

26(6):38-45, 1976.. .992 

26(6):4649, 1976... 634 
Kayakurui, Koatsu Gasu Torishimari 
Geppo 

(139):3-44, 1976... 635 
Keiso 

20(l):49-52, 1977.. .703 
Kuki Tyowa to Reito 

16(12):97-112, 115-123, 1976.. .762 
Laniera 

10(9):661-662, 664-668, 1976... 689 
Maschinenmarkt 

82(95): 1844-1847, 1976.. 733 
Mater Maquin y Metodos Constr 

(137)778, 781-788, 791, 1976.. 720 
Meddfran State ns Brandnamnd 

(7):1-14, 1976.. .1036 
Med Sci Law 

17(2)79-82, 1977.. .953 

17(2):83-90, 1977.. 715 

17(2):91-94, 1977.. .998 

17(2):95, 1977.. .954 

17(2):96-101, 1977.. .1026 

17(2): 102-107, 1977.. .1018 
Melliand Textilber 

58(l):52-59, 1977.. 716 

58(0:59-63, 1977.. .676 

58(0:64-70, 1977.. 717 
Metallverarbeitung 

30(6):162-163, 1976.. .1031 
Nor.sfc KKS 

19(12):874, 877-878, 1976.. .875 
Afwc/ Eng Dei 

42(0:123-135, 1977.. .677 
Oesterr Feuenvehr 

31(0:9-11, 1977.. .1028 
Ohm: Denki Zasshi 

63(13)73-84, 1976.. 763 
Plant Eng 

30(25): 163-165, 1976.. .994 
Plumb Eng 

5(0:26-28, 1977.. .824 
Pozhar Delo 

(0:23, 1977.. .949 

(0:25-26, 1977.. .642 

(0:26, 1977.. .825 

(0:27, 1977.. .826 

(0:28, 1977.. .943 

(2):17, 1977.. .1024 

(2):24-25, 1977... 619 

(2):25-26, 1977... 827 

(2):27, 1977.. .876 
Prom Energ 



(0:25-28, 1977.. .909 
Prot Civ Secur Ind 

(258):6-14, 17-22, 25-31, 49-56, 
1976.. .616 
Przegl Poz 

64(10:10-11, 1976.. .978 

64(12):2, 1976.. .617 

64(12):3-5, 1976... 643 

64(12):12-14, 1976.. .985 
Rev Tech Feu 

17(158):56-59, 1976... 764 

17(159):33-59, 1976... 973 

17(159)73-74, 1976... 765 

17(160):41-43, 1976.. .828 

17(160:36, 41-42, 4445, 1976.. .868 

17(160:46-50, 1976... 896 

17(161)72, 1976.. 766 

17(162):8-13, 1976.. .620 

17(162):16-34, 1976.. .877 
Riv Combust 

31(0:28-34, 1977.. .660 

31(4):115-121, 1977.. .661 
Schienenfahrzeuge 

20(10:396, 1976.. .927 
Schott Inf 

(4): 13-20, 1976.. 738 

(4):21-25, 1976.. 737 
Sekryu to Sektyu Kogaku 

20(12):72, 1976... 829 
Shisetsu 

28(12):64-68, 1976... 974 
Soda to Enso 

27(8):264-282, 1976... 911 

27(10):327-350, 1976... 704 

27(10:367-382, 1976... 910 
Steir Feuerwehrbl 

26(2):11, 1977.. .912 
Tanker Bulker Internat 

(7):33-37, 1976.. 705 
Text Chem Color 

8(10:46-51, 1976.. 744 
Text Inst Ind 

15(0:16-19, 1977.. .690 
VFDBZ 

26(2):46-51, 1977... 801 

26(2):52-56, 1977... 830 

26(2):56-67, 1977... 1021 
Yuatsu Gijutsu 

15(14):52-60, 1976.. .946 
Zesz Nauk Politech Slask 

(478):31-59, 1976.. .678 

MEETINGS 

AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 
14th 
1976, Jan, Washington, DC 
Paper 
76-67... 667 

PATENTS 

French 
2,310,138.. .807 
2,310,141. ..838 
2,310,602.. .944 
2,3 12,076.. 768 
2,312,265... 803 
2,3 12,269... 809 
2,31 3,088... 880 
2,313,089.. .883 



1-24 



SOURCE INDEX 



2,313,090.. .869 
2,313,091... 773 
2,313,092.. .920 
2,313,093... 837 
2,313,723. ..767 
2,313,950... 804 
2,313,951. ..957 
2,313,952.. .831 
2,314,342. ..879 
2,314,415. ..834 
2,314,734... 802 
2,314,737.. .881 
2,315,287.. .808 
2,315,288.. .956 
2,315,290.. .832 
2,315,651. ..882 
2,315,732.. .770 
2,315,958.. .839 
2,315,959... 833 
2,316,479.. .806 
2,316,513. ..878 
2,316,655... 836 
2,316,673. ..771 
2,316,975. ..805 
2,316,978... 835 
2,317,647... 772 
2,317,653. ..769 

FRG 
2,528,410.. .812 
2,529,058... 783 
2,529,251... 845 
2,529,838... 884 
2,531,228.. .811 
2,532, 163... 847 
2,532,562... 846 
2,533 ,239... 965 
2,533,330... 782 
2,533,354.. .781 
2,533,870.. .774 
2,534,525... 885 
2,534,949... 841 
2,535,431. ..842 
2,535 ,432... 843 
2,536,946... 775 
2,537,740... 986 
2,539,078... 844 
2,539,825... 979 
2,540,314.. .958 
2,603, 373... 780 
2,614,611... 848 
2,621, 135... 8 10 
2,627,055... 886 
2,628,146.. .776 
2,632,876... 778 
2,633,534.. .777 
2,633 ,960... 840 
2,635,640... 779 

Japanese 
4648856... 987 
51-27960.. .947 
51-36559.. .784 
51 -37462... 966 
51-39798... 81 3 

Swiss 
584,043... 850 
584,434... 849 
584,950... 785 
585 ,053... 959 
585 ,446... 788 



585 ,447... 787 

585, 940... 786 
UK 

1,464,622... 851 

1,465, 11 9... 887 

1,465,429.. .888 

1,465,524.. .789 

1,466,014... 889 

1,466,675... 921 
US 

4,000,753... 980 

4,000,881. ..816 

4,001, 129.. .722 

4,001 ,800... 791 

4,001 ,819... 797 

4,001 ,949... 941 

4,003 ,039... 790 

4,003 ,047... 81 5 

4,003,048.. .857 

4,004,288... 7% 

4,004,61 2... 855 

4,004,708... 890 

4,005,762.-817 

4,006,780... 858 

4,006,948... 893 

4,007, 123... 721 

4,007,374... 794 

4,007 ,456... 793 

4,007,877... 856 

4,007,878... 852 

4,007,954... 891 

4,008,735... 894 

4,009,055... 892 

4,010,814.. .948 

4,010,822... 814 

4,01 1,859... 960 

4,01 1,911... 854 

4,012,002... 967 

4,012,692.. .922 

4,012,727.. .792 

4,012,729.. .795 

4,038,195. ..853 

REPORTS 

California Inst Technol 
NBS GCR-77-97...662 
NBSGCR-77-98...663 

Factory Mutual Res Corp 
FMRC 22360-5. ..751 
FMRC 22523-5... 668 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-2...653 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-3...654 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-4...655 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-5...656 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-6...657 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-7...658 

Fire Res Sta (UK) 
BRE CP-9/77...1029 

Georgia Inst Technol 
Quarterly Prog Rep No. 8... 691 
Quarterly Prog Rep No. 10... 692 

Harvard Univ 
Tech Rep No. 22... 693 
Tech Rep No. 23.. .669 
Tech Rep No. 24... 734 

Nat Bureau Standards 
Informal Report... 621 
NBSrR77-1222...745 
NBSIR 77-1251...%! 



NBSIR 77-1264.. .626 

NBSrR77-1265...679 
Res Triangle Inst 

Unnumbered. . .638 
Univ California (Berkeley) 

NBSGCR-77-93...1013 
Univ Maryland 

NBS GCR-77-94... 1012 
Univ Notre Dame 

CR-135234...680 

SYMPOSIA 

Emergency Service Personnel Health 
and Fitness Symp, Annual, 6th, 
Proc 

1976, Apr 24, San Diego, CA 
Pages 

84-89... 1003 
Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric 
Materials Symp, Nat, Proc 

1977, Jun 6-8, Washington, DC... 622, 
644, 645, 659, 664, 670, 681, 683, 
694, 695, 706, 707, 708, 723, 724, 
725, 726, 727, 728, 739, 746, 747, 
752, 753, 928, 929, 930, 931, 999, 
1000, 1001, 1025, 1032 

Fire Safety of Combustible Materials 
Symp, Internat, Proc 

1975, Oct, Edinburgh, Scodand 
Pages 

169-178. ..682 
Research Applied to National Needs 
(RANN) Symp, Second, Proc, Vol 
5 

1976, Nov 7-9, Washington, DC 
Pages 

61 -64... 934 
84-86... 964 
87-90... 993 
Science of Advanced Materials and 
Process Eng Symp and Exhibition, 
Nat, 21st 

1976, Apr 6-8, Los Angeles, CA 
Pages 

704-711... 730 
1015-1020.. .729 
Textile Flammability Symp, Fifth, 
1977, Proc 

1977, Apr 20-21, New Orleans, 
LA... 624 

Pages 
3-13.. .1006 
14-20... 1007 
24-38... 623 
39-61... 748 
66-94... 684 
98-1 30... 6% 
269-286... 731 



1-25 



REPORT NUMBER INDEX 



B U 

BRECP-9/77...1029 UNNUMBERED... 638 

c 

CR-135234...680 



FMRC 22360-5... 751 
FMRC 22523-5... 668 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-2...653 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-3...654 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-4...655 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-5...656 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-6...657 
FMRC OAOR2.BU-7...658 



/ 
INFORMAL REPORT... 621 

N 

NBS GCR-77-94...1012 
NBSGCR-77-97...662 
NBS GCR-77-98...663 
NBSm 77-1222.. .745 
NBSHl 77-1 251... 961 
NBSIR 77-1264.. .626 
NBSIR 77-1265. ..679 
NMAB 318-1... 697 



QUARTERLY PROG REP NO. 

8... 691 
QUARTERLY PROG REP NO. 

10... 692 



TECH REP NO. 22... 693 
TECH REP NO. 23... 669 
TECH REP NO. 24... 734 



1-26 



i 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Aircraft Eng Aircraft Engineering 

Alio 18 Alio 18 [Calling 18] 

Aluminium ( Duesseldorf ) Aluminium [Aluminum] 

Am J Publ Health American Journal of Public Health 

Ann Surg Annals of Surgery 

Antincend Protez Civ Antincendio e Protezione 

Civile [Fire and Public Protection] 

Arch Environ Health Archives of Environmental Health 

Arch Termodyn Spal Archiwum Termodynamiki i 

Spalania [Archives of Thermodynamics and Com- 
bustion] 

Aruminyumu Aruminyumu [Aluminum] 

ASELF Asociacion Espanola de Lucha Contra el Fuego 

[Spanish Fire Fighting Association] 

ASME Trans. Ser C. J Heat Transfer American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers. Transactions. Se- 
ries C. Journal of Heat Transfer 

ASTM Standardization News American Society for 

Testing and Materials. Standardization News 

Aust Plast Rubber Australian Plastics and Rubber 

Baugewerbe Baugewerbe [Building Trade] 

Berufsgenoss Berufsgenossenschaft [Employers' 

Liability Insurance] 

Betonwerk - Fertigteil-Tech Betonwerk + Fertigteil- 

Technik [Concrete Work + Finished Parts 
Technology] 

Bezop Tr Prom-sti... Bezopasnost Truda v Promyshlennosti 
[Occupational Safety in Industry] 

Bezpieczen Pr Bezpieczenstwo Pracy [Occupational 

Safety] 

Binnenschiffahrts-Nachr Binnenschiffahrts-Nachrichten 

[Inland Shipping Communications] 

Brandhilfe Brandhilfe [Fire Assistance] 

Brandschutz Brandschutz. Deutsche Feuerwehr-Zeitung 

[Fire Protection. German Fire Service Gazette] 

Brandvaern Brandvaern [Fire Protection] 

Brandwacht Brandwacht [Firewatch] 

Brass Malt Europe Brasserie et Malterie en Europe 

[Brewing and Malting in Europe] 

Br Plast Rubber British Plastics and Rubber 

Budow Okretowe Budownictwo Okretowe [Naval 

Architecture] 

Build Eng Building Engineering 

Build Syst Des Building Systems Design 

Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim Cahiers du Centre 



Scientifique et Technique du Batiment 
[Communications of the Scientific and Technical 
Building Center] 

Can Soc Forensic Sci J Canadian Society of 

Forensic Science Journal 

Can Text J Canadian Textile Journal 

Chantiers Chantiers [Ship Yards] 

Chem Eng/Deskbook Issue Chemical 

Engineering/ Deskbook 

Issue 
Chemiefasern/Text Ind ChemiefasernlTextilindustrie 

[Chemical Fibers/Textile Industry] 
Chem Rundsch Chemische Rundschau [Chemical Review] 
Chem Tech (Heidelberg) Chemie-Technik (Heidelberg) 

[Chemistry Technology (Heidelberg)] 

Chest Chest 

Coal Age Coal Age 

Combust Flame Combustion and Flame 

Combust Sci Technol Combustion Science and 

Technology 

Computer Des Computer Design 

Constr Specifier Construction Specifier 

Consult Eng Consulting Engineer 

Data Manage Data Management 

Decis Sci Decision Sciences 

Denryoku to Tetsudo Denryoku to Tetsudo [Electric 

Lighting and Facilities in Railways] 
Densetsu Kogyo Densetsu Kogyo [Electrical 

Construction Engineering] 

Diesel Gas Turb Progr Diesel and Gas Turbine 

Progress 
Diteru Diteru [Detail: Magazine for Architects and 

Engineers] 

Drahtwelt Drahtwelt [Wire World] 

Dun's Rev Dun's Review 

Electr Constr Maint Electrical Construction and 

Maintenance 
Elek-Prakt Elektro-Praktiker [Electrical 

Practitioner] 

Energetik Energetik [Power Engineer] 

Energetyka (Poland). Energetyka (Poland) [Power 

Engineering (Poland)] 

Engineering (London) Engineering (London) 

Eng Mat Des Engineering Materials and Design 

Environ Health Perspect Environmental Health 

Perspectives 
Face au Risque Face au Risque [Facing the Risk. 



1-27 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Journal of the French National Prevention and Pro- 
tection Center] 

Fahrzeug Kaross Fahrzeug und Karosserie [Vehicle 

and Car Bodies] 
Faserforsch Textiltech Faserforschung und Textiltechnik 

Zeitschrift fuer Polymerforschung [Fiber Research 

and Textile Engineering. Journal of Polymer 

Research] 

Feuerwehr Die Feuerwehr [The Fire Service] 

Fire Fire 

Fire Chief Fire Chief 

Fire Command Fire Command 

Fire Eng Fire Engineering 

Fire Eng J Fire Engineers Journal 

Fire Fighting Canada Fire Fighting in Canada 

Fire Internat Fire International 

Fire J Fire Journal 

Fire Prev Fire Prevention 

Fire Prev Sci Technol Fire Prevention Science and 

Technology 

Fire Prot Rev Fire Protection Review 

Fire Res Inst Japan. Rep Fire Research Institute of 

Japan. Report [Shobo Kenkyusho Hokoku] 
Fire Sci Lab Japan. Rep Fire Science Laboratory of 

Japan. Report [Shobo Kagaku Kenkyushoho] 

Fire Service Inf Fire Service Information 

Fire Technol Fire Technology 

Flight Internat Flight International 

Flight Oper Flight Operations 

Gaz Arch Gazette des Archives [Archives Gazette] 

Glueckauf Glueckauf [Journal of Mining Engineering 

and Industry] 

Haikan Gijutsu Haikan Gijutsu [Piping Engineering] 

Haikan to Sochi Haikan to Sochi [Piping and Process 

Machinery] 

Hansa Hansa; Zeitschrift fuer Schiffahrt, Schiffbau, 

Hafen [Hansa; Journal of Shipping, Shipbuilding, 
Ports] 

Hitachi Hyoron Hitachi Hyoron [Hitachi Review] 

Household Pers Prod Ind Household and Personal 

Products Industry 
ICAO Bull International Civil Aviation Organization 

Bulletin 

Ind Elektr - Elektron Industrie Elektrik + 

Elektronik [Electrical and Electronics Industry] 

Ind Hal Cem Industria Italiana del Cemento (Italian 

Cement Industry] 
Inf Constr Informes de la Construccion 

[Construction News ] 

Insulation (London) Insulation (London) 

Internat Zivilverteidigung Internationale 

Zivilverteidigung [International Civil Defense] 
J Am Med Assoc Journal of the American Medical 

Association 
J Appl Polym Sci Journal of Applied Polymer 

1-28 



Science 

J Br Fire Serv Assoc and Ind Fire Prot 

Assoc 

Journal of the British Fire Service Association and 
of the Industrial Fire Protection Association 

J Coated Fabrics Journal of Coated Fabrics 

J CombustToxicol Journal of Combustion Toxicology 

J Consumer Prod Flammability Journal of Consumer 

Product Flammability 

J Fire Flammability Journal of Fire and Flammability 

J Fire Retard Chem... Journal of Fire Retardant Chemistry 

J Occup Med Journal of Occupational Medicine 

J Sound Vib Journal of Sound and Vibration 

Kasai Kasai (Nihon Kasai Gakkai-shi) [Journal of the 

Fire Prevention Society of Japan] 
Kayakurui, Koatsu Gasu Torishimari Geppo Kayakurui, 

Koatsu Gasu Torishimari Geppo [Monthly Report 

of Explosives and High Pressure Gas] 

Keiso Keiso [Instrumentation] 

Knitting Times Knitting Times 

Koroze Ochr Mater Koroze a Ochrana Materialu 

[Corrosion and Protection of Materials] 

Krafthand Krafthand [Krafthand; Journal of 

Technology] 

Kriminalistik Kriminalistik [Criminology] 

Kuki Tyowa to Reito Kuki Tyowa to Reito 

[Air Conditioning and Refrigeration] 
Ladenburger Kreis Ladenburger Kreis [Ladenburg 

Ring; Company Journal of Total-Foerstner u. Co] 

Lager Lager [Warehouse] 

Lakokras Mater Ikh Primen Lakokrasochnye Materialy 

i Ikh Primenenie [Paints and Varnishes and Their 

Applications] 
Landtech Inf Landtechnische Information 

[Agricultural Engineering Information] 

Laniera Laniera [Wool Manufacturing] 

Liteinoe Proizvod Liteinoe Proizvodstvo [Foundry 

Practice] 



Lung. 



Lung 

Luz y Fuerza Luz y Fuerza [Light and Energy] 

Maschinenmarkt Maschinenmarkt [Machinery' Market] 

Mater Maquin y Metodos Constr.... Materiales, Maquinaria 

y 

Metodos para la Construccion [Construction Materi- 
als, Machinery and Methods] 
Medd fran Statens Brandnamnd. Meddelanden fran Statens 
Brandnamnd [Communications from the State Fire 
Administration] 

Med Sci Law Medicine, Science, and the Law 

Melliand Textilber Melliand Textilberichte 

[MeUiand Textile Journal] 

Metallverarbeitung Melallverarbeitung [Metal Finishing] 

Mod Paint Coatings Modern Paint and Coatings 

Nafta (Poland) Nafta (Poland) [Petroleum 

(Poland)] 
Nat Saf News National Safety News 



I 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Nihon Kasai Gakkai Ronbunshu Nihon Kasai Gakkai 

Ronbunshu [Bulletin of the Japanese Association 
of Fire Science and Engineering] 

Nihon Kikai Gakkaishi Nihon Kikai Gakkaishi 

[Journal of the Japanese Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers] 

Norsk Plast Norsk Plast [Norwegian Plastics] 

Norsk VVS Norsk Fore ning for Varme-, Ventilasjon- og 

Sanitaerteknikk [Norwegian Society for Heating, 
Ventilation and Sanitary Engineering] 

Nucl Eng Des Nuclear Engineering and Design 

Oesterr Feuerwehr Oesterreichische Feuerwehr 

[Austrian Fire Service] 
Ohm: Denki Zasshi Ohm: Denki Zasshi [Ohm 

Journal] 

Omron Tech Omron Technics [Omuron Tekunikusu] 

Oper Res Operations Research 

Pet Rev Petroleum Review 

Plant Eng Plant Engineering 

Plastforum Plastforum [Plastics Forum] 

Plasticonst Plasticonst ruction/ Bauen mil 

Kunststoffen/Plastics in Building/Plastiques et Con- 
struction 

Plumb Eng Plumbing Engineer 

Pozhar Delo Pozharnoye Delo [Firefighting] 

Pr Cent Inst Ochr Pr Prace Centralnego Instytutu 

Ochrany Pracy [Papers of the Central Occupational 

Safety Institute] 

Prom Energ Promyshlennaya Energetika 

[Industrial Power] 

Prot Civ Secur Ind Protection Civile et Securite 

Industrielle [Civil Protection and Industrial Securi- 
ty] 

Przegl Poz Przeglad Pozarny [Fire Review] 

Przem Drzew Przemysl Drzewny [Wood Industry] 

Record Record 

Reito Kucho Gijut.su Reito Kucho Gijutso 

[Techniques of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning] 

Rev Secur Revue de la Securite [Safety Review] 

Rev Tech Feu Revue Technique du Feu [Fire 

Engineering Review] 

Riv Combust La Rivista dei Combustibili [Fuel 

Review] 

Saf Sea Internal Safety at Sea International 

Sb Tr VNII Protivopozhar Oborony Sbornik Trudov 

Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta 
Protivopozharnoy Oborony [Digest of Papers of the 
All-Union Fire Protection Research Institute] 

Schienenfahrzeuge Schienenfahrzeuge [Railway 

Vehicles] 

Schiff Hafen Schiff und Hafen [Ships and Ports] 

Schott Inf Schott-Information [Schott Information. 

Journal of the Jena Glass Co] 
Schweisstechnik (Berlin) Schweisstechnik 

(Berlin) [Welding Technology (Berlin)] 
Schweiz Feuerwehr Z Schweizerische Feuerwehr- 



Zeitung [Swiss Fire Service Journal] 

Science Science 

Seewirtsch Seewirtschaft [Merchant Marine] 

Sekiyu Shiryo Geppo Sekiyu Shiryo Geppo 

[Monthly Report on the Petroleum Industry] 

Sekiyu to Sekiyu Kogaku Sekiyu to Sekiyu Kogaku 

[Petroleum and Petrochemicals] 

Sharyo to Denki Sharyo to Denki [Railway 

Car and Electric Equipment] 
Shisetsu Shisetsu Nenpo [Annual Report of Japan 

Railway Civil Engineering Association] 

Sigurnost Sigurnost [Safety] 

Skilling Min Rev Skillings' Mining Review 

Soda to Enso Soda to Enso [Soda and Chlorine] 

Specifying Engr Specifying Engineer 

Steir Feuerwehrbl Steirisches Feuerwehrblatl 

[Styrian Fire Services Journal] 

Stroit Mekh Raschet Soor Stroitei 'naya 

Mekhanika i Raschet Sooruzheniy [Structural 
Mechanics and Calculation of Structures] 

TAB Tech Bau TAB Technischer Bau [TAB 

Building Technology] 

Tanker Bulker Internat Tanker and Bulker 

International 

Tech Rundsch Technische Rundschau [Technical 

Review] 

Tech Ueberwach Technische Ueberwachung 

[Technical Security Supervision] 
Tetsudo Gijutsu Kenkyu Shiryo Tetsudo Gijutsu 

Kenkyu Shiryo [Journal of Railway Engineering 

Research] 

Text Chem Color Textile Chemist and Colorist 

Textilveredlung Textilveredlung [Textile Finishing] 

Text Inst Ind Textile Institute and Industry 

Text Month Textile Monthly 

Text Res J Textile Research Journal 

Ugol (USSR) Ugol (USSR) [Coal (USSR)] 

Unser Brandschutz Unser Brandschutz [Our 

Fire Protection] 

Vaeg- och Vattenbygg Vaeg- och Vattenbyggaren 

[Highway and Waterway Engineering] 

Verkehrsrundsch Verkehrsrundschau [Traffic 

Review] 

VFDB Z Zeitschrift der Vereinigung zur Foerderung 

des Deutschen Brandschutzes [Journal of the As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Fire Protection 
in Germany] 

Weld World Welding in the World 

Yuatsu Gijutsu Yuatsu Gijutsu [Hydraulics Engineering] 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Zentralblatt 

fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz [Journal of 
Industrial Medicine and Occupational Safety] 

Zesz Nauk Politech Slask Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki 

Slaskiej [Scientific Reports of the Silesian 
Polytechnic] 

Zesz Probl Postepow Nauk Roln Zeszyty Problemowe 

Postepow Nauk Rolniczych [Papers on Progress in 
Agricultural Science] j ^q 



<IU.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979-281-067/43 



^PENN STATE Ul> 
IIVIIVIIII 
ad odd; 



STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



I 

DDQD7E7fiDlD